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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum schumannianum Dammer

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Kenya to Tanzania.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Type
    Type from Tanzania.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 5–12 mm long, slender, in fruit elongating to 16 mm, somewhat thickened to the apex, ± erect
    Ovary
    Ovary 0.7–1 mm in diameter, globose or ± ovoid, minutely glandular and also with a few stellate hairs apically.
    Style
    Style 4–6 mm long, exceeding the stamens, ± straight, with a few stellate hairs and minute glands from the base to about the middle
    Fruits
    Fruits often numerous, shining red when ripe, becoming brownish-olive-green when dry, (7)8–10(11) mm in diameter, globose, glabrous, appearing edible Fruits often numerous, shining red when ripe, becoming brownish-olive-green when dry, (7)8–10(11) mm in diameter, globose, glabrous, appearing edible.
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, 3 × 2 mm, compressed, ± reniform Seeds numerous, 3 × 2 mm, compressed, ± reniform.
    Ecology
    Edges of forests particularly rain and dry montane forests, sometimes inside in glades and beside paths, often in deep shade; 1220–2130 (3200) m.
    Note
    Bitter, tom. cit.: 265 (1921) retains var. stolzii Dammer, described as more robust and with bristles also on the leaves. It is represented in northern Malawi by Phillips 2847, cited above, and 3655 (K) from Nkhata Bay District, but does not seem to be worth maintaining. The bristles are normally evident, but Dowsett-Lemaire 127a (K), from Zovochipolo on the Nyika Plateau, bears a note “with or without spines” and the sample preserved does lack bristles.
    Distribution
    Also in Kenya and Tanzania. MAL N, MAL C, MAL S Malawi
    Habit
    Shrub or small tree 0.6–3.6 m high; sympodia plurifoliate; hairs stellate, ± sessile, regular, with many short rays, mostly minute but some modified as bristles, these pale straw-coloured to violet or brownish, up to 7 mm long, sometimes ± lignified and prickle-like when old. Shrub or small tree 0.6–3.6 m high; sympodia plurifoliate; hairs stellate, ± sessile, regular, with many short rays, mostly minute but some modified as bristles, these pale straw-coloured to violet or brownish, up to 7 mm long, sometimes ± lignified and prickle-like when old
    Branches
    Branches with whitish to ± brownish, scurfy tomentum, ± glabrescent, younger parts generally densely covered with bristles, these rarely lacking (see note). Branches with whitish to ± brownish, scurfy tomentum, ± glabrescent, younger parts generally densely covered with bristles, these rarely lacking (see note)
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate or sub opposite, mostly rather closely set at the ends of branches; petiole (0.5)1–5 cm long; lamina membranous, 4–21 × 1.5–6.5 cm, lanceolate to oblong or elliptic to oblanceolate, base cuneate, narrowing to the petiole and unequal- or subequal-sided, apex acute, usually ± acuminate, entire or slightly repand-sinuate, hairy at first but soon ± glabrous above, paler and ± glabrous beneath except for a few remaining hairs along the larger nerves and sometimes also a few bristles on veins mainly towards the base, with (7)8–10(11) pairs of lateral nerves. Leaves alternate or sub opposite, mostly rather closely set at the ends of branches; petiole (0.5)1–5 cm long; lamina membranous, 4–21 × 1. 5–6.5 cm, lanceolate to oblong or elliptic to oblanceolate, base cuneate, narrowing to the petiole and unequal- or subequal-sided, apex acute, usually ± acuminate, entire or slightly repand-sinuate, hairy at first but soon ± glabrous above, paler and ± glabrous beneath except for a few remaining hairs along the larger nerves and sometimes also a few bristles on veins mainly towards the base, with (7)8–10(11) pairs of lateral nerves
    Inflorescences
    Cymes terminal, becoming lateral and extra-axillary, often forked dichotomously 3–5 times, paniculiform to corymbiform, 3–13 cm long, dense, with many flowers, these clustered at the extremities, hairy like the branches, soon glabrescent, ± bristly; peduncle (1.2)2–4.5 cm long, with many to very few bristles. Cymes terminal, becoming lateral and extra-axillary, often forked dichotomously 3–5 times, paniculiform to corymbiform, 3–13 cm long, dense, with many flowers, these clustered at the extremities, hairy like the branches, soon glabrescent, ± bristly; peduncle (1. 2)2–4.5 cm long, with many to very few bristles
    Flowers
    Flowers 5(6)-merous, ± nodding; pedicels 5–12 mm long, slender, in fruit elongating to 16 mm, somewhat thickened to the apex, ± erect. Flowers 5(6)-merous, ± nodding.
