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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum retroflexum Dunal

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    General
    Erect, later spreading, annual herb, sometimes appearing bushy, 20–100 cm high and up to 100 cm across, ± pubescent with simple, straight or curved, usually appressed, eglandular, rarely glandular, short hairs, glabrescent
    Branches
    Branches ± angular to narrowly winged, the edges smooth or with ± spaced, soft, short teeth or prickle-like hairs, becoming subterete with age Branches ± angular to narrowly winged, the edges smooth or with ± spaced, soft, short teeth or prickle-like hairs, becoming subterete with age.
    Ovary
    Ovary c.  1 mm in diameter, depressed-globose to ellipsoid, glabrous.
    Style
    Style 1. 5–4.5 mm long, sometimes sigmoidal to the apex, with spreading, short hairs on the lower one–two-thirds, the stigma below the tip of the anthers or protruding by up to 1. 7 mm
    Ecology
    Forest, mostly at the edges and in clearings, riverine vegetation, thicket, woodland and grassland, termite mounds, sometimes among rocks, waste and cultivated ground in gardens and fields; up to 2100 m.
    Note
    Common name: “Wonderberry”. Chromosome number: 2n=48
    Distribution
    Mozambique Botswana. Zambia Malawi BOT N, BOT S, BOT E, ZAM B, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZAM N, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZAM E, ZAM S, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ Z, MOZ T, MOZ M Originally from South Africa; known from Sudan, Somalia, Tanzania, Angola, Namibia and South Africa (Limpopo, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Provinces); also in Arabia and south Australia (sparingly naturalized on Eyre Peninsula), usually as a
    Habit
    Erect, later spreading, annual herb, sometimes appearing bushy, 20–100 cm high and up to 100 cm across, ± pubescent with simple, straight or curved, usually appressed, eglandular, rarely glandular, short hairs, glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary or sometimes paired; petiole 0.4–5.6 cm long, ± narrowly winged, mostly distally; lamina herbaceous, 1.2–11.7 × 0.7–7.9 cm, elliptic to ovate-lanceolate or ovate, base truncate or rounded to cuneate and oblique, ± decurrent into the petiole, apex obtuse or acute, ± acuminate, ± deeply lobed, the lobes often well developed, obliquely triangular, obtuse or acute, or even semi-circular, spreading or antrorsely directed, ciliolate, both surfaces ± pubescent with more numerous hairs along the veins and towards the base mostly beneath, glabrescent. Leaves solitary or sometimes paired; petiole 0.4–5.6 cm long, ± narrowly winged, mostly distally; lamina herbaceous, 1. 2–11. 7 × 0.7–7.9 cm, elliptic to ovate-lanceolate or ovate, base truncate or rounded to cuneate and oblique, ± decurrent into the petiole, apex obtuse or acute, ± acuminate, ± deeply lobed, the lobes often well developed, obliquely triangular, obtuse or acute, or even semi-circular, spreading or antrorsely directed, ciliolate, both surfaces ± pubescent with more numerous hairs along the veins and towards the base mostly beneath, glabrescent
    Inflorescences
    Cymes lateral, unbranched, ± umbelliform, 3–6(7)-flowered; peduncle 0.3–2.5 cm long, slender, ± pubescent, erect or ascending, in fruit elongated to 3.4 cm, stiff; pedicels 3–7 mm long, slender, ± pubescent, decurved, in fruit elongated to 11 mm, deflexed. Cymes lateral, unbranched, ± umbelliform, 3–6(7)-flowered; peduncle 0.3–2.5 cm long, slender, ± pubescent, erect or ascending, in fruit elongated to 3.4 cm, stiff; pedicels 3–7 mm long, slender, ± pubescent, decurved, in fruit elongated to 11 mm, deflexed
    Calyx
    Calyx 1–2.5 mm long, campanulate, in fruit elongated to 3 mm; lobes 0.2–1.2 × 0.2–1 mm, semi-elliptic to narrowly triangular, obtuse or acute, ± pubescent, in fruit enlarged to 2 × 2.2 mm, ± spreading-recurved to strongly reflexed. Calyx 1–2.5 mm long, campanulate, in fruit elongated to 3 mm; lobes 0.2–1. 2 × 0.2–1 mm, semi-elliptic to narrowly triangular, obtuse or acute, ± pubescent, in fruit enlarged to 2 × 2.2 mm, ± spreading-recurved to strongly reflexed
    Corolla
    Corolla white to creamy-yellow, generally with a longitudinal purple stripe in the centre of each lobe outside, 4.5–6 mm across, stelliform; lobes 1.5–3.5 × 0.7–2.2 mm, oblong or ovate to narrowly triangular, obtuse or acute, puberulous outside. Corolla white to creamy-yellow, generally with a longitudinal purple stripe in the centre of each lobe outside, 4.5–6 mm across, stelliform; lobes 1. 5–3.5 × 0.7–2.2 mm, oblong or ovate to narrowly triangular, obtuse or acute, puberulous outside
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments 0.3–1 mm long; anthers 1.3–2 mm long, oblong. Stamen filaments 0.3–1 mm long; anthers 1. 3–2 mm long, oblong
