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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum incanum L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Iran to India.

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: ‘Africa’, Herb. J. Burser Vol. 9, no. 20 (UPS, neo., designated by Hepper & Jaeger 1985: 388)
    Habit
    Herb or shrub, 0.4–1.5 m, erect, armed; young stems densely stellate-pubescent, trichomes multangulate, translucent, a mixture of sessile and stalked, stalks up to 1 mm, rays 6–20, 0.1–0.4 mm, midpoints ± same length as rays; prickles straight or curved, 3–9 mm long, 1.5–6 mm wide at base, round or flattened
    Leaves
    Leaf blades drying concolorous to weakly discolorous, yellowish, ovate, 6–22 × 4–15 cm, ± 1.5 times longer than wide, base rounded to cordate, often unequal and oblique, margin lobed to almost entire, the broadly rounded lobes (3–)4(–5) on each side, 0.5–2 cm long, apically rounded, extending up to 1/4 of the distance to the midvein; apex rounded to acute; densely stellate-pubescent abaxially, trichomes on abaxial surface porrect, sessile or stalked, stalks to 0.2 mm, rays 8–12, 0.15–0.5 mm, midpoints ± same length as rays or up to 0.6 mm, trichomes of adaxial surface smaller; primary veins ± 5 pairs; petiole 1–9 cm, 1/4–1/3 of the leaf length
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences not branched, 3–8 cm long, with 5–10 flowers; peduncle 1–4 mm long; rachis 0.5–5 cm long; peduncle and rachis unarmed; pedicels 0.8–1.5 cm on long-styled flowers, 0.5–0.9 cm long on short-styled flowers, in fruit 1.3–1.8 cm long, with 0–15 prickles
    Flowers
    Flowers heterostylous, 5-merous, basal one long-styled flower
    Calyx
    Calyx 6–10 mm on long-styled flowers, 4.5–8 mm long on short-styled flowers, lobes long-deltate and sometimes foliaceous on long-styled flowers, broadly deltate on short-styled flowers, 2.5–5 mm on long-styled flowers, 1.5–3 mm long on short-styled flowers, acute to obtuse, with 15–60 prickles on long-styled flowers
    Corolla
    Corolla mauve, 2.4–3 cm in diameter on longstyled flowers, 1.5–2.3 cm in diameter on short-styled flowers, lobed for 1/3–1/2 of its length, lobes broadly deltate, 7–10 × 7–10 mm on long-styled flowers, 6–9 × 5–7 mm on short-styled flowers
    Stamens
    Stamens equal; anthers 6–7.5 mm on long-styled flowers, 4.2–7 mm on short-styled flowers
    Ovary
    Ovary stellate-pubescent in the upper 1/4; style 10–13 mm long on long-styled flowers
    Fruits
    Berries 1(–2) per infructescence, striped when young, yellow at maturity, spherical, 2.5–3.5 cm in diameter; fruiting calyx with 5–30 prickles
    Seeds
    Seeds 2.2–2.8 × 1.8–2.3 mm
    Ecology
    Thickets, bushland, wooded grassland; 500–800 m
    Note
    The name “ S. incanum” has been commonly and incorrectly applied to the widespread weedy species S. campylacanthum. Solanum incanum sensu stricto is distinguished by its lobed leaves, yellowish drying colour, adundant long-stalked indumentum, and does not occur any further south than K 1. Herbarium specimens of Solanum incanum bear a striking resemblance to the similarly yellowish and densely tomentose southern African S. lichtensteinii; the two species are not sympatric and geographical location data can greatly simplify the identification process. The ridged stems of S. lichtensteinii differentiate it from S. incanum. The majority of yellow-fruited weeds commonly encountered around East Africa are part of S. campylacanthum. Solanum incanum sensu stricto may be the closest African relative of the cultivated aubergine S. melongena (Weese & Bohs, Taxon 59: 49–56; 2010).
