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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum lichtensteinii Willd.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to S. Africa.

    [KBu]

    Samuels, J. Kew Bull (2012) 67: 401. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-012-9373-5

    Habit
    Densely tomentose, armed shrubs or sub-shrubs, 0.5 – 2 m high; with narrowly ovate, repand leaves; up to 5 white (or more rarely violet) flowers in each simple inflorescence, usually only one flower (more rarely up to 3) hermaphrodite; infructescence of up to 3 fruits, up to 4.5 cm diam.
    Distribution
    distribution. Across southern East Africa and much of southern Africa.
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: cultivated in Berlin, seeds from Lichtenstein from interior regions of South Africa, Cape of Good Hope, Willdenow s.n. (B-W!, holo.)
    Habit
    Erect herb or shrub, 0.5–2 m, armed; young stems ridged, densely stellatepubescent, trichomes porrect to multangulate, translucent to orange-translucent, stalked, stalks up to 0.8(–2.5) mm, rays 8–20, 0.1–0.4 mm, midpoints ± same length as rays; prickles curved, 3–5 mm long, 2–5 mm wide at base, round to flattened
    Leaves
    Leaf blades drying weakly to strongly discolorous, dirty green-brown adaxially and whitish abaxially, ovate, 8–27 × 3–20 cm, 1.5–2.5 times longer than wide, base cordate(cuneate), often unequal and oblique, margin lobed, the deltate to broadly rounded lobes 3–5 on each side, 0.5–3 cm long, apically rounded, extending 1/4–1/3(–1/2) of the distance to the midvein; apex rounded to acute; densely stellatepubescent abaxially, trichomes on abaxial surface porrect, sessile or stalked, stalks to 0.3 mm, rays ± 8(–15), 0.2–0.4 mm, midpoints ± same length as rays or elongated up to 0.7 mm, trichomes of adaxial surface smaller; primary veins 5–7 pairs; petiole 2–7 cm, 1/4–1/3 of the leaf length
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences not branched, 3–8 cm long, with 5–10 flowers; peduncle 1–25 mm long; rachis 1.5–6 cm long; peduncle and rachis usually unarmed; pedicels 0.8–1.5 cm on long-styled flowers, 0.4–0.9 cm long, in fruit 1.5–3.2 cm long, with 3–10 prickles
    Flowers
    Flowers heterostylous, (4–)5-merous, with basal one long-styled. Calyx 7–15 mm on long-styled flowers, 4.5–9 mm long on shortstyled flowers, lobes long-deltate and often foliaceous and 3.5–6 mm on long-styled flowers, broadly deltate and 2–5 mm long on short-styled flowers, acute to obtuse, with 20–50 prickles on long-styled flowers
    Corolla
    Corolla white to mauve, 2.5–3.5 cm in diameter on long-styled flowers, 1.5–2.6 cm in diameter on short-styled flowers, lobed for 1/4–1/2 of its length, lobes broadly deltate, 7–10 × ± 10 mm on long-styled flowers, 5–9 × 4–10 mm on short-styled flowers. Stamens equal; anthers 5–7 mm on longstyled flowers, 4.2–6.5 mm on short-styled flowers
    Ovary
    Ovary stellate-pubescent in the upper 1/3; style 10–12 mm long on long-styled flowers
    Fruits
    Berries 1 per infructescence, striped when young, yellow at maturity, spherical, 2.5–4.5 cm in diameter; fruiting calyx with 5–30 prickles
    Seeds
    Seeds 2.2–3.2 × 2.2–2.5 mm
    Ecology
    Dry grassland, woodland, and thickets; 500–700 m
    Note
    Solanum lichtensteinii is the southern African member of the Solanum incanum sensu lato complex which has suffered from extensive taxonomic confusion. This species is rare in East Africa; specimens dry a characteristic yellowish-grey colour and there are pronounced ridges on the young stems. Solanum lichtensteinii bears a strong resemblance to the similarly yellowish and densely tomentose Arabian and NE-African S. incanum; the two species are not sympatric and geographical location data can greatly simplify the identification process. The distinctness of S. lichtensteinii and S. incanum has been demonstrated by molecular phylogenetic work (Weese & Bohs, Taxon 59: 49–56. 2010). The majority of single-fruited weeds commonly encountered around East Africa are S. campylacanthum.
    Distribution
    Range: Congo-Kinshasa, Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa Flora districts: T4 T8

