Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, Comoros, Madagascar.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Morphology General
Erect, often much branched, annual to perennial herb or shrub to 1. 5 m high, armed or rarely unarmed in some cultivars; hairs stellate, long stalked to sessile, long-radiate, sometimes with a long ray and occasionally appearing simple, rarely absent except for a few minute, simple, glandular hairs when young; prickles straw-coloured becoming fuscous upwards, to 18 mm long, straight, subulate from a ± broad base, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx densely clothed with ± stalked and long-radiate stellate hairs to glabrous, ± prickly or unarmed, in fruit strongly enlarged, appressed to and often enveloping it, very prickly; tube 3–4 cm long, campanulate; lobes foliaceous, 8–15 mm long, elongating to 4 cm in fruit, lanceolate-subulate, sub-acuminate Calyx densely clothed with ± stalked and long-radiate stellate hairs to glabrous, ± prickly or unarmed, in fruit strongly enlarged, appressed to and often enveloping it, very prickly; tube 3–4 cm long, campanulate; lobes foliaceous, 8–15 mm long, elongating to 4 cm in fruit, lanceolate-subulate, sub-acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla bluish to purple or occasionally white, 1. 6–2.5 cm across, broadly campanulate to rotate-stelliform; lobes broadly triangular, abruptly ending in a short, hairy mucro, densely clothed with long-radiate hairs on the median region outside and with a few stellate hairs on the midrib to quite glabrous inside Corolla bluish to purple or occasionally white, 1.6–2.5 cm across, broadly campanulate to rotate-stelliform; lobes broadly triangular, abruptly ending in a short, hairy mucro, densely clothed with long-radiate hairs on the median region outside and with a few stellate hairs on the midrib to quite glabrous inside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamen filaments 1–2 mm long; anthers 5–8 mm long, oblong to lanceolate in outline or broadly lanceolate-ellipsoid, emarginate at both ends or cordate basally Stamen filaments 1–2 mm long; anthers 5–8 mm long, oblong to lanceolate in outline or broadly lanceolate-ellipsoid, emarginate at both ends or cordate basally.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 1. 5–2.5 mm in diameter, ± globose, glabrous except for a few sparse, minute, glandular hairs near the top, 4–6-locular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 7–10 mm long, much shorter in male flowers, ± robust, recurved to the apex, sparsely hairy often with a few uniradiate hairs and also or only with a few glandular ones near the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ± glossy, at first green-white, later yellow, golden-yellow or orange-yellow, 3–4 cm in diameter or 3–4 × 3.5–4.5 cm, globose or depressed-globose, glabrous, bitter but edible in some cultivars when cooked Fruit ± glossy, at first green-white, later yellow, golden-yellow or orange-yellow, 3–4 cm in diameter or 3–4 × 3.5–4.5 cm, globose or depressed-globose, glabrous, bitter but edible in some cultivars when cooked.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds pale yellow-brown or yellowish, 3–4 × 2.5–3 mm, oblique or flattened lenticular, subreniform, conspicuously or minutely reticulate all over Seeds pale yellow-brown or yellowish, 3–4 × 2.5–3 mm, oblique or flattened lenticular, subreniform, conspicuously or minutely reticulate all over.
Note
Chromosome number: 2n=24 Heine, loc. cit. (1963), was of the opinion that S. macrocarpon should probably be regarded as a cultivated glabrous form of the wild S. dasyphyllum, perhaps with hybrid swarms between the two "species". Later Omidiji in Nigerian Agric. J. 13, 1 (1976), referring to the close relationship between them, suggested that they should be conspecific. Then Bukenya in an unpublished M.Sc. thesis (1980), concluded that the two taxa were one only, proposing the name S. macrocarpon; see also Bukenya & Carasco in E. Afr. Agric. For. J. 59: 187–204 (1994). Jaeger, loc. cit. (1985), considered two subspecies within S. macrocarpon sensu lato, subsp. macrocarpon for the cultivated forms and subsp. dasyphyllum for the wild plant, though not recognizing geographical separation or definitive morphological limits between them. J.B. Hall & Bukenya in pers. comm. (fide Jaeger & Hepper in D'Arcy, op. cit: 49 (1986)), studying material from Ghana, concluded that S. macrocarpon should be considered a domesticated form of S. dasyphyllum, both of them intergrading morphologically thus having to be considered conspecific. Recently the same authors in Bothalia, loc. cit. (1987), recognized and described six cultivars and the putative wild ancestor within S. macrocarpon complex, considering the variation displayed attributable to genotypic differences and environmental factors. Taking notice of the several authors cited and considering the unsatisfactory separation of S. macrocarpon from S. dasyphyllum on the basis of the latter being prickly and hairy and the former unarmed and glabrous, I think they should be one species alone under the name S. macrocarpon. See also Lester & Daunay, loc. cit. (2003). Dammer, loc. cit. (1895), recorded S. duplosinuatum from Mozambique N: "Moçambique" and Z: Quelimane Distr., Quelimane. Other Mozambique records not seen by me include Peters s.n., from Nampula Prov. (mainland coast and Moçambique Is.), referred by Klotzsch, loc. cit. (1861) and C.H. Wright, loc. cit. (1906), to S. duplosinuatum, and by Bitter, tom. cit.: 191 (1923), to S. dasyphyllum, and Stuhlmann 136, from Zambezia Prov. (Quelimane), referred also by Bitter, tom. cit.: 191 (1923), to S. dasyphyllum. Binns, loc. cit. (1968), records S. macrocarpon from Malawi, C: Nkhotakota (Nkhota Kota).
