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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum pampaninii Chiov.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to Kenya.


    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type: hills of Giumbo, Paoli 166 (FT, syn.; photo.!); thickets near Mogadishu, Paoli 72 (FT, syn.; photo.!) & 91 (FT, syn.; photo!)
    Shrub, scrambling or climbing to 2 m high or creeping, unarmed; stems often lenticellate, young stems flexuose, yellowish and densely pubescent with short stellate hairs of 8 equal eglandular rays to 0.3 mm long with a central ray of equal size arising from bulbous centre, glabrescent
    Leaves often alternate, membranaceous, greyish- to dark green, ovate, 2–5.8 × 1.4–4 cm, bases cordate, subcordate or cuneate when sometimes oblique, margins entire, sometimes slightly sinuate below, apices obtuse; densely pubescent on both surfaces when young, becoming moderate to sparse with maturity, hairs as on stems; petioles 1–2.5 cm long
    Inflorescences terminal to subterminal, sometimes on short shoots, 1–2-flowered; peduncles 0–4 mm; pedicels axillary if peduncles absent, erect and 13–25 mm long in flower, often strongly recurved and 15–22 mm long in fruit; axes stellate-pubescent
    Calyx campanulate, 6–13 mm long, stellate-pubescent externally and internally in flower and in fruit; lobes ovate to obovate with prominent median veins, 4.5–9.5 × 3–5 mm, acute to mucronate; adherent becoming reflexed in fruit when 5–6.5 × 3–4.5 mm
    Corolla blue, purple or mauve and yellow centrally, campanulate/stellate, 3–5.8 cm diameter; tube to 1–1.5 mm long; lobes broadly ovate, 1–2 × 0.6–1.6 cm, acute, stellatepubescent externally, hairs confined to veins internally, spreading after anthesis
    Stamens slightly unequal; filaments free for 0.8–1.25 mm, glabrous; anthers yellow to brown, 6.1–7.8 × 1.2–1.7 mm. Ovary 1.6 × 1.4–1.6 mm, upper part with stellate hairs forming a dense apical collar, glabrous below, bilocular; style curved apically, with a few scattered stellate hairs towards base, 9–11.5 × 0.2–0.5 mm, exserted 3.8–5 mm; stigma bilobed to clavate, 0.4–0.8 mm diameter
    Berries smooth, orange to red, glossy, globose to ovoid, 1.3–1.5 × 1.1–1.5 cm, sometimes with scattered stellate hairs
    Seeds 15–25 per berry, yellow to light brown, ovoid to orbicular, 4–5 × 3.2–3.8 mm, foveolate; sclerotic granules absent
    Fig 23/7–11, p 188
    Coastal sand dunes and shores, cliff tops amongst scrub, may be locally common; sea-level to 9 m
    Polhill (1961) and Jaeger (1985) thought that S. benadirense was a synonym of S. pampaninii, but Friis (2006) considered this to be a distinct species and he will have examined the type material. Vegetative and floral measurements taken from a photograph of the syntype Paoli 68 indicate that this species is closely allied to S. pampaninii. The protologue of S. benadirense described a stellate-tomentose indumentum of many- and short- rayed dense hairs and Chiovenda (1925) in his later key to the Somalian species placed both S. benadirense and S. cicatricosum (see below) in the eglandular-haired species group. However, Friis described the stellate indumentum of this species as having long central rays – presumably after examining the type material. Moreover, Friis also recorded subsessile anthers for this taxon though the protologue cited glabrous filaments of 3–4 mm. Clearly further examination of the type material is necessary to determine whether S. benadirense is a distinct species, a variant, or a synonym of S. pampaninii. S. cicatricosum Chiov. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital.; 106 (1925); Chiov., Fl. Somal.: 238 (1932); Jaeger, Syst. stud. Solanum in Africa: 367 (1985, ined.). Type: [fide Fl. Somal. 1932] Somalia, Garbauen–Durgale, [Stefanini & Puccioni] 420 (FT, syn.) & Scermarca-Hassan Tobungab, near Obbia, [Stefanini & Puccioni] 578 (FT, syn., fragment!) Chiovenda’s protologue is brief and lacks useful diagnostic characters though the key described the indumentum as being shortly stellate with subulate and acute rays and glandular hairs rarely present. Chiovenda did not cite any type specimens in 1925, but in 1932 cited two syntypes without collectors (see above). Jaeger (1985) thought that this species should probably be included in S. pampaninii. However, a leaf and small stem fragment of Puccioni & Stefanini 578 [633] had a dense tomentose indumentum of stellate hairs in which some long glandular headed central rays are visible. If verified by future examination of the complete type material, S. cicatricosum would be synonymised with the distinct species S. robecchii Bitter & Dammer (see below). S. cicatricosum Chiov. var. gorinii Chiov. nom. invalid., based on Gorini 71 (FT; photos.!) and Gorini 88 (FT; photos.!) both from Kisimayu [Chisimayo], Somalia (cf. Friis 2006) These specimens together with Gorini 80 (FT, photo!) seem to have been determined by Chiovenda, with a type label being attached only to Gorini 71. Friis considered this a synonym of S. pampaninii in Fl. Somalia and gave it as a synonym of S. benadirense Chiov. in Fl. Eth. Again examination of the actual type material is necessary before this variety of S. cicatricosum can be correctly placed. S. robecchii Bitter & Dammer in E.J. 54: 502 (1917); Chiovenda in Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital.: 107 (1925); Polhill, Solanum in E & NE Africa: 30 (ined., 1961); Jaeger, Syst. stud. Solanum in Africa: 365 (1985, ined.); Friis in Fl. Somalia 3: 211 (2006). Type: Somalia, Webi, RobecchiBricchetti s.n. (Herb. ROM., holo.). This seems to be a good species which was recognised as such by Polhill (1961) and which is found in the Ogaden region of Ethiopia and Somalia. Plants identified as this species have a distinct stellate-haired indumentum in which the central ray is long (–2 mm), several-celled and usually terminates in a small gland. The juvenile parts appear densely tomentose with the long rays clearly visible to the naked eye. The floral parts are all smaller than those in S. pampanini. Friis (2006) thought this species a possible synonym of S. benadirense, but Jaeger (1985), thought that S. robecchii showed affinity to S. jubae. The boundaries between these taxa are clearly very difficult to define; Friis (2006) noted that there is much variation in the indumentum and flower size in S. pampanini and S. benadirense and indeed the specimens that he cited in the Flora of Somalia exhibit a mixed indumentum. Herbarium collections of all of these taxa are relatively sparse and their definitive specific boundaries and correct taxonomic recognition require field work and more extensive collecting. The ‘cherry’-sized red fruits of S. pampaninii are eaten locally in K 7. All East African specimens identified as this species are characterised by a dense indumentum of short equal-rayed eglandular stellate hairs, which Friis (2006) also pointed out. However, Chiovenda’s (1916) protologue of S. pampaninii described the stem indumentum as being composed of stellate hairs with longish terminal branches mixed with simple hairs. Later however, Chiovenda (1925) specifically described this species (with which he then synonymised S. mesadenium) as having short glandular median-rayed hairs. I cannot comment on this as I have not seen the type material of S. pampaninii. Chiovenda (1925, 1932), Polhill (1961), Jaeger (1985) and Friis (2006) all regarded S. mesadenium as a synonym of S. pampanini. According to Jaeger (1985) Bitter was unaware that Chiovenda had already described S. pampaninii when he described S. mesadenium. However, Bitter’s protologue of the latter described the median ray of the stellate hairs as being glandular though not elongated, whereas those found in S. pampaninii sensu stricto are eglandular. Clearly the location and examination of duplicate type material is necessary to clarify the synonymy of this species. There are a few Somalian species which other authors have variously cited as being synonyms or possible synonyms of S. pampaninii. These include: S. benadirense Chiov., Result. Sc. Miss. Stefan.-Paoli, Coll. Bot.: 126 (1916) & in Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital.:106 (1925); Friis in Fl. Somalia 3: 211 (2006); Friis in Fl. Eth. 5: 128 (2006); Jaeger, Syst. stud. Solanum in Africa: 366 (1985, ined.). Type: Boscaglia near Mogadishu, Paoli 68 (FT, syn., photo!); dunes of Mogadishu, Paoli 41 (FT, syn., photo!)
    Range: Somalia Flora districts: K7