    Distribution
    Range: Egypt, Arabia, Oman, Israel, Jordan, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India Range: Senegal, Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia Flora districts: K1
    [KBu]

    Samuels, J. Kew Bull (2012) 67: 401. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-012-9373-5

    Habit
    Densely tomentose, armed perennial shrubs; up to 2 m high; with broadly ovate, sub-entire to repand leaves; up to 15 purple or violet flowers in each simple inflorescence, usually only one flower (more rarely up to 3) hermaphrodite; infructescence of up to 3 fruits, up to 3.5 cm diam.
    Distribution
    distribution. Across north-eastern Africa, extending southwards into Somalia and Kenya, westwards to Senegal, across the Middle East, and as far eastwards as northern Pakistan and northern India.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    General
    Erect or spreading herb or shrub up to 3 m high, occasionally a small tree, usually armed but sometimes quite unarmed; hairs stellate, sessile to stalked, ± regular, some occasionally simple, mostly eglandular; prickles pale yellow to brownish, to 10 mm long, laterally ± flattened, recurved or straight, ± stout or slender, subulate from a broad base, hairy at the base to almost concealed by the tomentum
    Stem
    Stems one–many from an often deep taproot, woody rootstocks or rhizomatous structures.
    Branches
    Branches with white to greyish, yellowish, brown or purplish tomentum, sometimes scurfy, or occasionally floccose, to sparsely hairy, becoming subglabrous with age, generally with scattered prickles
    Leaves
    Leaves usually solitary; petiole 0.2–8.5 cm long; lamina felty or relatively thin, 1. 5–30.5 × 0.5–17 cm, sub-orbicular or broadly ovate to narrowly elliptic or lanceolate, base sub-cordate, truncate or rounded to tapering into the petiole, and ± unequal-sided, apex obtuse or acute, sometimes acuminate or mucronate, entire to pinnately lobed, the lobes broad, ± triangular, obtuse or rounded, the sinuses rounded between the lobes, usually tomentose, the upper surface with ± equal-rayed or occasionally forked hairs, becoming scabrous or subglabrous, paler and more densely hairy beneath, sometimes mealy, or occasionally velvety, both surfaces often with a few short prickles mostly along the midrib and sometimes also on the nerves
    Inflorescences
    Cymes lateral, often leaf-remote but also leaf-opposed or axillary, simple or forked, sub-umbelliform, racemiform or paniculiform, 2–15(26)-flowered, usually only lowest flower(s) larger and fertile, more rarely all flowers fertile, rarely flowers solitary; peduncle 0–4(5) cm long, often with short, fine prickles
    Flowers
    Flowers fragrant, nodding or pendulous.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 0.2–3 cm long, slender or ± thickened especially upwards in fertile flowers, densely prickly to quite unarmed in male flowers, in fruit elongated to 4 cm
    Calyx
    Calyx tomentose to hairy outside with white, ashy, pale yellowish to brown, golden or violet hairs, often ± prickly in fertile flowers or quite unarmed, 3–22 mm long, 4–21 mm across, broadly campanulate or cupular, (4)5–7(9)-lobed; lobes ± unequal, 1–13 × 1–8 mm, ovate or triangular to lanceolate-subulate, obtuse to long-acuminate, spreading, in fruit ± enlarged to 25 mm, sometimes splitting irregularly
    Corolla
    Corolla bluish to pink or purplish to violaceous, occasionally darker, purple or white at the veins, rarely white or almost so, (0.8)1–3 cm long, campanulate to rotate, or broadly stelliform; limb (1)1. 5–4(4.5) cm across; lobes (2.5)5–16 × (2)3–15 mm, ovate or broadly triangular to lanceolate, obtuse to shortly acuminate or apiculate, tomentose to hairy outside on the mid-petaline areas, and similarly along the midveins or glabrous inside, ± spreading or reflexed
    Stamens
    Stamens (4)5–7(8); filaments 0.5–2.5 mm long; anthers (4)5–9 mm long, stout, oblong to linear-lanceolate in outline, straight or slightly curved, obtuse, slightly emarginate at both ends, free or in a narrow cone surrounding the style
    Ovary
    Ovary 2.5–4 mm long, ± globose or ovoid, densely hairy on top, occasionally clothed with a rusty tomentum, 2(4)-locular.
