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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum giganteum Jacq.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: cultivated in Hortus Vienna, originally from South Africa (? Cape of Good Hope fide Bot. Mag. (1817)), fide Cufodontis (1963); Hort. Schonbr., Herb. Jacquin s.n. (W, syn., photos !) fide Lester (unpublished 2005); t. 328 in Jacquin, Icones plantarum rariorum, 2: (1790) fide Friis (2006)
    General
    Shrub to 4 m high, sometimes straggling, occasionally tree to 8 m tall (trunk reported “as thick as an arm” by Wright, 1904); much branched, branches ascending; with dense white floccose indumentum of sessile stellate hairs with ± 12 equal eglandular rays 0.1–0.3 mm long together with small simple hairs and stalked glands, glabrescent exposing brown bark; main stems and branches with stout conical, straight or recurved prickles up to 5.5 × 5.5 mm basally tapering to ± 0.2 mm apically, laterally compressed, tomentose/floccose basally, glabrescent and finally yellowishbrown, often leaving scars on stems and branches
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, coriaceous, dark green above, white to yellowish-white below, ovate, obovate or elliptic, sometimes narrowly lanceolate, (7.5–)12–36 × (4–)5–13 cm, bases cuneate often decurrent for half of petiole, margins usually entire, occasionally repand, apices usually acute sometimes acuminate; lower surfaces covered with dense floccose pubescence of stellate hairs as on stems, rarely with a few small prickles on lower part of midrib, upper surfaces glabrous but for the often densely floccose midribs where stalked glands sometimes also visible; petioles 1.5–6 cm long, sometimes with 1–2 leaf-like elliptic to ovate pseudostipules basally, sometimes with small prickles
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences subterminal becoming lateral, forked (usually multiply so), 100–200-flowered, lax, scorpioid cymes borne in compact pyramidal corymbs 7–14 cm wide; flowers usually nodding; peduncles 1.2–6 cm long in flower, 3.5–5 cm long and woody in fruit, often with small curved prickles; pedicels erect to recurved and 0.8–1.5 × 1.1–2.1 cm in flower, erect in fruit and spreading, often becoming woody and thickened beneath calyx; axes all densely floccose with stellate hairs as above
    Calyx
    Calyx usually cupulate, sometimes campanulate, (3–)4–6 mm long, densely floccose externally, glabrescent internally where prominent venation often visible, lobes often unequal, triangular, 1–2.5(–3) × 1–2.5(–3) mm, acute, occasionally apiculate; adherent basally in fruit, later becoming reflexed, (2.5–)3–6(–6.5) × 1.5–4 mm, glabrescent
    Corolla
    Corolla violet, purple, pale lilac to whitish, sometimes with yellow or greenish central star, stellate, 1.2–1.8(–2) cm diameter; tube 1–1.6 mm long, glabrous externally; lobes lanceolate, (3–)4.5–8 × 1.3–3 mm, densely stellate-floccose externally, sparsely stellate-pubescent or glabrescent on median veins internally; lobes reflexed and splayed between the calyx lobes after anthesis
    Stamens
    Stamens equal; filaments free for 0.3–0.8 mm, glabrous; anthers with small apical pores, yellow to brownish, 2.3–3.5 × 0.8–1.1 mm, connivent. Ovary brownish, 0.8–1.7 × 0.8–1.6 mm, glabrous, bilocular; style straight sometimes curved apically, pale green, 4.5–7 × 0.3–0.4 mm, glabrous, exserted up to 3 mm; stigma pale green, capitate, 0.3–0.4(–0.7) mm diameter
    Fruits
    Berries smooth, red or orange, rarely yellow, globose to ovoid, glabrous, glossy, (5–)6–9(–10) mm diameter
    Seeds
    Seeds 23–37 per berry, yellow to yellow-orange, obovoid, elliptic or reniform, 2.3–2.8(–3.2) × 1.5–2.5 mm, foveolate to reticulate; sclerotic granules absent.