Ecology
Evergreen forest edges, floodplains, riverbanks, cultivated ground, in ± dry or sometimes moist situations; up to 1765 m.
Distribution
ZAM B, ZAM W, ZIM N, ZIM C, MAL S, MOZ T, MOZ MS Malawi Widespread throughout tropical and subtropical Africa, recorded from the Canary, S. Tomé, Príncipe and Annobón Islands, from West to East Africa extending northwards to Egypt and southwards throughout East Africa to South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal); also from Zimbabwe Mozambique Zambia
Morphology General Habit
Erect, often much branched, annual to perennial herb or shrub to 1.5 m high, armed or rarely unarmed in some cultivars; hairs stellate, long stalked to sessile, long-radiate, sometimes with a long ray and occasionally appearing simple, rarely absent except for a few minute, simple, glandular hairs when young; prickles straw-coloured becoming fuscous upwards, to 18 mm long, straight, subulate from a ± broad base, glabrous.
Morphology Branches
Branches sometimes dark purple, with dense to sparse indumentum and generally with scattered prickles. Branches sometimes dark purple, with dense to sparse indumentum and generally with scattered prickles
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary, sometimes purple tinged, sessile or with a short petiole, occasionally up to 5 cm long; lamina ± membranous, (5)6–35(41) × (2)3–22(25) cm, ovate to obovate, base broadly cuneate to attenuate and ± unequal-sided, long-decurrent into the petiole, but sometimes not decurrent lower down on the branches, apex ± acute, ± deeply sinuate-pinnatifid to sinuate-repand, the lobes ± triangular or ovate-triangular to ± lanceolate, deeply lobulate to entire, rounded or obtuse, rarely acute, the sinuses rounded between the lobes, conspicuously hairy at first, the hairs only persisting above on the midrib and secondary nerves, unequally radiate, setose or lacking, ± dense or scattered beneath, ± long and robustly stalked, finely and pauciradiate, ± prickly mainly on midrib and secondary nerves, more densely so beneath, to quite unarmed. Leaves solitary, sometimes purple tinged, sessile or with a short petiole, occasionally up to 5 cm long; lamina ± membranous, (5)6–35(41) × (2)3–22(25) cm, ovate to obovate, base broadly cuneate to attenuate and ± unequal-sided, long-decurrent into the petiole, but sometimes not decurrent lower down on the branches, apex ± acute, ± deeply sinuate-pinnatifid to sinuate-repand, the lobes ± triangular or ovate-triangular to ± lanceolate, deeply lobulate to entire, rounded or obtuse, rarely acute, the sinuses rounded between the lobes, conspicuously hairy at first, the hairs only persisting above on the midrib and secondary nerves, unequally radiate, setose or lacking, ± dense or scattered beneath, ± long and robustly stalked, finely and pauciradiate, ± prickly mainly on midrib and secondary nerves, more densely so beneath, to quite unarmed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes lateral, unbranched, sub-umbelliform or racemiform, 2–6-flowered, usually the lowest flower(s) larger and more prickly, sometimes all flowers unarmed, sometimes flowers solitary; peduncle 0–2 cm long, ± prickly to quite unarmed; pedicels 0.5–3 cm long, slender but somewhat stout in fertile flowers, ± prickly or unarmed, erect or ± curved, in fruit elongated to 4 cm, strongly thickened chiefly distally and robust, recurved or deflexed. Cymes lateral, unbranched, sub-umbelliform or racemiform, 2–6-flowered, usually the lowest flower(s) larger and more prickly, sometimes all flowers unarmed, sometimes flowers solitary; peduncle 0–2 cm long, ± prickly to quite unarmed; pedicels 0.5–3 cm long, slender but somewhat stout in fertile flowers, ± prickly or unarmed, erect or ± curved, in fruit elongated to 4 cm, strongly thickened chiefly distally and robust, recurved or deflexed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 5(6)-merous. Flowers 5(6)-merous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 1.5–2.5 mm in diameter, ± globose, glabrous except for a few sparse, minute, glandular hairs near the top, 4–6-locular; style 7–10 mm long, much shorter in male flowers, ± robust, recurved to the apex, sparsely hairy often with a few uniradiate hairs and also or only with a few glandular ones near the base.
Cytology
Chromosome number: 2n=24.

