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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum pseudospinosum C.H.Wright

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Bioko, W. Cameroon.

    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Herb, prostrate or ascending, sometimes slightly woody below
    Flowers
    Small white flowers
    Fruits
    Violet-black berries.
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: Cameroon, Mt Cameroon, Mann 1938 (K!, holo.)
    Habit
    Erect, decumbent, semi-prostrate or scrambling herb 0.4–1.9 m high, occasionally shrubby;
    Stem
    Stems woody basally, with dentate ridges often surmounted by prominent hairs, often angular, sometimes dark purple, densely pilose/villous with simple long eglandular hairs mixed with glands, glabrescent
    Leaves
    Leaves coarse to membranaceous, light to dark green, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, usually small, 2.2–5.5(–11) × 1.4–2.8(–5) cm, bases cuneate and decurrent for whole length of petiole, margins entire to sinuate, but often sinuate-dentate in FTEA area with shallow obtuse lobes, apices acute; surfaces prominently strigose/pilose, denser on margins, veins, midribs and lower surfaces, hairs as on stems; petioles 0.5–2(–4) cm. Inflorescences simple, leaf-opposed to extra-axillary umbellate becoming extended cymes, 3–5(–9)flowered; peduncles erect and 0.3–1.1(–1.8) cm long in flower, erect to deflexed and 0.8–2.3 cm long in fruit; pedicels erect and 4–10 mm long in flower, spreading to reflexed and 8–15 mm in fruit; axes densely pilose/villous
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, 1.3–2.8 mm long, pilose externally with long spreading eglandular hairs; lobes often unequal, obovate, 0.5–1.5 × 0.5–1.5(–3) mm, obtuse; persistent and enlarging to 0.8–4 × 1–3 mm when in fruit
    Corolla
    Corolla white, sometimes with median purple vein to lobes, stellate, 8–18 mm diameter, tube 0.6–1.3 mm long; lobes spreading or reflexed after anthesis, ovate to narrowly triangular, 3–7 × 1.5–3 mm basally
    Stamens
    Stamens equal; filaments 0.5–1 mm long, densely villous; anthers lemon-yellow, 1.5–2(–2.5) × 0.5–0.8 mm, connivent
    Ovary
    Ovary brown, 0.8–1.3 × 0.6–1.3 mm, glabrous; style geniculate becoming straight, 3–6 × 0.2–0.3 mm, lower half shortly pilose, exserted up to 2.5 mm; stigma capitate, 0.1–0.4 mm diameter
    Fruits
    Berries usually borne erect, purple to black, globose, 4–5(–6) mm diameter, smooth, surrounded basally by adherent acutely triangular calyx lobes; deciduous from calyces
    Seeds
    Seeds 4–25 per berry, light to dark brown, obovoid, discoidal to orbicular, 1.5–2 × 1.3–2 mm, reticulate; with 2–9 ovoid to spherical sclerotic granules 0.2–0.8 × 0.1–0.7 mm, often visible through cuticle
    Figures
    Fig 17/21–25, p 126
    Ecology
    Montane grassland and bushland, Hagenia woodland, bamboo thickets; 2100–3600 m
    Note
    This species was considered to be endemic to Cameroon when Wright described it in F.T.A. (1906), and the Cameroonian specimens are all morphologically very similar. However, it seems to occur sporadically at high altitudes across central Africa from the Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea in the west through to Congo-Kinshasa and Malawi in the east, though these specimens are more variable morphologically. Such variability is evident in the inflorescence and infructescence structures, number of flowers and the indumentum density. From the numbers of berries setting, the inflorescences are typically few (3–5)flowered, but scarring on the fruiting rachides suggests that they can be up to 9-flowered. Several specimens collected from 1900 m in the Mount Loma area of Sierra Leone also seem to be conspecific with this taxon, together with possible collections from high altitudes in Ethiopia. Its chromosome number is not yet known. Bitter (1912) described three new species from Cameroon, with two coming from Buea which is also the type locality. Though no isotype material of these species has yet been located, from their protologues they are all considered to be probable synonyms of S. pseudospinosum (see above). From its protologue, S. pachyarthrotrichum is considered to be synonymous with S. pseudospinosum, though Bitter did not give any locality details for the holotype. However, his description of thick ‘jointed’ hairs together with the floral and berry dimensions, the markedly enlarged fruiting calyces, the occurrence of relatively few seeds and 10 sclerotic granules in the fruits, all indicate conspecificity. Moreover, he also noted that the two lower pedicels were separated from the remaining three to four, which is suggestive of the peculiar lax cymes which characterise S. pseudospinosum. Many of the characters described in Bitter’s protologue of S. hypopsilum are very similar to those found in S. pseudospinosum. However, Bitter described its indumentum as glabrous to sparsely pilose in his new species whereas S. pseudospinosum is characterised by a distinct pilose-strigose pubescence on the stems and leaves, though the stems can become glabrescent as they mature. It is possible that the Lehmbach specimen was collected from an old plant or from secondary growth but until type material has been located this species is only provisionally synonymised with S. pseudospinosum. Bitter (1912) mentioned that although he had not seen Mann’s type specimen of S. pseudospinosum, he considered that the minor differences he noted between Wright’s protologue and the Preuss specimen warranted the recognition of the S. molliusculum as a distinct species. However, the morphological features mentioned in the protologue of this species are similar to those found in S. pseudospinosum.
    Distribution
    Range: Ghana, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda, Malawi. Possible specimens have also been seen from Ethiopia and Sierra Leone Flora districts: U2 U3 K3 K4 K5 T2 T6 T ?7