    Ecology
    Grassland, secondary bushland, thickets, moist and riverine forest and -margins, bushland, shambas, evergreen thickets, bamboo zone; 800–2450 m
    Note
    This species is commonly known as the Giant Nightshade, Red Bitter Apple or Red Bitter Berry, and as African Holly in Australia. It is often cultivated as an ornamental shrub or small tree in both the northern and southern hemispheres, or as a bedding or hedge plant (Welman 2008). It is characterised by a dense snowy white floccose indumentum on the lower leaf surfaces which strikingly contrasts with the glabrescent leathery upper surfaces, though Ugandan specimens do not seem to be so densely floccose. While scattered stellate hairs can often be seen on the mature berries, they are loose and will have become dislodged from the floccose floral and vegetative parts; the ovaries are always glabrous. Lawrence (1960) noted that the species was sparingly cultivated in southern California for its showy red berries in the 1930’s. It is used as a shade tree in Kerala, India, with the fruits and leaves being used in traditional African medicine to treat sores (cf. Mansfeld, 2001). Medicinal reports include the use of its leaves to dress ulcers in southern and eastern Africa with the woolly undersurfaces being used to clean the lesions and the upper smooth surfaces to heal the wounds, together with the leaves and fruits for ulcer treatment and the leaves for insomnia in Uganda (cf. Welman, 2008). Plants of S. giganteum with a strong unpleasant smell have been reported from K 4, whilst berries have been reported as sweetly aromatic in T 1. The berries are eaten by larger birds such as bulbuls, doves and go-away-birds particularly in late winter when food is in short supply in southern Africa, where the species has also been listed as an occasional ruderal or silvicultural weed (cf. Welman 2008). The species may be of use as a source of raw materials for the steroid industry; various alkaloids have been isolated from the leaves including solasodine in both the fruits and leaves (see Welman 2008). Bitter (1921) placed this species together with S. sordidescens, S. muansense, S. schumannianum and S. ulugurense into a new series Giganteiformia Bitter. These species were all characterised by prickly stems, a dense stellate farinose/tomentose pubescence, large leaves, multiflowered forked corymbose inflorescences and smallish flowers. They are all considered to be synonyms of S. giganteum here. Dunal (page 258 (1852)) recognised two varieties of S. giganteum namely var. tenuifolium Dunal and var. longifolium Dunal – both from India and both probably synonymous with this species. Jaeger (1985) considered S. muansense and S. sordidescens to be part of the “ S. kagehense Dammer group”. However, he recognised this group for convenience due to the uncertainty of which species a number of specimens belonged to, the definitive taxonomy of which pended examination of their types. Lester (ined.) determined many Kew specimens of S. giganteum from across Africa variously as S. seretii, S. sordidescens, ”S. bequaertii ( = S. sordidescens)” and S. muansense in 1998 . Apart from less dense pubescence on the under sufaces of the leaves of some of these specimens there is little to indicate the basis on which he differentiated them from S. giganteum sensu stricto. The sepal size and shape seems to be particularly variable in this taxon; the calyces are usually cupulate with broadly triangular calyx lobes. On some specimens (e.g. Juniper et al. 1937 from T 4) the calyces are more campanulate with narrowly triangular calyx lobes twice as long. This may have been among the factors on which Lester based his conclusions. However, both calyx and sepal size can also very considerably on same plant in this species with sepal size sometimes also varying in the same flower; these variables do not seem to be correlated with any other distinguishng features. The species occurs in a variety of habitats throughout Africa; Bukenya & Carasco (1995) reported it to be fairly common in Uganda with a disjunct montane distribution southwards from Ethiopia to South Africa and west to Cameroon. Blundell (1992) reported that it is an uncommon plant in wet montane forests