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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum nigriviolaceum Bitter

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Kenya.


    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type: Kenya, Kiambu District, Limuru, Scheffler 278 (W!, lecto., designated by Vorontsova & Knapp in Taxon 59: 1599, 2010; BM!, GOET!, K!, isolecto.)
    Prostrate or climbing subshrub, 0.3–1(–3) m, heavily armed, young stems moderately stellate-pubescent, trichomes porrect, orange-translucent, usually sessile, rays 4–8, 0.1–0.4 mm, midpoints 1.5–2.5 mm long, visible to the naked eye; prickles straight, 5–9 mm long, 0.3–1.5 mm wide at base
    Leaf blades drying slightly discolorous, yellow-green, ovate, 6–12 × 5–11 cm, ± 1.5 times longer than wide, base cordate(cuneate), often oblique, margin lobed, the lobes ± 2 on each side, 1–3 cm long, apically obtuse, extending 1/3–3/3 of the distance to the midvein, with secondary lobing; apex obtuse; moderately stellate-pubescent on both sides, trichomes on abaxial surface multangulate, sessile or stalked, stalks to 0.2 mm, rays 4–8, 0.2–0.6 mm, midpoints 1.5–2.5 mm long, visible to the naked eye, adaxially with inflated stalks, reduced rays, and midpoints 1–2.5 mm; primary veins 3–5 pairs; petiole 1.5–6 cm, ± 1/3 of the leaf length
    Inflorescences not branched, 8–12 cm long, with 3–7 flowers; peduncle 0–35 mm long; rachis 3–10 cm long; peduncle and rachis densely armed; pedicels 2–5.5 cm long on basal flowers, 0.8–1.5 cm on distal flowers, in fruit 2–6 cm long, with numerous prickles
    Flowers heterostylous, 5(–6)merous, the basal one long-styled
    Calyx 13–20 mm on long-styled flowers, 7–18 mm long on short-styled flowers, lobes long-deltate, 5–17 mm long, long-acuminate, densely armed on long-styled flowers
    Corolla mauve to purple, 4.5–5 cm in diameter on long-styled flowers, 3.5–4.5 cm in diameter on short-styled flowers, lobed for 1/2–2/3 of its length, the lobes oblong to broadly deltate, 10–22 × 8–18 mm
    Stamens equal; anthers 7–9 mm
    Ovary with simple hairs on the upper 1/2; style 13–17 mm long on long-styled flowers
    Berries 1 per infructescence, striped when young, yellow at maturity, spherical, 2.5–3 cm in diameter; fruiting calyx with numerous prickles
    Seeds 2.8–3.2 × 2–2.5 mm
    Open ground, grassland and forest edges; often locally common; 2500–3000 m
    Morphologically uniform Kenyan endemic species commonly confused with S. aculeatissimum and S. dasyphyllum. Solanum aculeatissimum has similar purple stems, a hirsute appearance, abundant long straight prickles, and sometimes similar leaf shape, and but its flowers are much smaller with a more deeply dissected stellate white corolla, and its stem trichomes are simple and have no rays, unlike the stellate trichomes in S. nigriviolaceum. Solanum dasyphyllum has similar straight prickles and elongated midpoints but its leaves are larger with secondary lobing and attenuate leaf bases, and its flowers have less dissected corollas and finer pedicels. Herbarium material of S. nigriviolaceum is frequently annotated as S. sessilistellatum. The two names were published simultaneously and S. nigriviolaceum has been chosen as the accepted name because of extant type material.
    Range: Not known elsewhere Flora districts: K3 K4 K5 K6




    Other Data

    Solanum nigriviolaceum Bitter appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Greenway, P.J. [13641], Kenya K000495025
    Rawlins, S.P. [226], Kenya K001157817
    Bridson, D.M. [89], Kenya K000495024
    Luke, W.R.Q. [8939], Kenya K000495023
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Uganda K000333587
    Dümmer, R.A. [1594], Kenya K000333585
    Kirika, P. [NMK1238], Kenya K001157816
    Napier, E.R. [2197], Kenya Solanum sessilistellatum K000333588
    Glover, P.E. [1093], Kenya Solanum sessilistellatum K000333590
    Glover, P.E. [953], Kenya Solanum sessilistellatum K000333591
    Glover, P.E. [1477], Kenya Solanum sessilistellatum K000333593
    Williams, J.G. [62], Kenya Solanum sessilistellatum K000333579
    Mabberley, D.J. [119], Kenya Solanum sessilistellatum K000333582
    Verdcourt, B. [2424], Kenya Solanum sessilistellatum K000333583
    Tweedie [850], Kenya Solanum sessilistellatum K000333592
    Whyte, A. [1898], Kenya Solanum sessilistellatum K000333586
    Perdue, R.E. [9209], Kenya Solanum sessilistellatum K000333581
    Scheffler, G. [278], Kenya Solanum sessilistellatum K000414125 isosyntype
    Major, E.J. [35], Kenya Solanum sessilistellatum K000333589
    Maas Geesteranus, R.A. [5483], Kenya Solanum sessilistellatum K000333580
    Whittal, E. [111], Kenya Solanum sessilistellatum K000333584


    First published in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 16: 163 (1923)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family


    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • F.R. Beih. 16: 163 (1923).


    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.