    Pistil
    Ovary c. 1 mm in diameter, depressed-globose to ellipsoid, glabrous; style 1.5–4.5 mm long, sometimes sigmoidal to the apex, with spreading, short hairs on the lower one–two-thirds, the stigma below the tip of the anthers or protruding by up to 1.7 mm.
    Fruits
    Fruits dull, black or purplish-black, opaque, 6–8 mm in diameter, globose or slightly depressed-globose, with sclerotic granules, poisonous. Fruits dull, black or purplish-black, opaque, 6–8 mm in diameter, globose or slightly depressed-globose, with sclerotic granules, poisonous
    Seeds
    Seeds light brownish-yellow or flushed with purple, 1.3–2 × 1–1.7 mm, ± ovate in outline, pitted all over. Seeds light brownish-yellow or flushed with purple, 1. 3–2 × 1–1. 7 mm, ± ovate in outline, pitted all over
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=48.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Botswana, Cape Provinces, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    California, Illinois, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum retroflexum Dunal appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2017 Khattab [6334], Egypt K001152188
    Jan 1, 2006 Seydel, R. [3783], Namibia K000658431
    Jan 1, 2006 Drewe, P.B. [174], South Africa K000658432
    Fanshawe, D.B. [5353], Zambia K001158682
    Fanshawe, D.B. [8310], Zambia K001158685
    Davies, R.M. [1190], Zimbabwe K001158697
    Philcox, D. [8823], Zimbabwe K001158687
    Corby, H.D.L. [20917], Zimbabwe K001158698
    Codd, L.E. [7443], Zambia K001158684
    Brummitt, R.K. [16107], Malawi K001158677
    Brummitt, R.K. [10323], Malawi K001158678
    Hawkes [3364], Argentina K001169938
    Grierson, M. [253], Israel K001151849
    Chapman, J.D. [s.n.], Malawi K001158706
    Miller, O.B. [4341], Zimbabwe K001158688
    Simpson, N.D. [53043], Jordan K001151850
    Biegel, H.M. [1413], Zimbabwe K001158703
    Muller, T. [743], Zimbabwe K001169942
    Muller, T. [743], Zimbabwe K001158704
    Wild, H. [3961], Zimbabwe K001158686
    Wild, H. [539], Zimbabwe K001158694
    Welwitsch [6036], Angola K001029760
    Richards, H.M. [16686], Malawi K001158681
    Richards, H.M. [18770], Zambia K001158705
    Hinds [s.n.], Ecuador K000414173
    Hinds [s.n.], Chile K000414174
    Drege [7864], South Africa K000414172
    Drege [7864], South Africa K000414175
    Alcock, C.R. [2099], Australia K001153968
    Henderson, R.J. [H1350], Australia K001169947
    Liebenberg, L.C.C. [8240], South Africa K001159428
    Salubeni, A.J. [4818], Malawi K001158679
    Teague, A.J. [74], Zimbabwe K001158690
    Hislop, A. [Z.155], Zimbabwe K001158695
    Goodier, R. [287], Malawi K001158680
    Nuvunga, A. [256], Mozambique K001158676
    Gilliland, H.B. [K974], Zimbabwe K001158692
    Gilliland, H.B. [476], Zimbabwe K001158693
    Best, E.B. [499], Zimbabwe K001158689
    Senderayi, E. [226], Zimbabwe K001158691
    s.coll [4712], Zimbabwe K001158699
    Arnold, H. [10206], Zimbabwe K001158696
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C73 & C74], Australia K001153967
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C73], United Kingdom K001169939
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C112], United Kingdom K001169940
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C74], United Kingdom K001169941
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C112], United Kingdom K001169943
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C37], United Kingdom K001169944
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C112], United Kingdom K001169945
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C112], United Kingdom K001169946
    Mett, P.J. [236C], Botswana K001158702
    Leteinturier, B. [145], Zambia K001158683
    Norris-Rogers, A.J. [599], Zimbabwe K001158700
    Timberlak, J.R. [4521], Zimbabwe K001158701
    Hutchison, J. [3767], Zambia K001158707

    Bibliography

    First published in Prodr. 13(1): 50 (1852)

    Accepted by

    • Särkinen, T. & al. (2018). A revision of the Old World black nightshades (Morelloid clade of Solanum L., Solanaceae) PhytoKeys 106: 1-223.
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Edmonds & Chweya, Black Nightshades: 34, fig. 7 (1997). TAB. 16.
    • J. Adel. Bot. Gard. 4: 50, fig. 6, 148/K, 159/K (1981).
    • Compton, Fl. Swaziland: 518 (1976).
    • Ross, Fl. Natal: 308 (1972).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45: 490 (1911).
    • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 50 (1852).

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • (2019). https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.123.31738 epublication.
    • Särkinen, T. & al. (2018). A revision of the Old World black nightshades (Morelloid clade of Solanum L., Solanaceae) PhytoKeys 106: 1-223.
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0