at higher altitudes in Kenya and in lake areas in both Kenya and Tanzania and all Ugandan regions with the exception of northern parts. The protologues of both S. niveum Vahl and S. farinosum Wall. (see below) are quite informative, and include the most important distinguishing characters of S. giganteum with which they have been synonymised. Moreover S. niveum was treated as a synonym of this species by many earlier authors and a Drège (s.n., K!) specimen typical of S. giganteum was annotated by N.E. Brown in 1883 who stated that ”this sheet matches Thunberg’s type specimen” and that ”Thunberg collected it in the woods at Essenbosch in Lange Kloop, Humansdorp Div. W Cape”. There are two Heyne specimens which might be duplicates of the same collection. One in K-WALL (No. 2160) is without a date, though the catalogue number date is 1831, and has two labels – one says “S. argenteum Babobad” and the other – which is the original Wallich labelsays ”S. farinosum Wall. ex Herb. Heyne”. The specimen in the general Kew Herbarium was collected by Heyne and is labelled Babobad September 1816. This is the holotype of S. farinosum. Both specimens clearly belong to S. giganteum; S. argenteum Heyne ex Wall. is a nomen nudum. The type material of S. seretii, together with de Wildeman’s informative protologue and excellent plate leave little doubt that this species is synonymous with S. giganteum. Bitter (1921, 1923) actually thought that it was similar to and probably a variety of the latter species. Bitter differentiated S. sordidescens and S. muansense from S. giganteum largely on the basis of their leaf sizes and shapes, pubescence colour, prickle coarseness and berry sizes, all of which are within parameters of morphological variability exhibited by S. giganteum. These two species have therefore been synonymised with the latter from the morphological characteristics given in their extensive protologues and from the isotypes of S. sordidescens (see below). The type material of S. bequaertii indicates that this species is either very close to S. giganteum or a synonym of it. Bitter’s protologue of S. bequaertii cited anthers 4.5 mm long, linear corolla lobes 6–7 mm long, and large (12 mm) red berries (becoming black). These features are all smaller on the two Bequaert specimens examined with the anthers 3.5–4 mm, the lobes narrowly triangular and ± 5.5 mm long, and the berries only 5–6 mm diameter – all measurements within the variability acceptable in S. giganteum. The only obvious disparity concerns the lower leaf surfaces being mealy rather than floccose, and the occurrence of small prickles on the upper midribs. However, many of the leaf petioles are associated with the pseudostipules characteristic of S. giganteum. Bitter (1914) suggested that S. bequaertii was related to S. torvum Sw. and final clarification of its taxonomic placement requires further work on related species.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U2 U3 U 4 ; K1 K3 K4 K5 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 Range: India and Sri Lanka, Australia and S America Range: Probably native to the Cape region of South Africa, but now found from Nigeria to Cameroon, Gabon, Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda, Sudan, Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Swaziland and South Africa
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Type
    Type cultivated in Hortus Vindobonensis (Vienna, Austria), originally from South Africa (Cape Prov.), fide Cufodontis in loc. cit. (1963).
    General
    Short-lived, softly woody under shrub, shrub or sometimes a small tree, up to 5(8) m high; sympodia plurifoliate; hairs stellate, white (ageing greyish or yellowish in herbaria), very fine (c  0.1–0.2 mm across), floccose, ± sessile, regular, with many short rays; prickles 1–5 mm long, straight or slightly curved, laterally ± compressed, often hairy from the base to above the middle
    Branches
