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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum goetzei Dammer

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Kenya to S. Tropical Africa.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Type
    Syntypes from Tanzania.
    General
    Perennial herb or small shrub, occasionally scandent, up to 2(3) m, unarmed; sympodia difoliate; hairs stellate, off-white, sometimes violaceous or reddish tinged, minute (0.2–0.3 mm across), ± sessile, regular, with many short rays
    Branches
    Branches floccose-tomentose at first, gradually glabrescent Branches floccose-tomentose at first, gradually glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary or partly sub geminate; petiole 0.5–4.5 cm long; lamina membranous, 3–22.5 × 1–9 cm, lanceolate to obovate, base cuneate, gradually narrowing into the petiole and ± unequal-sided, apex acute or acuminate, occasionally ± obtuse, somewhat sub-repand to scarcely undulate, rarely ± entire, tending to dry blackish, initially with ± abundant whitish hairs, soon becoming sparsely hairy to quite glabrous with age, underside paler, with 5–9 pairs of lateral nerves Leaves solitary or partly sub geminate; petiole 0.5–4.5 cm long; lamina membranous, 3–22.5 × 1–9 cm, lanceolate to obovate, base cuneate, gradually narrowing into the petiole and ± unequal-sided, apex acute or acuminate, occasionally ± obtuse, somewhat sub-repand to scarcely undulate, rarely ± entire, tending to dry blackish, initially with ± abundant whitish hairs, soon becoming sparsely hairy to quite glabrous with age, underside paler, with 5–9 pairs of lateral nerves.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes soon leaf-opposed or leaf-remote, forked 1–2 times or rarely unbranched, racemiform, 1. 5–3 cm long, 3–24-flowered, ± pulverulent-tomentose; peduncle 0.1–1. 8 cm long; rhachis 0.1–0.8 cm long Cymes soon leaf-opposed or leaf-remote, forked 1–2 times or rarely unbranched, racemiform, 1.5–3 cm long, 3–24-flowered, ± pulverulent-tomentose; peduncle 0.1–1.8 cm long; rhachis 0.1–0.8 cm long.
    Flowers
    Flowers (4)5-merous, ± nodding. Flowers (4)5-merous, ± nodding; pedicels 5–11 mm long, slender, at first often densely hairy, glabrescent except at the base, in fruit elongated to 16 mm, somewhat thickened distally, ascending or erect.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 5–11 mm long, slender, at first often densely hairy, glabrescent except at the base, in fruit elongated to 16 mm, somewhat thickened distally, ascending or erect
    Calyx
    Calyx 2–4(5) mm long, somewhat accrescent, campanulate or cupular, ± hairy; lobes somewhat unequal, 0.5–2(3) × 0.5–1 mm, ovate-triangular to triangular-elongate or broadly obovate, acute or mucronate to narrowly long-acuminate, in fruit enlarged to 5 × 2 mm, curved out at the apex, finally ± reflexed Calyx 2–4(5) mm long, somewhat accrescent, campanulate or cupular, ± hairy; lobes somewhat unequal, 0.5–2(3) × 0.5–1 mm, ovate-triangular to triangular-elongate or broadly obovate, acute or mucronate to narrowly long-acuminate, in fruit enlarged to 5 × 2 mm, curved out at the apex, finally ± reflexed.
    Corolla
    Corolla bluish to pale violet or lilacineous, sometimes white, campanulate-stelliform; limb 8–15 mm across; lobes 3–8 × 1–3.5 mm, linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, acute, ± densely hairy outside mainly on the median part, glabrous except for a few stellate hairs scattered along the midvein or only near the apex inside, erect to reflexed Corolla bluish to pale violet or lilacineous, sometimes white, campanulate-stelliform; limb 8–15 mm across; lobes 3–8 × 1–3.5 mm, linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, acute, ± densely hairy outside mainly on the median part, glabrous except for a few stellate hairs scattered along the midvein or only near the apex inside, erect to reflexed.
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments 0.5–1 mm long; anthers 3–5 × 0.8–1. 2 mm, lanceolate-elliptic in outline, slightly obtuse, not very emarginate at the apex Stamen filaments 0.5–1 mm long; anthers 3–5 × 0.8–1.2 mm, lanceolate-elliptic in outline, slightly obtuse, not very emarginate at the apex.
    Ovary
    Ovary 0.7–1 mm in diameter, ± globose, glabrous or with few minute glands near the apex.