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: Hort. Uppsala s.n. (LINN 248.11!, lecto., designated by Hepper & Jaeger, 1985: 391)
Morphology General Habit
Herb or shrub, 0.3–1 m, erect, unarmed or with a few prickles; young stems almost glabrous, often with minute orange glands
Morphology Leaves
Leaf blades drying concolorous, distinctive red-brown, elliptic, 10–35 × 6–20 cm, ± 2 times longer than wide, base attenuate(cuneate), usually equal, margin lobed to subentire, the lobes 3–5 on each side, 1–7 cm long, apically obtuse to rounded, extending 1/3–2/3 of the distance to the midvein, usually with extensive secondary lobing; apex obtuse; primary veins 5–8 pairs; petiole often decurrent (0–2.5 cm), usually less than 1/7 of the leaf length
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences not branched, 3–5 cm long, with 1–10 flowers; peduncle 0–5 mm long; rachis 0.4–4 cm long; pedicels 1–3 cm long and stout in long-styled flowers, 0.6–1.5 cm and slender in short-styled flowers, in fruit 1–4 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers heterostylous, 5-merous, basal one long-styled
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 12–35 mm on long-styled flowers, 6–20 mm long on short-styled flowers, lobes deltate, 6–30 mm on longstyled flowers, 4–10 mm long on short-styled flowers, acute to long-acuminate, unarmed or with a few prickles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white to purple, 3.5–5 cm in diameter on long-styled flowers, 1.2–2.5 cm in diameter on short-styled flowers, lobed for 1/4–1/2 of its length, lobes broadly deltate, 5–10 × 10–20 mm on long-styled flowers, 4–10 × 7–10 mm on short-styled flowers. Stamens equal; anthers 4–7 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary with simple hairs on the upper 1/2; style ± 10 mm long on long-styled flowers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berries 1(–2) per infructescence, striped when young, yellow to orange (white or almost black) at maturity, spherical, 4–6 cm in diameter; fruiting calyx with occasional prickles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2.8–3.8 × 2.2–3.2 mm
Ecology
Cultivated species: “Gboma eggplant”
Note
Cultivated for its fruits and as a leaf vegetable. The attenuate leaf bases, long calyx lobes covering the developing fruit, and an easily recognisable red-black drying colour are distinguishing features. Solanum macrocarpon can be confused with the leaf vegetable varieties of S. aethiopicum due to their similar rounded-lobed dark red leaves; it can be distinguished by the absence of clear petioles, attenuate leaf bases and fruit more than 4 cm in diameter. It is now widely accepted that S. macrocarpon is the cultivated form of the wild S. dasyphyllum. The distinction between the cultivated S. macrocarpon and the wild S. dasyphyllum is largely artificial and maintained here for practical purposes. Solanum macrocarpon can be distinguished from S. dasyphyllum by the absence of prickles and indumentum, and fruit more than 4 cm in diameter. Solanum macrocarpon generally has smaller leaves, leaves that are less lobed, and lobes more rounded than S. dasyphyllum.
Distribution
Range: Probably cultivated throughout Africa, but collections are sporadic: Sierra Leone, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Central African Republic, Congo-Kinshasa, Ethiopia, Angola Flora districts: U K T Range: Egypt, Guatemala, Brazil