    Calyx
    Calyx 1.5–2.5 mm long, 2.5–4 mm across, not very accrescent, campanulate or cupular, pulverulent-tomentose; lobes 0.7–2 × 0.5–1.5 mm, elliptic- or ovate- to lanceolate-triangular, occasionally subulate, obtuse or acute, ± acuminate. Calyx 1. 5–2.5 mm long, 2.5–4 mm across, not very accrescent, campanulate or cupular, pulverulent-tomentose; lobes 0.7–2 × 0.5–1. 5 mm, elliptic or ovate- to lanceolate-triangular, occasionally subulate, obtuse or acute, ± acuminate
    Corolla
    Corolla white to pale blue or mauve, stelliform; limb (9)10–12(14) mm across; lobes 3–5 × 1.7 mm, lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate to linear, acute to acuminate, often somewhat cucullate, densely pulverulent to tomentose outside at least near the apex, glabrous except for few stellate hairs on the midvein and near the apex inside, ± spreading to reflexed. Corolla white to pale blue or mauve, stelliform; limb (9)10–12(14) mm across; lobes 3–5 × 1. 7 mm, lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate to linear, acute to acuminate, often somewhat cucullate, densely pulverulent to tomentose outside at least near the apex, glabrous except for few stellate hairs on the midvein and near the apex inside, ± spreading to reflexed
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments 0.3–0.5 mm long; anthers 2.5–3.5 mm long, lanceolate-elliptic in outline, slightly tapering to the apex, somewhat incurved. Stamen filaments 0.3–0.5 mm long; anthers 2.5–3.5 mm long, lanceolate-elliptic in outline, slightly tapering to the apex, somewhat incurved
    Pistil
    Ovary 0.7–1 mm in diameter, globose or ± ovoid, minutely glandular and also with a few stellate hairs apically; style 4–6 mm long, exceeding the stamens, ± straight, with a few stellate hairs and minute glands from the base to about the middle.
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: Usambara, Magamba, Holst 3841 (?B†, holo.)
    Habit
    Shrub or subshrub 1–4 m high, sometimes straggling, occasionally small tree, rarely herbaceous;
    Stem
    Stems with raised lenticels, usually covered with indumentum either of clustered sessile or shortly stalked stellate hairs 0.1–0.4 mm diameter, with multiple short equal and eglandular rays, appearing mealy-tomentose when young, or of larger stellate hairs with long median rays (–1.5 mm), appearing hirsute; both types often interspersed with small stalked brown glands, or plants virtually glabrous; main stems and flowering branches also with soft, dense to sparse, glabrous bristles up to 11.5 × 1 mm, purple becoming brown, spreading and straight or curved apically, either tapering to an apical point or with many tapering to a stellate cluster of short rays with an extended median transparent ray; occasionally bristles absent
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, dark green, usually membranaceous, occasionally coriaceous, ovate, oblanceolate to lanceolate, (6.5–)8.5–19.5(–25) × 2.5–8.5(–10) cm, bases cuneate often decurrent, sometimes asymmetrical, margins usually entire, occasionally sinuate, apices acute to acuminate; lower surfaces often ochraceous and stellate-pubescent, usually with a small bristles and small stalked glands on lower part of midrib and larger veins, sometimes glabrous; upper surfaces glabrous or stellate- pubescent, with or without scattered bristles especially on midribs; petioles 1.5–5(–7) cm long, with or without bristles. Inflorescences subterminal becoming lateral, multiply forked, 15–100+-flowered, lax, umbellate cymes borne in pyramidal corymbs 5.5–12 cm broad; flowers usually 5-merous, occasionally 4-merous; axes with bristles interspersed with stellate-haired pubescence, occasionally glabrous, often becoming woody in fruit; peduncles 1.5–5 cm long in flower, 2.5–5 cm long in fruit; pedicels always without bristles, erect to recurved and 4–12 mm in flower, erect and spreading and 10–15 mm in fruit, thickened beneath calyx