    Style
    Style 4.5–8.5 mm long, exceeding the stamens, often arcuate at the apex, glabrous or with few minute glands near the base
    Ecology
    Dry forest margins and understorey, Combretum-Terminalia and mopane woodland, savanna woodland and coastal bushland, sometimes on termite mounds or around granite outcrops, ruderal places and other areas of disturbance particularly along roads; from sea level to 1189 m.
    Note
    The lack of prickles, the sparse indumentum and exceptionally large seeds are useful spot characters for this distinct species.
    Distribution
    Malawi Mozambique Also in Kenya and Tanzania. ZAM N, ZAM C, MAL N, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ S, MOZ GI, MOZ M Zambia
    Habit
    Perennial herb or small shrub, occasionally scandent, up to 2(3) m, unarmed; sympodia difoliate; hairs stellate, off-white, sometimes violaceous or reddish tinged, minute (0.2–0.3 mm across), ± sessile, regular, with many short rays.
    Pistil
    Ovary 0.7–1 mm in diameter, ± globose, glabrous or with few minute glands near the apex; style 4.5–8.5 mm long, exceeding the stamens, often arcuate at the apex, glabrous or with few minute glands near the base.
    Fruits
    Fruit shining bright to deep red when ripe, 6–10 mm in diameter, globose, soft. Fruit shining bright to deep red when ripe, 6–10 mm in diameter, globose, soft
    Seeds
    Seeds not very numerous, pale yellowish, 3–5 × 2.5–4 mm, compressed, somewhat obliquely reniform, largely reticulate-tuberculate. Seeds not very numerous, pale yellowish, 3–5 × 2.5–4 mm, compressed, somewhat obliquely reniform, largely reticulate-tuberculate
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: Tanzania, Bagamoyo District: Kikoka, Stuhlmann 127 (?B†, syn.); Morogoro District: Ukutu [Khutu-steppe], Goetze 112 (K!, syn.); Handeni District: Kiwanda, Fischer 409 (?B†, syn.)
    Habit
    Perennial herb or shrub to 3 m high, erect, basal stems becoming woody;
    Prickles
    Prickles absent throughout;
    Stem
    Stems initially ochraceous and covered with dense indumentum of interlocking sessile stellate hairs to 0.2 mm diameter with ± 8 equal eglandular rays and erect median ray, intermixed with short stalked glands, occasionally young stems purplish due to hair pigmentation
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or alternate, often membranaceous, sometimes coriaceous, dull to dark green above, paler below, ovate, obovate or lanceolate, 5–9(–15) × 2–5(–7.5) cm, bases cuneate and often decurrent for half of petiole, margins usually entire, occasionally repand, apices acute or sometimes acuminate; both surfaces stellate-pubescent, usually glabrescent, with glands mixed with stellate hairs to 0.4 mm diameter with up to 14 lateral rays to 0.2 mm, and erect prominent median rays, all denser on midribs and veins especially on the lower surfaces, venation usually prominent; petioles 1–3.8 cm long
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences subterminal to lateral, leaf-opposed or extra-axillary, simple or simple and forked, 5–20-flowered lax scorpioid cymes 3.5–5 cm broad; flowers 5merous, usually nodding; peduncles 2–12 mm long in flower, 2–14 mm and usually woody in fruit; pedicels erect to recurved and 4.5–9 mm long in flower, erect and spreading and 6–15 mm in fruit, often becoming woody and thickened beneath calyx; axes initially densely pubescent, stellate hairs as above
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, 2.2–4(–4.5) mm long, with scattered hairs becoming denser towards the pedicels, glabrous internally; lobes often unequal, narrowly triangular becoming subulate, 1.5–2.5 × 0.3–1.5 mm, acute to apiculate; adherent basally in fruit, later becoming strongly reflexed, subulate, 3–5(–8) × 1–3 mm, glabrous
    Corolla