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Is.

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum pseudospinosum C.H.Wright appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [5352], Cameroon K000518863
    Dec 1, 2006 Thomas, D.W. [9348], Cameroon K000460272
    Jan 1, 2005 Mann, G [1938], Cameroon K000028649 holotype
    Dec 1, 1974 Letouzey, R. [13444], Cameroon K000028648
    Jan 1, 1961 Morton, J.K. [874], Cameroon K000028658
    Jun 27, 1905 Thulin, M. [1048], Tanzania K000441634
    Jun 27, 1905 Frame, G.W. [24], Tanzania K000441635
    Dalziel, J.M. [8335], Cameroon K000028652
    Jaeger, P. [1050] K000391986
    Morton, J.K. [SL446] K000391985
    Morton, J.K. [SL2644] K000391987
    Tothill, B.H. [T2393] K001157863
    Maitland, T.D. [1333], Cameroon K000028654
    Maitland, T.D. [1333], Cameroon K000028655
    Maitland, T.D. [1301], Cameroon K000028656
    Rogers, C.G. [337], Uganda K001157862
    Boughey, A.S. [6933], Cameroon K000028657
    Hutchinson, J. [54], Cameroon K000028651
    Mann, G. [1321], Cameroon K000028647
    Breteler, F.J. [MC 39], Cameroon K000028650
    Snowden, J.D. [564] K001157864
    Pawek, J. [12428], Malawi K001158674
    Phillips, E. [1519], Malawi K001158675
    Symes, Y.E. [392], Kenya K001157865
    Meroka, D. [KEFRI542], Kenya K001157860
    Mildbraed, G. W. J. [10888a], Cameroon K000028653
    Giathi, G. [542], Kenya K001157859
    Cyril Lugard, E.J. [492], Kenya K001157861

    Bibliography

    First published in Fl. Trop. Afr. 4(2.2): 220 (1906)

    Accepted by

    • Särkinen, T. & al. (2018). A revision of the Old World black nightshades (Morelloid clade of Solanum L., Solanaceae) PhytoKeys 106: 1-223.
    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Bitter in Fedde Rep. 10: 546 (1912).
    • in F.T.A. 4, 2: 220 (1906)

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Särkinen, T. & al. (2018). A revision of the Old World black nightshades (Morelloid clade of Solanum L., Solanaceae) PhytoKeys 106: 1-223.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Jaeger, Syst. studies Solanum in Africa: 303 (1985, ined.)
    • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2: 335 (1963)
    • F.R. 10: 546 (1912)
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 220 (1906)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0