    Style
    Style 7–17 mm long, in male flowers only 2–5 mm long, straight or slightly incurved distally, tomentose or covered with simple hairs except for the apex, sometimes hairy only at the base, very rarely glabrous, exserted or included
    Fruits
    Fruit dark to pale green, often basally green and distally paler or white, sometimes mottled, veined or striped cream or white to dark green, on ripening yellowish to orangish or brownish, (1)1. 5–5.5 cm in diameter or 2.5–3.5 × 2–3 cm, globose or depressed-globose, occasionally ovoid-ellipsoid, bitter and said to be poisonous
    Seeds
    Seeds pale yellow to brownish, numerous, 2.5–3.5 × 2–3 mm, obliquely lenticular or sub-reniform, sub-tuberculate
    Ecology
    Generally found as a weed of cultivated ground, around old habitations and in overgrazed grassland, but extending into forest, mostly at the edges, riverine vegetation, various types of woodland and savanna-woodland, including miombo, mopane and Acacia woodland, thickets, bushland and littoral scrub, grasslands, floodplains, stream-banks, termitaria; from sea level to 2438 m.
    Note
    — representing distinct species. From these studies, including chloroplast DNA analyses, they conclude that these groups can be recognized as separate species within the aggregate. Most of the material from the Flora Zambesiaca area falls within group B, with a few specimens from northern Malawi more like Group A, which is predominant further north in E and NE Africa. Group C, S. incanum in a strict sense, does not occur in the Flora Zambesiaca area, but the rather similar group D, S. lichtensteinii, is quite common and also occurs widely in southern Africa. A more hairy element is considered now by Lester (pers. comm.) as a further separate species, S. aureitomentosum Bitter, but it does, however, intergrade with S. lichtensteinii. — group A (possible name: S. campylacanthum Hochst. ex A. Rich.; group B (possible name: S. delagoense Dunal (S. panduriforme in the earlier papers)); group C (possible name: S. incanum L. sensu stricto); and group D (possible name: S. lichtensteinii Willd., among others) Group A (S. campylacanthum Hochst. ex A. Rich.): similar to the more common Group B, but leaves distinctly broader. Common name: “Thorn Apple”. Lester & Hasan, loc. cit. (1990), in Hawkes, Lester, Nee & Estrada, eds., Solanaceae III: 369–387 (1991) and Lester & Daunay in Knüpffer & Ochsmann, (eds.), Rudolf Mansfeld and Plant Generic Resources, Schriften. Genet. Ressourcen 22: 137–152 (2003), consider the distinction between S. melongena and S. incanum. Within S. incanum sens. ampl., they recognize four taxa S. incanum has been treated either as a true species or as a variety of S. melongena L., appearing to comprise several geographically or ecologically localized infraspecific taxa (subspecies or varieties), considered distinct in the form, length-width relation and indumentum of the leaves. Deb, loc. cit. (1989) considers S. melongena (the “eggplant”), originally from Indo-Burma Region (probably first domesticated in India), a cultivated form of the wild S. incanum and often a weed developed in the course of cultivation, suggesting that they are conspecific. The phenotypic variations observed in both taxa, mainly in the pubescence, density of prickles, size, form and location of the leaves, and in the size, form, colour and edibility of the fruits (these ones however larger, mostly pulpy and edible in S. melongena), and the possible hybridization, eliminate their specific distinction.