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Botswana, Free State, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum lichtensteinii Willd. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 21, 2011 Wieterlen, A. [4861], Lesotho K000748244
    Sep 1, 2009 Crawford, F.M. [139], Namibia K000450463
    Jul 4, 1905 Winter, B. de [5000] K000788338
    Jun 30, 1905 White, F. [6225], Zambia K000545866
    Jun 30, 1905 Angus, A. [83], Zambia K000545869
    Jun 30, 1905 Biegel, H.M. [817], Zimbabwe K000545871
    Jun 30, 1905 Cruse, A. [83], Zambia K000545868
    Jun 30, 1905 Rodin, R.J. [3494], South Africa K000748247
    Jun 30, 1905 Long, D.G. [41], Botswana K000748237
    Jun 30, 1905 Mendonça, F.A. [1692], Mozambique K000748241
    Jun 30, 1905 Wells, M.J. [4083], South Africa K000748246
    Jun 30, 1905 Terry, J. [JT189], Botswana K000545874
    Jun 30, 1905 Terry, J. [142], Botswana K000545875
    Jun 30, 1905 Wyk, E. van [EVW0057], South Africa K000545873
    Jun 30, 1905 Harbor, C.C. [6606], South Africa K000748240
    Jun 30, 1905 Anonymous [4393], Zimbabwe K000748238
    Jun 30, 1905 Anonymous [843], South Africa K000748245
    Jun 30, 1905 Bourquin, O. [821], South Africa K000748239
    Jun 30, 1905 Van Rensberg, H.J. [1318KBS], Zambia K000545872
    Jun 30, 1905 Coxe, I. [3], Zambia K000545867
    Jun 30, 1905 Reynolds, B. [C12], Zambia K000545870
    Jun 30, 1905 Siebert, S.J. [447], South Africa K000748243
    Cruse, A.W. [439], Zambia K001158623
    Fanshawe, D.B. [F4204], Zambia K001158621
    Angus, A. [1805], Zambia K001158620
    Angus, A. [2947], Zambia K001158622
    Angus, A. [931], Zambia K001158624
    Scheepers, J.C. [1649], South Africa K001159283
    Morris [1112], South Africa K001159275
    Dinter [118], South Africa K001159289
    Pearson, H.H.W. [9051] K001159291
    Wood, J.M. [1226], South Africa K001159288
    Strid, A. [2012], Zambia K001158619
    Cooper, T. [478], South Africa K001159270
    Wilms, F. [1018], South Africa K001159274
    Baur, R. [409] K001159303
    Lugard, E.J. [18], Botswana K001158628
    Pole-Evans, I.B. [H. 13552], South Africa K001159285
    Zeyher, C.L.P. [1254], South Africa K001159269
    Dieterlen, A. [101], Lesotho K001159302
    Liebenberg, L.C.C. [8424], South Africa K001159273
    Nation, O. [306] K001159268
    Gilfillan, D.F. [6055], South Africa K001159271
    Hanekom, W.J. [1487], South Africa K001159282
    Blackmore, S. [662], Malawi K001158617
    Senderayi, E. [191], Zimbabwe K001158618
    Terry, J. [142], Botswana K001158629
    Terry, J. [189], Botswana K001158630
    Terry, J. [190], Botswana K001158632
    Seydel, R.H.W. [1688], South Africa K001159292
    Seydel, R.H.W. [1688], South Africa K001159293
    Balsinhas, A.A. [3394], South Africa K001159280
    Burke, J. [s.n.], South Africa K001159297
    s.coll [12] K001029816
    s.coll [53], Zimbabwe K001158625
    s.coll [7956], Botswana K001158626
    s.coll [7956], Botswana K001158631
    s.coll [713] K001159284
    s.coll [1642], South Africa K001159295
    s.coll [s.n.] K001159298
    s.coll [s.n.], South Africa K001159299
    Schlieben, H.-.J. [7781], South Africa K001159272
    Welman, M. [471], South Africa K001159279
    Corbett, D.C.M. [1295], Malawi K001158616
    Native Aaron [14521], South Africa K001159276
    Trapwell, C.G. [620], South Africa K001159277
    Crawford, R.M. [329], South Africa K001159278
    Meeuse, A.D.H. [s.n.], South Africa K001159281
    Bryants, E.E. [1003] K001159286
    Molepo, L. [13], South Africa K001159287
    Gies, W. [113], South Africa K001159290
    Smits, K. [s.n.], South Africa K001159294
    Gulpin, E.R. [1983], South Africa K001159296
    Gullamod, J. [2551], South Africa K001159300
    Willamson, C. [844], Lesotho K001159301

    Bibliography

    First published in Enum. Pl. 1: 238 (1809)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin

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    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Enum. Pl. (Willd.): 238 (1809).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0