    Branches whitish tomentose, with scattered prickles, sometimes quite unarmed on late growth, sometimes ± glabrescent Branches whitish tomentose, with scattered prickles, sometimes quite unarmed on late growth, sometimes ± glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves mostly rather closely set at ends of branches, rarely drought deciduous; petiole 1–8.5 cm long, sometimes bearing 1–2 leaf-like, elliptic, ovate or obovate pseudostipules 1–3.5(5) × 0.5–1. 8 cm at the base; lamina membranous, 5–30(37.5) × (1. 5)2–11(15) cm, elliptic to broadly ovate or lanceolate, sometimes obovate or oblanceolate, base cuneate to sub-rounded, narrowing to the petiole and subequal- to unequal-sided, apex usually ± acuminate, entire or slightly repand-sinuate, markedly discolorous, at first nearly snow-white tomentose on both surfaces, soon glabrescent and dark shiny above, persistently tomentellous and rarely with 1–2 short prickles beneath, with (7)9–12(14) pairs of lateral nerves Leaves mostly rather closely set at ends of branches, rarely drought deciduous; petiole 1–8.5 cm long, sometimes bearing 1–2 leaf-like, elliptic, ovate or obovate pseudostipules 1–3.5(5) × 0.5–1.8 cm at the base; lamina membranous, 5–30(37.5) × (1.5)2–11(15) cm, elliptic to broadly ovate or lanceolate, sometimes obovate or oblanceolate, base cuneate to sub-rounded, narrowing to the petiole and subequal- to unequal-sided, apex usually ± acuminate, entire or slightly repand-sinuate, markedly discolorous, at first nearly snow-white tomentose on both surfaces, soon glabrescent and dark shiny above, persistently tomentellous and rarely with 1–2 short prickles beneath, with (7)9–12(14) pairs of lateral nerves.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes towards the ends of the branches, becoming lateral, 4.5–10 cm long, corymbiform to ± paniculiform, dense, many-flowered, densely whitish tomentose, sometimes ± glabrescent in fruit; peduncle 1. 5–4(5.5) cm long, sometimes ± armed Cymes towards the ends of the branches, becoming lateral, 4.5–10 cm long, corymbiform to ± paniculiform, dense, many-flowered, densely whitish tomentose, sometimes ± glabrescent in fruit; peduncle 1.5–4(5.5) cm long, sometimes ± armed.
    Flowers
    Flowers faintly scented, (4)5(6)-merous, ± nodding. Flowers faintly scented, (4)5(6)-merous, ± nodding; pedicels 0.5–2 cm long, slender, in fruit elongated to 2.5 cm, ± thickened, erect.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 0.5–2 cm long, slender, in fruit elongated to 2.5 cm, ± thickened, erect
    Calyx
    Calyx 4–6 mm long, campanulate or cyathiform, in fruit saucer-shaped, tomentose, unarmed, somewhat accrescent; lobes 1–4 × 1–2 mm, lanceolate-triangular to deltate or ovate-triangular, occasionally ovate-cuneate, obtuse or acute, sometimes ± acuminate Calyx 4–6 mm long, campanulate or cyathiform, in fruit saucer-shaped, tomentose, unarmed, somewhat accrescent; lobes 1–4 × 1–2 mm, lanceolate-triangular to deltate or ovate-triangular, occasionally ovate-cuneate, obtuse or acute, sometimes ± acuminate.
    Corolla
    Corolla pale blue to lilac or violet-purple, rarely white, the midvein of each lobe green, stelliform; limb (8)12–15(18) mm across; lobes (3)5–7(8) × (1. 3)2–3(3.5) mm, lanceolate to oblong, acute to acuminate, tomentose outside, with a few stellate hairs on the midvein and near the apex inside, widely spreading to reflexed Corolla pale blue to lilac or violet-purple, rarely white, the midvein of each lobe green, stelliform; limb (8)12–15(18) mm across; lobes (3)5–7(8) × (1.3)2–3(3.5) mm, lanceolate to oblong, acute to acuminate, tomentose outside, with a few stellate hairs on the midvein and near the apex inside, widely spreading to reflexed.
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments 0.2–0.6(1) mm long; anthers 2–4 mm long, linear or lanceolate-elliptic in outline, not very incurved Stamen filaments 0.2–0.6(1) mm long; anthers 2–4 mm long, linear or lanceolate-elliptic in outline, not very incurved.
    Ovary
    Ovary c.  1 mm in diameter, ± globose, glabrous except for few, minute, sub-apical glands.
    Style
    Style 5–7(8) mm long, exceeding the stamens, straight or slightly curved at the apex, glabrous or with a few minute glands from the base to above the middle
    Fruits
    Fruits often numerous, shiny red when ripe, finally deep red, (5)6–8(10) mm in diameter, ± globose, appearing edible Fruits often numerous, shiny red when ripe, finally deep red, (5)6–8(10) mm in diameter, ± globose, appearing edible.