    Distribution
    A common and polymorphic species of as yet undefined limits, from unknown origin, widespread throughout the Old World tropics, nowadays widely distributed in equatorial, tropical and subtropical S and N Africa, extending to SW Asia. BOT N, BOT SW, BOT SE, ZAM B, ZAM N, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZAM E, ZAM S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ Z, MOZ T, MOZ MS, MOZ GI, MOZ M, MAL N Zambia Mozambique Malawi Zimbabwe Botswana. Malawi

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gulf States, India, Iran, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Taiwan, Vietnam

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum incanum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 2015 Wilford, C. [83], Hong Kong K001152605
    Jul 1, 2015 s.coll [s.n.] K001152584
    Jul 1, 2015 s.coll [s.n.] K001152604
    May 1, 2015 Loher, A. [4373], Philippines K000195972
    Aug 9, 2013 Dalziel, J.M. [184], Nigeria K000788644
    Aug 9, 2013 Dalziel, J.M. [92], Nigeria K000788645
    Aug 9, 2013 Meikle, R.D. [816], Nigeria K000788642
    Aug 9, 2013 Golding, J.D. [52], Chad K000788643
    Aug 9, 2013 Hadid, N.E. [7025A], Egypt K000788646
    Jun 1, 2012 Loher, A. [4368], Philippines K000195969
    Jun 1, 2012 Tsang, W.T. [30055], Vietnam K000788174
    Jun 1, 2012 Borden, T.E. [1948], Philippines K000195963
    Jun 1, 2012 Otanes, F. [17776], Philippines K000195967
    Jun 1, 2012 Elmer, A.D.E. [8214], Philippines K000195964
    Jun 1, 2012 Elmer, A.D.E. [5528], Philippines K000195965
    Jun 1, 2012 Ramos, M. [4955], Philippines K000195962
    Jun 1, 2012 Merrill, E.D. [938], Philippines K000195968
    Jun 1, 2012 Merrill, E.D. [345], Philippines K000195970
    Jan 1, 2012 Cuming, H. [443], Philippines K000195961 isotype
    Jan 1, 2008 Lort Phillips, E. [s.n.], Somalia K000441661 lectotype
    Apr 26, 2007 Balston [13b], Saudi Arabia K000196866
    Jul 20, 1994 Schimper [1574], Ethiopia K000545579 isotype
    Jul 20, 1994 Kotschy [231], Ethiopia K000545580
    Mar 1, 1990 Scott [s.n.], Malawi K000414082 Unknown type material
    Mar 1, 1990 Stewart [s.n.], Mozambique K000414088 Unknown type material
    Mar 1, 1990 Baum, H. [469], Angola K000414077 Unknown type material
    Mar 1, 1990 Buchanan, J. [494bis], Malawi K000414080 lectotype
    Mar 1, 1990 Buchanan, J. [494bis], Malawi K000414081 isolectotype
    Mar 1, 1990 Swynnerton [387], Zimbabwe K000414078 Unknown type material
    Mar 1, 1990 Swynnerton [387], Zimbabwe K000414079 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1958 Rosevear, D. R. [50/37], Cameroon K000028644
    Jul 5, 1905 Ralimanana, H. [RLI-871], Madagascar K000663020
    Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4719], Sri Lanka K000788198
    Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4719], Sri Lanka K000788218
    Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4704], Sri Lanka K000788219
    Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4497], Sri Lanka K000788220
    Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4642a], Sri Lanka K000788221
    Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4643], Sri Lanka K000788224
    Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4646], Sri Lanka K000788225
    Jul 4, 1905 Du Puy, D.J. [CI94], Australia K000788157
    Jul 4, 1905 Chun, N.K. [43473], China K000788163
    Jul 4, 1905 Forster [s.n.] K000788206
    Jul 4, 1905 Duthie, J.F. [s.n.], India K000788188
    Jul 4, 1905 Henry, A. [795], Taiwan K000788161
    Jul 4, 1905 Henry, A. [8068], China K000788168
    Jul 4, 1905 Wright, C. [349], Hong Kong K000823758
    Jul 4, 1905 Davidse, G. [7257], Sri Lanka K000788223