    Corolla violet, purple, pale lilac or white, sometimes with purplish yellow central star, stellate, deeply lobed, 1–2(–2.8) cm diameter; tube ± 1 mm long, glabrous externally; lobes lanceolate, 5–9 × 1.5–3.5 mm, acute, with prominent median veins, densely stellate-pubescent to glabrescent externally, sparsely stellate-pubescent on veins internally, denser toward the apices, lobes eventually strongly reflexed. Stamens usually equal; filaments free for 0.5–1.8 mm, glabrous; anthers poricidal, yellow often drying brown, 3–4 × 0.6–0.8(–1) mm
    Ovary
    Ovary brownish, 1.1–2 × 1.2–1.3 mm, glabrous but often with small stalked glands apically, bilocular; style straight below, often curving downwards apically, white, 5–9 × 0.2–0.5 mm, ± glabrous, exserted up to 3 mm; stigma green, capitate or bilobed, 0.3–0.5 mm diameter
    Fruits
    Berries smooth, bright red, globose, glossy, 6–10(–12) mm diameter, usually glabrous, occasionally with odd scattered stellate hair, often with translucent cuticle through which seeds visible
    Seeds
    Seeds (8–)17–26 per berry, yellow to brown, obovoid, elliptic or reniform, 3.5–4.2(–4.8) × 3–3.8(–4.2) mm, laterally compressed, deeply reticulate to deeply reticulatefoveolate; sclerotic granules absent
    Figures
    Fig 18/14–17, p 152
    Ecology
    Dry to moist forest and riverine forest, including clearings and -margins, coastal thicket, woodland, wooded grassland, Acacia-Commiphora bushland, thicket, cleared ground, roadsides, in regenerating cultivation; sea-level to 750(–1250) m
    Note
    This is essentially a lowland species usually found in wooded and forest areas from the coast to elevations of around 700 m. Jaeger (1985) considered that S. goetzei showed affinities with the West African species S. anomalum Thonn., though the stems and branches of the latter usually bear prickles and the flowers are tetramerous. He also considered it close to the predominantly Angolan S. pauperum C.H. Wright (K.B. 1894: 127 (1894); C.H. Wright in F.T.A. 4, 2: 217 (1906). Type: Angola, Welwitsch 6054 & 6075 (K!, syn.)). The syntypes cited by Wright (1894, 1906) are indeed similar to S. goetzei florally, but the indumentum is composed of small densely- and multi-rayed stellate hairs and the inflorescence structure is very different with long slender pedicels arising in subterminal umbels which are virtually pedunculate. Such morphology is found in many Angolan specimens, and are sufficiently divergent to warrant the maintainance of S. pauperum as a distinct species which does not occur in East Africa. However, the Malawian specimen Kirk s.n. cited by Wright (1906) is synonymous with S. goetzei. Gonçalves (2006) listed large seeds, lack of prickles and sparse pubescence as useful characteristics of this species. Whilst the latter two characters may be useful, there is considerable overlap in seed size between with this species and S. schummannianum, which is closely related to S. goetzei. Plants of S. goetzei are grazed by cattle in K 7; its leaves are used as a vegetable in T 3 and medicinally in K 7, where hot poultices are used to reduce swellings and draw out abscesses and to treat whitlows on fingers. It is also listed in PROTA (11: 308 (2002)) as a medicinal plant in tropical Africa. Bitter (1921) gave S. muha as a synonym of S. goetzei, and would presumably have seen the Stuhlmann specimens on which it was based in Berlin. No duplicate type material has yet been located, but the protologue suggests that Bitter was right and that this species is indeed a synonym of S. goetzei. The correct placement of S. bagamojense is difficult. Bitter (1914) considered it to belong to the section Dulcamara (Dunal) Bitter but may later have changed his mind when he formally recognised it as a variety of Dammer’s species S. goetzei . The characters given in the protologues of these two taxa imply synonymy with S. goetzei, apart from the citation of 40flowered inflorescences - clearly apparent on Hildebrandt’s syntype (W, photo!). It was presumably on this basis that Bitter recognised it varietally. However, in view of the complicity of all other morphological features described in the protologues and the shortness of the peduncle on the syntype, these two taxa have provisionally been synonymised with S. goetzei.