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, straw-coloured to ± whitish, 2.5–3.8 × 2–3 mm, compressed, obliquely reniform, obovate, elliptic or suborbicular in outline, shallowly reticulate Seeds numerous, straw-coloured to ± whitish, 2.5–3.8 × 2–3 mm, compressed, obliquely reniform, obovate, elliptic or suborbicular in outline, shallowly reticulate.
    Ecology
    Forest edges, riverine forest and among rocks on granite outcrops; from sea level to 1650 m.
    Note
    The very fine snow-white tomentum on the underside of the leaves (tending to become somewhat discoloured in old herbarium specimens), contrasting with the almost glabrous upper surface, is highly distinctive. Chromosome number: 2n=24 Common name: "Red Bitter Apple" or "Red Bitter Berry"
    Distribution
    ZIM C, ZIM E, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ Z, MOZ M Of uncertain origin, probably native to the Cape region of South Africa, now widespread throughout tropical and southern Africa, usually as a highland species, recorded from Ethiopia southwards throughout East Africa to South Africa (Cape Prov.) and westw Mozambique Zimbabwe Malawi
    Habit
    Short-lived, softly woody under shrub, shrub or sometimes a small tree, up to 5(8) m high; sympodia plurifoliate; hairs stellate, white (ageing greyish or yellowish in herbaria), very fine (c. 0.1–0.2 mm across), floccose, ± sessile, regular, with many short rays; prickles 1–5 mm long, straight or slightly curved, laterally ± compressed, often hairy from the base to above the middle.
    Pistil
    Ovary c. 1 mm in diameter, ± globose, glabrous except for few, minute, sub-apical glands; style 5–7(8) mm long, exceeding the stamens, straight or slightly curved at the apex, glabrous or with a few minute glands from the base to above the middle.
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=24.
    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A shrub or tree up to 25 ft. high
    Indumentum
    White tomentum on all parts, except the surfaces of the leaves
    Flowers
    Flowers violet-purple.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Congo, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Canary Is., India, Sri Lanka

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum giganteum Jacq. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 2010 Louis, J. [1280], Congo K000441889
    Oct 1, 2010 Tessmann, G. [513], Equatorial Guinea K000441887
    Oct 1, 2010 Mildbraed, G.W.J. [9507], Central African Republic K000441886
    Oct 1, 2010 Runyinya, B. [872], Rwanda K000441885
    Oct 1, 2010 Putman, P.T.L. [130], Congo K000441890
    Oct 1, 2010 Gilbert, ? [2216], Congo K000441891
    Sep 1, 2010 Chase, N.C. [7445], Zimbabwe K000441781
    Sep 1, 2010 Brummitt, R.K. [9391], Malawi K000441779
    Sep 1, 2010 Chapman, J.D. [8878], Malawi K000441780
    Sep 1, 2010 Jack Mrs [1258], Zimbabwe K000441782
    Mar 1, 2010 Harris, T. [72], Mozambique K000545064
    Mar 1, 2010 Harris, T. [83], Mozambique K000545074
    Jan 1, 2004 Onana, J.-M. [1924], Cameroon K000212996
    Oct 1, 2003 Pollard, B.J. [1035], Cameroon K000212630
    Mar 1, 1998 Daramola, B.O. [62453], Nigeria K000489379
    Mar 1, 1998 Chapman, J.D. [4004], Nigeria K000489378
    Jul 2, 1905 Le Testu, G. [8021], Gabon K000441888
    Jul 2, 1905 Raynal, J. [20752], Rwanda K000441884
    Greenway, P.J. [4183], Tanzania K001157596
    Gillett, J.B. [1328], South Africa K001159205
    Bally, P.R.O. [B7468], Kenya K001157564
    Bally, P.R.O. [B12557], Kenya K001157572