    Jul 4, 1905 Morse, H.B. [282], China K000788200
    Jul 4, 1905 Pinard, C. [s.n.], Egypt K000788285
    Jul 4, 1905 Aitchison, J.E.T. [185], India K000788287
    Jul 4, 1905 Aitchison, J.E.T. [212], Pakistan K000788342
    Jul 4, 1905 Wight, R. [1573Ab], India K000823761
    Jul 4, 1905 illegible [279], India K000788201
    Jul 4, 1905 illegible [16] K000788203
    Jul 4, 1905 illegible [22438a], India K000788207
    Jul 4, 1905 Robinson, C.B. [287], Indonesia K000788158
    Jul 4, 1905 Rich, H.H. [496], India K000788194
    Jul 4, 1905 Godefroy-Lebeuf, M. [s.n.], Cambodia K000788173
    Jul 4, 1905 Lau, S.K. [114], China K000788164
    Jul 4, 1905 Dalzell, N.A. [603], India K000788195
    Jul 4, 1905 Lei, C.I. [392], China K000788170
    Jul 4, 1905 Horsfield, T. [114], Indonesia K000788159
    Jul 4, 1905 Drummond, J.R. [25863], India K000788179
    Jul 4, 1905 Drummond, J.R. [25864], India K000788180
    Jul 4, 1905 Drummond, J.R. [25862], India K000788181
    Jul 4, 1905 Drummond, J.R. [14441], India K000788182
    Jul 4, 1905 Drummond, J.R. [25859], India K000788183
    Jul 4, 1905 Drummond, J.R. [14441], India K000788184
    Jul 4, 1905 Drummond, J.R. [15259], India K000788185
    Jul 4, 1905 Drummond, J.R. [25861], India K000788186
    Jul 4, 1905 Drummond, J.R. [25865], India K000788286
    Jul 4, 1905 Lord, J.K. [s.n.] K000788341
    Jul 4, 1905 Gamble, J.S. [21597], India K000788152
    Jul 4, 1905 Gamble, J.S. [15829], India K000788189
    Jul 4, 1905 Gamble, J.S. [16045], India K000788210
    Jul 4, 1905 Gamble, J.S. [5548a] K000788290
    Jul 4, 1905 Fosberg, F.R. [52845], Sri Lanka K000788226
    Jul 4, 1905 Deane, H. [s.n.], Pakistan K000788289
    Jul 4, 1905 Wallich, N. [H.I.2628L.b.] K000788154
    Jul 4, 1905 Wallich, N. [2626] K000788162
    Jul 4, 1905 Wallich, N. [s.n.], India K000788208
    Jul 4, 1905 Wallich, N. [H.I.2628c] K000823759
    Jul 4, 1905 Jamieson [333], India K000788192
    Jul 4, 1905 Pearson, A. [p43], Australia K000788202
    Jul 4, 1905 Mueller-Dombois, D. [6810210R], Sri Lanka K000788151
    Jul 4, 1905 Playfair, G.M.H. [75], China K000788167
    Jul 4, 1905 Oldham, R. [339b], Taiwan K000788166
    Jul 4, 1905 Zollinger, H. [26482], Indonesia K000788156
    Jul 4, 1905 Comanor, P.L. [781], Sri Lanka K000788222
    Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [054], China K000788169
    Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], India K000788177
    Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], India K000788196
    Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], India K000788199
    Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.] K000788288
    Jul 4, 1905 Gaudichaud, M. [145], Vietnam K000788171
    Jul 4, 1905 Maesen, L.J.G. van der [2693], India K000788178
    Jul 4, 1905 Maesen, L.J.G. van der [3289], India K000788197
    Jul 4, 1905 Krishnappa, D.G. [68], India K000788211
    Jul 4, 1905 Krishnappa, D.G. [20], India K000788212
    Jul 4, 1905 McDonald, ? [4479], Indonesia K000788160
    Jul 4, 1905 Wilfords, ? [83], Hong Kong K000788165
    Jul 4, 1905 Bihar ? [473] K000788190
    Jul 4, 1905 Royle, H.? [s.n.] K000788191
    Jul 4, 1905 Gupta, ? [s.n.] K000788204
    Jul 4, 1905 Hooker, ? [s.n.], India K000788205
    Jul 4, 1905 Bulkley, E. [s.n.], India K000788209
    Jul 4, 1905 Wight, ? [2020], India K000788214
    Jul 4, 1905 Wight, ? [s.n.], India K000788217
    Jul 4, 1905 Tenpakkam, ? [s.n.] K000788215
    Jul 4, 1905 Murty, U.R. [5631], India K000788284
    Milne-Redhead, E. [10937], Tanzania 24454.000
    Gillett, J.B. [23608], Somalia K001156323
    Gillett, J.B. [12729], Kenya K001157701
    Bally, P.R.O. [B11297], Somalia K001156308
    Dalziel, J.M., Gambia 22114.000
    Dalziel, J.M. [387], Nigeria K000414052 isotype