    Distribution
    Range: Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique Flora districts: K7 T1 T3 T4 T6 T8

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum goetzei Dammer appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2011 Malombe, I. [1MR1 1632], Kenya K000662264
    Sep 1, 2010 Kirk, J. [s.n.], Malawi K000441783
    Sep 1, 2010 Astle, W.L. [5581], Zambia K000441792
    Sep 1, 2010 Astle, W.L. [1169], Zambia K000441793
    Sep 1, 2010 Barbosa, L.A.G. [8385], Mozambique K000441788
    Sep 1, 2010 Pawek, J. [12306], Malawi K000441784
    Sep 1, 2010 Schafer, P.A. [6539], Mozambique K000441786
    Sep 1, 2010 Patel, I.H. [1805], Malawi K000441785
    Sep 1, 2010 Gomes_e_Sousa, A.F. [1832], Mozambique K000441789
    Sep 1, 2010 Gomes_e_Sousa, A.F. [4558], Mozambique K000441790
    Aug 1, 2010 Lemos, F. de [169], Mozambique K000441787
    Jul 2, 1905 Groenendijk, E.M.C. [1313], Mozambique K000441791
    Greenway, P.J. [13319], Tanzania K001157618
    Gillett, J.B. [19885], Kenya K001157607
    Tanner, R. [1800], Tanzania K001157620
    Tanner, R. [3617], Tanzania K001157630
    Tanner, R. [2310], Tanzania K001157631
    Rawlins, S. [EAH11265], Kenya K001157602
    Graham, R.M. [2191], Kenya K001157608
    Dale, I.R. [3641], Kenya K001157611
    Wallace, G.B. [617], Tanzania K001157616
    Robertson, S.A. [6780], Kenya K001157603
    Faulkner, H.G. [1724], Tanzania K001157621
    Faulkner, H.G. [4067], Tanzania K001157625
    Faulkner, H.G. [3834], Tanzania K001157628
    Faulkner, H.G. [3834], Tanzania K001157634
    Brummitt, R.K. [8963], Malawi K001158614
    Mogg, A.O.D. [27700], Mozambique K001158609
    Mogg, A.O.D. [30942], Mozambique K001158610
    Mogg, A.O.D. [30867], Mozambique K001158611
    Mogg, A.O.D. [28411], Mozambique K001158612
    Verdcourt [3957], Kenya K001157606
    Verdcourt [5282], Kenya K001157612
    Archbold, M.E. [2722], Tanzania K001157622
    Ruffo [2265], Tanzania K001157632
    Vollesen, K. [MRC2248], Tanzania K001157642
    Bidgood, S. [5147], Tanzania K000190375
    Bidgood, S. [322], Tanzania K001157643
    Bidgood, S. [1658], Tanzania K001157644
    Luke [2554], Kenya K001157615
    Mwasumbi, L.B. [11492], Tanzania K001157638
    Magogo [322], Tanzania K001157627
    Polhill, R.M. [982], Kenya K001157604
    Polhill, R.M. [4818], Kenya K001157605
    Polhill, R.M. [750], Kenya K001157609
    Goetze, W. [112], Tanzania K000413984
    Magogo, F. [796], Kenya K001157601
    Magogo, F. [1030], Kenya K001157614
    Jeffery, G.W. [K356], Kenya K001157610
    Shabani [643], Tanzania K001157633
    Welch, J.R. [207], Tanzania K001157640
    Rounce, N.V. [250], Tanzania K001157617
    Gutzwiller, R. [2977], Congo K001155952
    Ludanga, R.I. [1260], Tanzania K001157641
    Groenendijk, E.M.C. [1313], Mozambique K001158613
    Paulo, S. [102], Tanzania K001157639
    Adams, B.R. [76], Kenya K001157613
    Hall-Martin, A.J. [446], Malawi K001158615
    Lewis, T.W. [251], Tanzania K001157629
    Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [7299], Tanzania K001157635
    Drummond, R.B. [3552], Tanzania K001157624
    Drummond, R.B. [3552], Tanzania K001157626
    Clarke, G.P. [3526], Tanzania K001157623
    s.coll [2743], Tanzania K001157636
    Mapunda, L. [NPGRC/MSB149], Tanzania K001157619
    Raunce, N.V. [250], Tanzania K001157637

    Bibliography

    First published in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28(4): 473 (1900)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs & Lianas: 580 (1994).
    • Gentes Herb. 12: 215 (1984) as “goetzii”.
    • Kirkia 12: 178 (1980).
    • Brenan & Greenway, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 579 (1949).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 57: 269 (1921).
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 218 (1906).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28: 473 (1900).

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Bothalia 38(1): 42 (2008).
    • F.Z. 8(4): 91 (2005)
    • K.T.S.L.: 580 (1994)
    • Jaeger, Syst. stud. Solanum in Africa: 352 (1985, ined.)
    • Gentes Herb. 12: 215 (1984) [as S. goetzii]
    • Polhill, Solanum in E & NE Africa: 16 (ined., 1961)
    • T.T.C.L.: 579 (1949)
    • E.J. 57: 269 (1921)
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 218 (1906)
    • E.J., 28: 473 (1900)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0