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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum forskaolii Dunal

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mauritania to Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan to India.

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: Yemen, Wadi Surdud, Forsskål 414 (C, holo. [IDC microfiche 2200, 02:II.7,8])
    General
    Erect or scandent subshrub, 0.5–1 m, densely armed; young stems densely stellatepubescent, the epidermis not visible between the trichomes, trichomes porrect, translucent, sessile and occasionally stalked, stalks up to 0.15 mm, rays 6–10, 0.15–0.3(–0.5) mm, midpoints same length as rays or up to 1.5 mm, sometimes shorter than the midpoint; prickles straight or sometimes curved, 3–10 mm long, 1–3 mm wide at base
    Leaves
    Leaf blades drying concolorous to discolorous, grey-green, ovate, 1–4(–6) × 0.5–3(–4) cm, 1–2 times longer than wide, base cordate to rounded, equal or oblique, margin entire or shallowly lobed, the broadly deltate lobes 2(–3) on each side, 2–4 mm long and apically rounded to obtuse, extending up to 1/4 of the distance to the midvein, apex rounded to obtuse; moderately stellate-pubescent on both sides, trichomes on abaxial surface porrect, sessile (stalked), stalks to 0.2 mm, rays 6–10, 0.2–0.4(–1) mm, midpoints ± same length as rays (1.5 mm), adaxially with fewer rays; primary veins 2–3 pairs; petiole 0.2–1.6(–2.5) cm, 1/4–2/3 of the leaf length
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences often branched once, 2–6.5 cm long, with (1–)2–20 flowers; peduncle 1–4(–15) mm long; rachis 0–2(–3) cm long; peduncle and rachis usually unarmed; pedicels 0.2–1 cm long in flower, in fruit 0.7–1.6 cm long, usually unarmed
    Flowers
    Flowers perfect, 5-merous
    Calyx
    Calyx 2–4.5 mm long, the lobes deltate, 0.5–2 mm long, acuminate, rarely with 1–5 prickles
    Corolla
    Corolla mauve to purple, 1.3–2.4 cm in diameter, lobed for ± 4/5 of its length, lobes lanceolate, 6–11 × 1.5–2 mm
    Stamens
    Stamens equal; anthers 4.5–7 mm
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous; style 9–12 mm long. Berries 1–10 per infructescence, red at maturity, spherical, 6–9 mm in diameter; fruiting calyx usually unarmed
    Seeds
    Seeds 2.5–4 × 1.8–3 mm, almost black.
    Ecology
    Scrub on stony ground and rocky slopes, often on granite; 150–1300 m
    Note
    Solanum forskalii can be recognised by its dense white indumentum of porrect-stellate trichomes on the young stems, and abundant prickles. Most representatives of S. forskalii are easy to identify but variability within this widespread species is considerable. Solanum forskalii is frequently confused with the largely sympatric S. cordatum and can be distinguished by its porrect trichomes with 6–10 rays over 0.15 mm long on the young stems (versus multangulate trichomes with 12–18 rays under 0.15 mm long on the young stems of S. cordatum), 1–20 flowers per inflorescence (versus 1–2 flowers per inflorescence in S. cordatum), and anthers 4.5–7 mm long (versus anthers 3–5 mm long in S. cordatum).
    Distribution
    Range: Egypt, Arabia and India Range: Senegal, Chad, Mali, Niger, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia Flora districts: K1
    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    An undershrub with slender branches
    Spines
    Reflexed spines
    Indumentum
    Shortly hoary-tomentose.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Yemen