    Chevalier, A. [1291], Mali K000489372
    Moreau, R.E. [5626] K001152014
    Hepper, F.N. [5855], Yemen K001151995
    Hepper, F.N. [5885], Yemen K001152000
    Morton, J.K. [2086], Ghana K000489373
    Glover, P.E. [24], Somalia K001156306
    Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], Syria K001152038
    Trott, A.C. [1285], Saudi Arabia K001151991
    Grey-Wilson, C. [246], Iran K001152049
    Robertson, S.A. [1410], Ethiopia K001156313
    Stolz, A. [1580], Tanzania K000414113 isotype
    Stolz, A. [1580], Tanzania K000414114
    Stolz, A. [1580], Tanzania K000414115
    Stolz, A. [1580], Tanzania K000414116
    Stolz, A. [1580], Tanzania K000414117 Unknown type material
    Hemming, C.F. [Jess/86/127], Somalia K001156324
    Wickens, G.E. [1348], Sudan K001156291
    Forbes [s.n.], Mozambique K000414083 isotype
    Forbes [s.n.], Mozambique K000414084 isotype
    Forbes [s.n.], Mozambique K000414085 isotype
    Forbes [s.n.], Mozambique K000414086 isotype
    Forbes [s.n.], Mozambique K000414087 isotype
    Hooker, J.D. [s.n.], Syria K001152037
    Strachey, R. [7], India K000788292
    Radcliffe-Smith, A. [4365], Yemen K001151996
    Radcliffe-Smith, A. [3724], Oman K001152043
    Radcliffe-Smith, A. [5318], Oman K001152044
    Collenette, S. [152], Saudi Arabia K001151986
    Collenette, S. [208], Saudi Arabia K001151992
    Friis, I. [8685], Ethiopia K001156302
    Friis, I. [10597], Ethiopia K001156315
    Friis, I. [10597], Ethiopia K001156316
    Friis, I. [10634], Ethiopia K001156317
    Davis, D.H. [3721] K001152052
    Davis, D.H. [5020] K001152053
    Arnold, M.H.M. [J], South Africa 35772.012
    Carter [1811], Sudan K001156297
    Simpson, N.D. [4869], Egypt K001151983
    Simpson, N.D. [2470], Egypt K001152015
    Simpson, N.D. [3058], Egypt K001152017
    Simpson, N.D. [53008], Jordan K001152060
    Collenette, I.S. [1137], Saudi Arabia K001151994
    Schimper [1921], Ethiopia K000414003
    Schimper [1082], Ethiopia K000414005 isolectotype
    Schimper [1082], Ethiopia K000414004 isolectotype
    Schimper [123], Ethiopia K000414006 isoparalectotype
    Richards, H.M. [13463], United Kingdom K001169023
    Luke, W.R.Q. [10771], Kenya K001157702
    Headley, P.M. [192], Ethiopia 6049.062
    Bally [B14628A], Kenya K001157697
    Bally [B14628A], Kenya K001157698
    Bally [B14628A], Kenya K001157699
    Beccari, O. [168], Ethiopia K001156282
    Holst, C. [2678], Tanzania K000414119 isotype
    Kotschy [333], Ethiopia K000414001
    Kotschy [333], Ethiopia K000414002
    Kotschy [231], Ethiopia K001156281
    Aitchison, J.E.T. [505], Afghanistan K001152042
    Stewart, R.R. [1071], India K000788187
    Popov [4269], Saudi Arabia K001151987
    Squires, R.W. [282] K000788172
    Maconochie, J.R. [2922], Oman K001152021
    Goetze, W. [384a], Tanzania K000414118
    Hagerup, O. [222], Mali K000489371
    Barter, C. [s.n.], Niger K001155751
    Scheffler, G. [466], Kenya K000414120 isotype
    Scheffler, G. [94], Kenya K000414121 syntype
    Aucher-Éloy, P.M.R. [5029] K001152036
    Warfa, A.M. [1067], Somalia K001156319
    Berhaut, R.P. [3205], Senegal K000489369
    Boulos, L. [13828], Saudi Arabia K001152019
    Schweinfurth, G.A. [445], Ethiopia K001156278
    Schweinfurth, G.A. [1343], Ethiopia K001156279
    Schweinfurth, G.A. [1388], Sudan K001156300
    Schweinfurth, G.A. [325], Yemen K001156326
    Mavi, S. [471], Zimbabwe K001169025
    Collenette, C.N. [50], Somalia K001156325
    Bequaert, J. [3402], Congo, DRC K000414034 isotype
    Kässner [580], Kenya K000414122 isotype
    Pfund [8], Sudan K001156289
    Brown, A.J. [1181], Sudan K001156299
    Kuchar, P. [16952], Somalia K001156307
    Kuchar, P. [17155], Somalia K001156321