    Calyx
    Calyx cupulate to campanulate, 1.5–3.5(–5) mm long, usually stellate-pubescent externally, glabrescent internally; lobes triangular to ovate, 0.6–1.8(–2.5) × 0.5–1.5(–2) mm, acute (apiculate); adherent basally in fruit, becoming strongly reflexed, 1.5–3(–4.5) × 1.5–3 mm, glabrescent
    Corolla
    Corolla white, bluish, pale purple or mauve, usually nodding, stellate, 5–10 mm diameter; tube 0.6–1.5 mm long, glabrous; lobes narrowly lanceolate or narrowly triangular, 3.5–7(–8.5) × 1.3–2.4 mm, stellate-pubescent especially towards apices, glabrescent, strongly reflexed
    Stamens
    Stamens equal; filaments whitish, free for 0.2–0.5 mm, glabrous; anthers poricidal, yellow, orange or brownish 3–4.5(–5.5) × 0.6–1(–1.2) mm, sometimes connivent
    Ovary
    Ovary 1–1.6 × 0.8–1.5 mm, ± glabrous, bilocular; style usually straight, 5–7(–9) × 0.2–0.4 mm, hairy in lower part, exserted up to 2 mm; stigma yellow to greenish, capitate, 0.2–0.3 mm diameter
    Fruits
    Berries smooth, usually red, sometimes purplish or blackish (?on drying) globose, 6–10(–12) mm diameter, glabrous or with scattered sessile stellate hairs, pericarp often leathery
    Seeds
    Seeds 7–19 per berry, light brown to yellowish-orange, obovoid, elliptic or reniform, 3.5–5 (?–6) × 3–4 (?–5) mm, flattened, minutely vesiculate; sclerotic granules absent.
    Note
    Whilst this high altitude species is often easily recognisable by its soft straight bristlelike prickles, these vary in their density, length and spread, not only on the vegetative and floral stems, but also on the petioles, leaf midribs and veins. Moreover, they may be completely absent from plants otherwise morphologically identical. Specimens in which bristles are absent are quite common in the Mbeya (T 7) region of Tanzania (cf. Richards 14122) as well as in neighbouring T 6 (the Ulugurus) and in Malawi. Moreover, the actual indumentum hairs can vary greatly. Plants can appear densely mealy – especially on young stems and lower leaf laminas, when the indumentum is composed of dense to sparse clusters of small stellate equal-rayed hairs. Other plants can appear to be hirsute with larger stellate hairs having a very long median ray making the young inflorescences, buds and calyces in particular appear silky and to glisten. At the other extreme entire plants can be virtually glabrous. Several authors and collectors have speculated on the variation found in this species suggesting that it should be recognised infraspecifically. This indumentum variation seems to be correlated eco-geographically and broadly separable into a north-south divide in East Africa. Two varieties of S. schummannianum have been recognised in this account, though some other authors have recognised one very variable species; future field work may justify the recognition of the variation apparent in this species at subspecific level. Unfortunately in this already taxonomically complex genus, this has necessitated a new combination since none of the varieties already published are applicable to the hirsute variant.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Kenya, Tanzania

    Accepted Infraspecifics

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum schumannianum Dammer appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 1, 2010 Chapman, J.D. [5908], Malawi K000441778