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum forskaolii Dunal appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 1, 2010 Gillett, J.B. [22390b], Somalia K000441204
    Apr 1, 2010 Gillett, J.B. [24160], Somalia K000441205
    Apr 1, 2010 Hepper, F.N. [7273], Kenya K000441186
    Apr 1, 2010 Carter, ? [2004], Sudan K000441158
    Oct 14, 2009 Ehrenberg, C.G. [s.n.], Saudi Arabia K000441169
    Jul 7, 2008 Murray, G.W. [3744], Sudan K000441161
    Jul 1, 2008 Gillett, J.B. [22357], Somalia K000441201
    Jul 1, 2008 Mathew, B. [6796], Kenya K000441185
    Jul 1, 2008 Mathew, B. [6553], Kenya K000441187
    Jul 1, 2008 Lavranos, J.J. [23276Ca], Somalia K000441203
    Jul 1, 2008 Lavranos, J.J. [23199], Somalia K000441206
    Jul 1, 2008 Wickens, G.E. [344], Sudan K000441162
    Jul 1, 2008 Wickens, G.E. [424], Sudan K000441167
    Jul 1, 2008 Collenette, I.S. [246], Saudi Arabia K000441175
    Jul 1, 2008 Collenette, I.S. [939], Saudi Arabia K000441180
    Jul 1, 2008 Thulin, M. [4713], Somalia K000441194
    Jul 1, 2008 Jackson, J.K. [4035], Sudan K000441172
    Jul 1, 2008 Jackson, J.K. [4011], Sudan K000441174
    Jul 1, 2008 Boulos, L. [13826], Saudi Arabia K000441176
    Jul 1, 2008 Boulos, L. [16689], Yemen K000441181
    Jul 1, 2008 Schweinfurth, G.A. [82], Eritrea K000441190
    Jul 1, 2008 [illegible] [78], Somalia K000441179
    Jul 1, 2008 Lord, J.K. [2], Sudan K000441166
    Jul 1, 2008 Lord, J.K. [37], Sudan K000441189
    Jul 1, 2008 Kuchar, P. [16860], Somalia K000441200
    Jul 1, 2008 Bent, J.T. [s.n.], Sudan K000441159
    Jul 1, 2008 Alstrup, V. [41], Somalia K000441202
    Jul 1, 2008 Deflers, M. [377], Yemen K000441183 syntype
    Jul 1, 2008 Wilde, W.J.J.O. de [7314], Ethiopia K000441192
    Jul 1, 2008 Plowden [s.n.], Ethiopia K000441188
    Jul 1, 2008 Shabetai, J.R. [F.1753bis], Egypt K000441163
    Jul 1, 2008 James, F.L. [s.n.], Somalia K000441196
    Jul 1, 2008 James, F.L. [s.n.], Somalia K000441197
    Jul 1, 2008 James, F.L. [s.n.], Somalia K000441198
    Jul 1, 2008 Cooke, B.K. [127], Sudan K000441173
    Jul 1, 2008 Hassib, M. [s.n.], Egypt K000441171
    Jul 1, 2008 Täckholm, V. [2031c], Egypt K000441164
    Jul 1, 2008 Täckholm, V. [2031b], Egypt K000441165
    Jul 1, 2008 Khattab, A. [6303], Egypt K000441160
    Jul 1, 2008 Palms, C.S. [96], Egypt K000441170
    Jul 1, 2008 Simonds [40], Saudi Arabia K000441177
    Jul 1, 2008 Griffith, R. [99], Somalia K000441178
    Jul 1, 2008 Elmi, A.A. [4100], Somalia K000441207
    Jan 1, 2008 Pfund, J. [646], Sudan K000441199 Unknown type material
    Jul 11, 2002 Hemming, C.F. [152], Somalia K000441191
    Jul 11, 2002 Wieland, R.G. [4322], Somalia K000441193
    Wood, J.R.I. [3260], Yemen K000441182
    Thulin, M. [6331], Somalia K001156196
    Thulin, M. [7668], Somalia K001156197
    Brenan, J.P.M. [14811], Kenya K001157547
    Edwards, S. [3684], Ethiopia K001156190
    Kotschy [418] K001156191
    Kotschy [309] K001156192
    Schweinfurth, G.A. [1362], Sudan K000441168
    Nugent, R. [18], Somalia K001156195
    May 1, 1959 Heudelot [417], Senegal Solanum albicaule K000414051 isotype
    unknown [107], Sudan Solanum albicaule K000414017
    Kotschy [418], Sudan Solanum albicaule K000414013
    Kotschy [309], Sudan Solanum albicaule K000414014
    Kotschy [309], Sudan Solanum albicaule K000414015
    Pfund [373], Sudan Solanum albicaule K000414016

    Bibliography

    First published in Hist. Nat. Solanum: 237 (1813)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Eth. 5: 134, fig. 158.12.7–9 (2006)
    • Fl. Somalia 3: 215 (2006).
    • Hist. Nat. Solanum: 237 (1813)
    • Based on and type as Solanum villosum Forssk., non Mill., 1768, nom. illeg., later homonym of S. villosum Mill., 1768.

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0