[FWTA]

Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Half-woody usually unarmed undershrub with rather stout branches up to 5 ft. high
Morphology General Indumentum
Hairy or sometimes glabrescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 3/4-1 in. diam., white or bluish-purple
Note
Often cultivated.

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Comoros, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Egypt, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mauritius, Réunion

Solanum macrocarpon L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jun 4, 2009 Ebbe, J. [598], Ethiopia K000441505
Jun 4, 2009 Meyer, F.G. [8762], Ethiopia K000441503
Jun 4, 2009 Meyer, F.G. [7790], Ethiopia K000441504
Apr 24, 2009 Johns, T. [86504], Gabon K000441484
Apr 24, 2009 Fay, J.M. [5424], Central African Republic K000441483
Apr 24, 2009 Bequaert, J.C.C. [2371], Congo K000441485
Apr 24, 2009 Anonymous [s.n.] K000441486
Feb 12, 1977 Van Epenhuijsen, C.W. [37], Nigeria K000212456
Jan 1, 1961 Ogu [0 s.n.], Cameroon K000028643
Dec 1, 1958 Irvine, F.R. [3605], Nigeria K000212454
Deighton, F.C. [2868], Sierra Leone 16656.000
Deighton, F.C. [2866], Sierra Leone 16657.000
Tessman, G. [577], Equatorial Guinea K000414035 isotype
s.coll. [s.n.], Madagascar K000212372
Hall [47103], Ghana K000212438
Thomas, N.W. [1162], Sierra Leone K000212451
Irvine, F.R. [4686], Ghana K000212459
s.coll [s.n.] K001169254
Johns, T. [480], Cameroon K001155953
Maitland, T.D. [676], Uganda K001157744
Purseglove, J.W. [P1861], Uganda K001157747
Trapnell, C.G. [1241], Zambia K001158641
Westphal, E. [9785], Cameroon K001169246
Eyles, F. [2151], Zimbabwe K001158639
Hepper, F.N. [4498], Sri Lanka K001169247
Purseglove, J.W. [P1893], Uganda K001157745
Hall [47137], Ghana K000212436
Hall [47123], Ghana K000212441
Katende, A.B. [K97], Uganda K001157750
Buchanan, J. [1054], Malawi K001158638
Deighton, F.C. [1803], Sierra Leone K000212446
Deighton, F.C. [1803], Sierra Leone K000212447
Thornewill, A.S. [95], Nigeria K000212453
s.coll [31] K001169251
Whyte, A. [s.n.], Uganda K001157749
Daumlira, E.K. [D41], Uganda K001157746
Haerdi, F. [52/92], Tanzania K001157751
Hall [47128], Ghana K000212443
Hall [47138], Ghana K000212439
Hall [47132], Ghana K000212440
s.coll [33], Egypt K001169248
s.coll [s.n.] K001169249
Hall [47103], Ghana K000212437
Thomas, N.W. [991], Sierra Leone K000212449
Haniff, M. [s.n.], Singapore K001153262
Last [s.n.], United Kingdom K001169252
Wit, P. [164], Nigeria K000212460
s.coll [D41], Uganda K001157748
Milsum, J.N. [37420], Malaysia K001153261
Maitland, T.D. [82], Uganda K001157742
Gossweiler [8371], Angola K001158642
Purseglove, J.W. [P1757], Uganda K001157741
Deighton, F.C. [1803], Sierra Leone K000212445
Trapnell, C.G. [1451], Zambia K001158640
Hooker [2], Madagascar K000212373
Irvine, F.R. [5494], Ghana K000212457
Haniff, M. [s.n.], Singapore K001153260
Irvine, F.R. [5495], Ghana K000212458
Hall [47124], Ghana K000212442
Dalziel, J.M. [1189], Nigeria K000212455
Thomas, N.W. [1635], Sierra Leone K000212450
Hall [47133], Ghana K000212444
Maitland, T.D. [676], Uganda K001157743
Balfour, I.B. [s.n.], Madagascar K000212371
Hepper, F.N. [8701], United Kingdom K001169250
Fisher, J.D. [94], Sierra Leone K000212448
Gumbleton [s.n.] K001169253
Thomas, N.W. [2063], Sierra Leone K000212452
Deighton, F.C. [2867], Sierra Leone Solanum duplo-sinuatum 18756.000
s.coll [2789], Indonesia Solanum duplo-sinuatum K001153396