    Bally, P.R.O. [B12557], Kenya K001157573
    Chase, N.C. [5164], Zimbabwe K001158604
    Robson, N.K.B. [1674], Malawi K001158607
    Brown, N.E. [s.n.], South Africa K001159225
    Andrews, F.W. [s.n.], Sudan K001156200
    Andrews, A. [1939], Sudan 1111.000
    Hepper, F.N. [4585], Sri Lanka K001152908
    Hepper, F.N. [4581], Sri Lanka K001152912
    Hepper, F.N. [4581], Sri Lanka K001152913
    Tanner, R. [5782], Tanzania K001157576
    Greenway [3074], Kenya K001157580
    Polhill [267], Kenya K001157567
    Mooney, H.F. [5730], Ethiopia K001156202
    Mooney, H.F. [5730], Ethiopia K001156206
    Harris, C.M. [161], Uganda K001157556
    Jefford, T.G. [1937], Tanzania K001157591
    Bally, J. [22], Kenya K001157566
    Bally, J. [B3622], Kenya K001157571
    Dale, I.R. [3242], Kenya K001157561
    Cribb, P. [10117], Tanzania K001157597
    Raynal, J. [20752], Rwanda K001155951
    Friis, I. [759], Sudan K001156199
    Friis, I. [9783], Ethiopia K001156209
    Scheepers, J.C. [676], South Africa K001159215
    Galpin, E.E. [9039], South Africa K001159230
    Strey, R.G. [3843], South Africa K001159231
    Strey, R.G. [3843], South Africa K001159232
    Faden, R.B. [376], Kenya K001157559
    Faden, R.B. [65/534], Kenya K001157570
    Arnold, M.H.M. ["H"], South Africa 35772.003
    Arnold, M.H.M. [s.n.], South Africa K001159211
    Wild, H. [3263], Zimbabwe K001158606
    Gardner, H.M. [1149], Kenya K001157565
    Gardner, H.M. [1149], Kenya K001157568
    Matthew, K.M. [51696], India K001152884
    Richards, H.M. [21632], Tanzania K001157578
    Luke, W.R.Q. [7959], Tanzania K001157584
    Luke, W.R.Q. [7708], Tanzania K001157585
    Bruce, E.M. [188], Tanzania K001157586
    Bruce, E.M. [188], Tanzania K001157587
    Bruce, E.M. [456], Tanzania K001157589
    Hohenacker, R.F. [1075], India K001152895
    Thwaites [CP1903], Sri Lanka K001152909
    Thwaites [CP1903], Sri Lanka K001152910
    Dalzell [s.n.], India K001152886
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Kenya K001157563
    Oates, J.F. [159], India K001152899
    Rodin, R.J. [3959], South Africa K001159213
    Rodin, R.J. [4519], Swaziland K001159233
    Perdue, R.E. [9474], Kenya K001157560
    Haarer, A.E. [2441], Kenya K001157574
    Bolus, H. [2407], South Africa K001159222
    Sumithraarachchi, D.B. [912], Sri Lanka K001152911
    Kostermans, A.J.G.H. [26207], India K001152900
    Thomson, G. [s.n.], Sri Lanka K001152914
    Bourne [2809], India K001152901
    Bourne [456], India K001152902
    Bourne [s.n.], India K001152903
    Magogo, F. [193], Tanzania K001157593
    Goldsmith, B. [7/68], Zimbabwe K001158605
    Kuntze, C.E.O. [94], South Africa K001159226
    Zeyher, C.L.P. [908] K001159229
    Pentz, J.A. [299], South Africa K001159208
    Chambers, G.A. [K59], Tanzania K001157575
    Prior, A. [s.n.] K001159206
    Prior, A. [s.n.] K001159224
    Mgaza, C.D. [27], Tanzania K001157588
    Loveridge, M.V. [95], Uganda K001157555
    Lye, K.A. [1953], Uganda K001157551
    Dümmer, R.A. [3611], Uganda K001157552
    Devenish, N.J. [1580], South Africa K001159216
    Salubeni, A.J. [1490], Malawi K001158608
    Semsei, S. [2830], Tanzania K001157595
    Semsei, S. [4126], Tanzania K001157599
    Semsei, S. [2182], Tanzania K001157600
    Koritschoner, H. [1234], Tanzania K001157579
    Herb Wight [2022] K001152896
    Herb Wight [1571] K001152906
    Marriott, W.E. [22643], South Africa K001159210
    Gamble, J.S. [14294], India K001152893
    Gamble, J.S. [11419], India K001152894