    Bent, J.T. [s.n.] K001156301
    Bent, J.T. [52], Yemen K001156327
    Gamble, J.S. [17721], India K000788213
    Maffey [46B], Sudan K001156295
    Schimper, G.H.W. [951], Egypt K001151981
    Sieber, F.W. [220] K001152035
    Herlocker [523], Kenya K001157700
    Prendergast, H.D.V. [464], Oman K001152006
    Prendergast, H.D.V. [464], Oman K001152007
    Prendergast, H.D.V. [464], Oman K001152041
    Slageren, M. van [247], Saudi Arabia K001151993
    Slageren, M. van [170], Yemen K001151998
    Kirika, P. [NMK196], Kenya K001157695
    Kirika, P. [NMK196], Kenya K001157696
    Fox, H.E. [s.n.] K001152054
    Meyers, F.S. [B2010] K001152058
    Murray, G.W. [3347], Egypt K001151977
    Parlatore [s.n.] K001153082
    Spellenberg, R. [7251], Yemen K001152001
    Shabetai, J.R. [264], Egypt K001151975
    Bavazzano, R. [10c], Somalia K001156275
    Samuelsson, G. [2877], Jordan K001152050
    Bornmüller, J.F.N. [483] K001152048
    Bornmüller, J.F.N. [1173] K001152057
    Eig, A. [285] K001152056
    Elmer, A.D.E. [5610], Philippines K000195966
    Kotschy, C.G.T. [940a], Egypt K001151984
    Schimper, W.P. [786], Saudi Arabia K001151990
    Schimper, W.P. [951], Egypt K001152010
    Schimper, W.P. [786], Saudi Arabia K001152023
    Sahni [625], Sudan K001156292
    s.coll [279], India K000788216
    s.coll [7] K001151974
    s.coll [12181], Egypt K001151976
    s.coll [68] K001151999
    s.coll [291], Egypt K001152008
    s.coll [s.n.], Egypt K001152016
    s.coll [s.n.] K001152032
    s.coll [s.n.] K001152033
    s.coll [s.n.] K001152034
    s.coll [s.n.] K001152055
    s.coll [213/6], United Kingdom K001169026
    s.coll [213/6], United Kingdom K001169027
    s.coll [838] K001169028
    s.coll [5/31] K001156287
    s.coll [28] K001156288
    s.coll [61], Sudan K001156293
    s.coll [79], Sudan K001156294
    s.coll [3], Egypt K001156296
    s.coll [1181SGH], Sudan K001156298
    s.coll [20], Somalia K001156320
    s.coll [5], Yemen K001156328
    Tackholm, V. [51] K001152011
    Tackholm, V. [2031a] K001152012
    Jacquemont, M.M. [9109], India K000788193
    Anonymous [s.n.] K000788291
    s.coll. [181], Benin K000489374
    Cooke, B.K. [134] K001151989
    Andriamahay, M. [1414], Madagascar K001158931
    Andriamahay, M. [1757], Madagascar K001158932
    Andriamahay, M. [1947], Madagascar K001158933
    Sherif, M.I. [2881], Sudan K001156276
    VCR [s.n.], Jordan K001152059
    Naegelé, A. [s.n.], Djibouti K001156280
    Pase, C. [3122], Niger K000489368
    Biggs, H.E.J. [13213], Iran K001152046
    Khattab, A. [6285] K001152009
    McDonald [4479], Indonesia K001153483
    Davis [56096], Iran K001152047
    Letchworth [s.n.], Israel K001152051
    Wiest, G. [655], Egypt K001151978
    Khalifa, E-S. [1116], Egypt K001151979
    Khalifa, E-S. [1106], Egypt K001151980
    Letourneux, A.-.H. [283], Egypt K001151982
    Nader [327], Saudi Arabia K001151985
    Delfers, M. [161], Saudi Arabia K001151988
    Acres, B. [82], Yemen K001151997
    Täckholm, G. [s.n.], Egypt K001152013
    El Hadidi, N. [s.n.], Egypt K001152018
    Zaroug, M.G. [RMD40], Oman K001152020
    Maconochie, O.R. [2878], Oman K001152022
    Robi, E.A. [104], Zambia K001169024
    Latilo. M.G. [64753], Nigeria K001155750
    Stower, W. [B7112], Eritrea K001156277
    Hagos, T.H. [149], Eritrea K001156286
    Hagos, T.H. [148], Eritrea K001156314
    Expédition Purdy [106], Egypt K001156290

    Bibliography

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 188 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

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    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Knüpffer & Ochsmann (eds.), Schriften Genet. Ressourcen 22: 137 (2003).