First published in Mant. Pl.: 205 (1771)

Accepted by

  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Bitter in Fedde Rep., Beih. 16: 195 (1923)
  • Burkill in Kew Bull. 1925: 333.
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 214
  • Mant. Alt. 205 (1771)
  • incl. var. calvum Bitter in Fedde Rep., Beih. 16: 198 (1923), and other varieties

Flora Zambesiaca

  • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 353 (1852).
  • Belmontia 22: 213, t. 5.35, phot. 5.26 (1990).
  • Binns, First Check List Herb. Fl. Malawi: 98 (1968).
  • Bothalia 17: 91–95 cum t. 1–4 & phot. 1–6 (1987)
  • Bothalia 18: 84 (1988).
  • Brenan & Greenway, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 586 (1949).
  • Bull. Jard. Bot. État 33, Suppl.: 871 (1963).
  • Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1925: 333 (1925).
  • D'Arcy, Solanac. Biol. & Syst.: 475 (1986).
  • D'Arcy, Solanac. Biol. & Syst.: 48, 49 (1986).
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 214 (1906).
  • F.W.T.A., ed. 2, 2: 334 (1963).
  • Gentes Herb. 12: 263 (1984).
  • Hepper, W. Afr. Herb. Isert & Thonn.: 121 (1976).
  • Jaeger, Syst. Stud. Solanum in Afr.: 425 (1985) incl. subsp. dasyphyllum (Schumach. & Thonn.) Jaeger and subsp. macrocarpon.
  • Kew Bull. 40: 389 (1985).
  • Knüpffer & Ochsmann (eds.), Rudolf Mansfeld and Plant Genetic Resources, Schriften Genet. Ressourcen 22: 137 (2003). Habitat in Peru.
  • Mant. Pl. Alt.: 205 (1771).
  • Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 16: 195 (1923) as “macrocarpum”.
  • T. & H. Durand, Syll. Fl. Congol.: 393 (1909).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 214 (1906)
  • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2: 334 (1963)
  • F.Z. 8(4): 105 (2005)
  • Fl. Eth. 5: 137 (2006).
  • Mant. Pl. Altera: 205 (1771)
  • T.T.C.L.: 586 (1949)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0