    Juniper, B.E. [1937], Tanzania K001157590
    Watkins, G. [590], Tanzania K001157581
    Owan, M. [1460], South Africa K001159219
    Maas Geesteranus, R.A. [6247], Kenya K001157562
    Gutzwiller [1548], Congo K001155954
    Winter, B. de [8273], South Africa K001159209
    Pegler, A.M. [709], South Africa K001159223
    Repton, J.E. [1605], South Africa K001159214
    Wilson, C.T. [132], Uganda K001157558
    Prendergast, H.D.V. [HDVP387], Swaziland K001159234
    Prendergast, H.D.V. [HDVP387], Swaziland K001159235
    Waas, S. [467], Sri Lanka K001152907
    Fernandes, J. [1055], India K001152891
    Nana [5654] K001152887
    Drummond, R.B. [2422], Tanzania K001157592
    s.coll [4189] K001152883
    s.coll [1302] K001152885
    s.coll [s.n.], India K001152889
    s.coll [2715], India K001152897
    s.coll [s.n.], India K001152905
    s.coll [9525], Cameroon K001155950
    s.coll [1215], Uganda K001157548
    s.coll [217], Uganda K001157549
    s.coll [61], Uganda K001157550
    s.coll [1664], Uganda K001157553
    s.coll [64], Uganda K001157554
    s.coll [746], Uganda K001157557
    s.coll [313], Tanzania K001157577
    s.coll [9031], Tanzania K001157594
    s.coll [4495], South Africa K001159204
    s.coll [1460] K001159207
    s.coll [356], South Africa K001159217
    s.coll [s.n.], South Africa K001159227
    s.coll [s.n.] K001159228
    Sedgwick, L.J. [4745] K001152888
    Rani, N. [28282], India K001152898
    Someren, C. van [7337], Kenya K001157569
    Gardner [s.n.] K001152892
    Welman, M. [432], South Africa K001159212
    Richards, M.A.E. [20354], Tanzania K001157582
    Richards, M.A.E. [20354], Tanzania K001157583
    Richards, M.A.E. [22015], Tanzania K001157598
    Krishnappa, D.G. [397], India K001152890
    Brink, E. [294], South Africa K001159221
    Mabatha, F.W. [2147], South Africa K001159218
    Herb Dalzell, N.A. [s.n.], India K001152882
    Herb Morrison, A. [s.n.], Australia K001154199
    Herb. Gay, J.É. [s.n.], France K001168896
    Herb Haines, H.H. [4180] K001152904
    Mergg, A.O.D. [11511], South Africa K001159220
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2610] Solanum farinosum K001116564
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2610], India Solanum farinosum K001116565
    Noton, E. [Cat. no. 2610], India Solanum farinosum K001116566
    Mar 1, 1998 Ujor, E.U. [FHI 30356], Cameroon Solanum seretii K000028659
    Milne-Redhead, E. [7598], Tanzania Solanum sordidescens 23782.000

    Bibliography

    First published in Collectanea 4: 125 (1791)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Bitter in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 57: 256 (1921).
    • Bot. Mag. 44: t. 1921
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 229
    • Collect. 4: 125 (1790)

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • M. Coates Palgrave, ed. 3 of K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 1000 (2002).
    • White, Dowsett-Lemaire & Chapman, Evergreen For. Fl. Malawi: 554 (2001).
    • Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl., ed. 2: 243 (1994).
    • Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs & Lianas: 580 (1994).
    • Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 56: 176 (1987).
    • Fl. Rwanda 3: 375, 378 (1985).
    • Gentes Herb. 12: 215, fig. 10 (1984).
    • J. S. African Bot. 13, Suppl.: 425 (1984).
    • Troupin, Fl. Pl. Lign. Rwanda: 652, 657 (1982)
    • J. Adel. Bot. Gard. 4: 117, fig. 37, 150/E, 161/G (1981).