    Native to:

    Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia


    Other Data

    Solanum pampaninii Chiov. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2017 Puccioni [578], Somalia K000922357 syntype
    Bally, P.R.O. [B9344], Somalia K001156516
    Gillespie [120], Kenya 25669.000
    Hemming, C.F. [392], Somalia K001156514
    Gillespie, J.B. [120], Kenya K001157852
    Gillespie, J.B. [27], Kenya K001157856
    Friis, I. [4617A], Somalia K001156512
    Simmons [36], Somalia K001156515
    James [s.n.], Somalia K001156517
    Beckett, J.J. [1721], Somalia K001156509
    Julin, H. [24912], Somalia K001157854
    Burton, D.R. [1286], Somalia K001156524
    Festo, L. [2790], Kenya K001157857
    s.coll [65], Somalia K001156521
    s.coll [25], Kenya K001157853
    s.coll [156], Kenya K001157855
    Paoli [68], Somalia Solanum benadirense K000414027 syntype


    First published in Res. Sci. Somalia Ital. 1: 128 (1916)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family


    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Somalia 3: 212 (2006).
    • K.T.S.L.: 582 (1994)
    • Jaeger, Syst. stud. Solanum in Africa: 366 (1985, ined.)
    • E.P.A.: 875 (1963 & 1974)
    • Polhill, Solanum in E & NE Africa: 30 (1961, ined.)
    • Fl. Somal. 2: 331 (1932)
    • Bull. Bot. Ital.: 107 (1925)
    • Result. Sc. Miss. Stefan.-Paoli, Coll. Bot.: 128 (1916)


    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.