    • Charrier, Jacquot, Hamon & Nicolas (eds.), Tropical Plant Breeding, Oxford University Press: 200 (2001).
    • Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl., ed. 2: 244, t. 105 (1994).
    • Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs & Lianas: 581, cum tab. (1994).
    • Taxon 39: 521 (1990).
    • Taxon 38: 138 (1989).
    • Bothalia 18: 84 (1988).
    • Fl. Rwanda 3: 376, 380, fig. 120/1 (1985).
    • Kew Bull. 40: 387 (1985).
    • Gentes Herb. 12: 262 (1984).
    • Troupin, Fl. Pl. Lign. Rwanda: 654, 657, fig. 227/1 (1982)
    • Ann. Fac. Agr. Univ. Bari 29: 541 (1978).
    • Fitoterapia 48, 3: 126 (1977).
    • Compton, Fl. Swaziland: 516, 517 (1976).
    • Kirkia 10: 272 (1975).
    • Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 77: 42 (1973).
    • Fanshawe, Check-list Woody Pl. Zambia Showing Distrib.: 40 (1973).
    • Ross, Fl. Natal: 308 (1972).
    • Jacot Guillarmod, Fl. Lesotho: 241 (1971).
    • Merxmüller, Prodr. Fl. SW. Afrika, fam. 124: 10, 14 (1969).
    • Verdcourt & Trump, Common Pois. Pl. E. Africa: 169 (1969).
    • Bull. Jard. Bot. État 33, Suppl.: 868 (1963).
    • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2: 332 (1963).
    • F. White, For. Fl. Northern Rhodesia: 376 (1962).
    • Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk, Med. & Pois. Pl. S. & E. Africa, ed. 2: 993, fig. 245 (1962).
    • Common Rhod. Weeds: fig. 89 (1955).
    • Wild, S. Rhod. Bot. Dict.: 125 (1953)
    • Proc. & Trans. Rhodesia Sci. Assoc. 43: 42 (1951).
    • Brenan & Greenway, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 586 (1949).
    • Miller, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Bech. Prot.: 53 (1948).
    • Hutchinson, Botanist South. Africa: 675 (1946).
    • Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 16: 270 (1923).
    • Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1909: 125 (1909).
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 238 (1906).
    • F.C. 4, 2: 101 (1904)
    • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 368 (1852).
    • Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 2: 935 (1759).
    • Sp. Pl.: 188 (1753)

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Eth. 5: 140, fig. 158.15.1–3 (2006)
    • Fl. Somalia 3: 216 (2006).
    • F.Z. 8(4): 112 (2005)
    • K.T.S.L.: 581 (1994)
    • U.K.W.F., 2nd ed.: 244 (1994)
    • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 190, t. 591 (1992)
    • Cribb & Leedal, Mountain Fl. Tanzania: 111, t. 26a (1982)
    • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2: 332 (1963)
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 238 (1906)
    • Sp. Pl.: 188 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/