    • K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa, ed. 2: 821 cum map & fig. (1981).
    • Moll, Trees Natal: 59 cum map & fig. (1981).
    • Compton, Fl. Swaziland: 516, 517 (1976).
    • Kirkia 10: 272 (1975).
    • J.M. Gibson, Wild Fl. Natal (Coast. Reg.): 92 cum t. 92 fig. 2 (1975).
    • Palmer & Pitman, Trees South. Africa 3: 1984 (1973).
    • Ross, Fl. Natal: 308 (1972).
    • Bull. Jard. Bot. État 33, Suppl.: 866 (1963).
    • F.W.T.A., ed. 2, 2: 332 (1963).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 81: 316 (1962).
    • Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk, Med. & Pois. Pl. S. & E. Africa, ed. 2: 993 (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees & Shrubs: 538 (1961).
    • Topham, Check List For. Trees Shrubs Nyasaland Prot.: 96 (1958).
    • Proc. & Trans. Rhodesia Sci. Assoc. 43: 42 (1951).
    • Brenan & Greenway, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 578 (1949).
    • Burtt Davy & Hoyle, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Brit. Emp. 2, Nyasaland: 71 (1936).
    • Burtt Davy & Bolton, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Brit. Emp., Uganda Prot.: 113 (1935).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 57: 257 (1921).
    • Ann. Transvaal Mus. 3, 3: 162 (1912).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45: 497 (1911)
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 38: 191 (1906).
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 229 (1906).
    • F.C. 4, 2: 94 (1904)
    • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 258 (1852).
    • Ic. Pl. Rar. 2: t. 328 (1793); : 11 (1795)
    • Collectanea 4: 125 (1791)

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Bothalia 38(1): 40 (2008).
    • Fl. Eth. 5: 125 (2006);
    • F.Z. 8(4): 88 (2005);
    • Mansfeld, Encycl. Agric. & Hort. Crops, 4: 1818 (2001);
    • Bothalia 25: 56 (1995);
    • K.T.S.L.: 580 (1994);
    • U.K.W.F., 2nd ed.: 243 (1994);
    • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 190 (1992);
    • Fl. Rwanda: 378 (1985);
    • Jaeger, Syst. stud. Solanum in Africa: 347 (1985, ined)
    • Gentes Herb. 12: 212 (1984);
    • Purdie et al., Fl. Australia 29: 75, 87 (1982);
    • Troupin, Fl. Pl. Ligneuses Rwanda: 657 (1982)
    • Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4: 117 (1981)
    • E.P.A., 2: 866 (1963)
    • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2: 332 (1963)
    • E.J. 81: 316 (1962)
    • Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk, Med. & Pois. Pl. S. & E. Africa, ed. 2: 993 (1962)
    • K.T.S.: 538 (1961)
    • Polhill, Solanum in E & NE Africa: 13 (ined., 1961)
    • Baileya 8: 30 (1960)
    • I.T.U.: 414 (1952)
    • T.T.C.L.: 578 (1949)
    • I.T.U.: 233 (1940)
    • Racc. Bot. Miss. Consol. Kenya: 88 (1935)
    • E.J. 57: 257 (1921)
    • E.J. 39: 648 (1907)
    • E.J. 38: 191 (1906)
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 229 (1906)
    • Fl. Cap. 4: 94 (1904)
    • Rev. Gen. Pl. 3, 2: 226 (1893)
    • Engler, Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr.: 373 (1892)
    • Fl. Brit. Ind. 4(1): 233 (1885)
    • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 258 (1852)
    • Don, Gen. Hist. Dichlam. Pl. 4: 430 (1837)
    • Trans. Linn. Soc., 17: 47 (1832)
    • Bot. Mag. 44: t. 1921 (1817)
    • Syn. Solan. Hist.: 36 (1816)
    • Dunal, Hist. Solanum: 202 (1813)
    • Ic. Pl. Rar., 2: t. 328 (1793)
    • Collect., 4: 125 (1791)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0