    Sep 1, 2010 Dowsett-Lemaire, F. [127a], Malawi K000441776
    Sep 1, 2010 Salubeni, A.J. [3978], Malawi K000441777
    Jul 2, 1905 Phillips, E. [3655], Malawi K000441775
    Greenway, P.J. [9701], Kenya K001158005
    Gillett, J.B. [17104], Kenya K001157990
    Drummond, R.B. [2415], Tanzania 11194.000
    Bally, P.R.O. [8754], Kenya K001157991
    Bullock, A.A. [2815], Tanzania K001157940
    Polhill, R. [1648], Tanzania K001157923
    Polhill, R. [1648], Tanzania K001157936
    Polhill, R. [1627], Tanzania K001157946
    Polhill, R. [1747], Tanzania K001157948
    Polhill, R. [1747], Tanzania K001157950
    Polhill, R. [258], Kenya K001158008
    Napier, E.R. [1134], Kenya K001157992
    Napier, E.R. [1134], Kenya K001157993
    Polhill [258], Kenya K001158007
    Polhill [314], Kenya K001158009
    Gilbert, M.G. [4819], Kenya K001158004
    Procter, J. [1257] K001157933
    Stolz, A. [1566], Tanzania K000413986 isotype
    Cribb, P. [10753], Tanzania K001157929
    Cribb, P. [11321B], Tanzania K001157934
    Cribb, P. [11341], Tanzania K001157942
    Semsei [3124], Tanzania K001157967
    Thomas, D.W. [3896], Tanzania K001157961
    Verdcourt [2734], Kenya K001157988
    Archbold, M.E. [2474], Tanzania K001157949
    Mabberley, D.J. [1178], Tanzania K001157957
    Harris, B.J. [1179], Tanzania K001157959
    Thulin, M. [2741], Tanzania K001157937
    Thulin, M. [2949], Tanzania K001157955
    Lovett, J. [1565], Tanzania K001157928
    Lovett, J. [513], Tanzania K001157965
    Semsei, S.R. [2720], Tanzania K001157973
    Bidgood, S. [327], Tanzania K001157945
    Braun [3039], Tanzania K001157983
    Magogo [796], Tanzania K001157969
    Richards, H.M. [9714], Tanzania K001157926
    Luke, P.A. [3907], Kenya K001158006
    Lynes, H. [171], Tanzania K001157931
    Polhill, R.M. [4684], Tanzania K001157953
    Polhill, R.M. [4684], Tanzania K001157999
    Grimshaw, J.M. [9366], Tanzania K001157996
    Grimshaw, J.M. [9276B], Tanzania K001158000
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Malawi K001158743
    Perdue, R.E. [11362], Tanzania K001157932
    Haarer, A.E. [1774], Tanzania K001157997
    Magogo, F.C. [2214], Tanzania K001157930
    Snowden, J.D. [563] K001158003
    Scheffler, G. [[256]], Uganda K000413987 isotype
    Pawek, J. [13680], Malawi K001158741
    Grant, D.K.S. [29], Tanzania K001157970
    Borhidi, A. [85163], Tanzania K001157977
    Borhidi, A. [86096], Tanzania K001157981
    Frame, G.W. [5], Tanzania K001157998
    Mgaza, C.D. [634], Tanzania K001157982
    Shabani [719], Tanzania K001157968
    Dümmer, R.A. [1617], Kenya K001158001
    Kerfoot, O. [374], Tanzania K001157935
    Kerfoot, O. [1796], Tanzania K001157943
    Phillips, E. [2847], Malawi K001158742
    Pócs, T. [88019/D], Tanzania K001157938
    Manktelow, S.J. [93081], Tanzania K001157960
    Kisena [611], Tanzania K001157974
    Kisena [610], Tanzania K001157984
    Paget-Wilkes, C.F. [948], Tanzania K001157963
    Spjut, R.W. [3485], Tanzania K001157962
    Ruffo, C.K. [2738], Tanzania K001158010
    Chuwa, S. [2688] K001157995
    Massawe, G. [DA55], Tanzania K001157944
    Mathenge, S.G. [225], Kenya K001158002
    Ngoundai [110], Tanzania K001157971
    Luke, WRQ [8014], Tanzania K001157966
    Luke, WRQ [10456], Tanzania K001157976
    Price, D. [WK167], Tanzania K001157925
    Price, D. [WK201], Tanzania K001157927
    Moon, J.L. [747] K001158011
    Drummond, R.B. [1651], Tanzania K001157956
    Drummond, R.B. [2415], Tanzania K001157972
    Drummond, R.B. [2262], Tanzania K001157975
    Drummond, R.B. [2688], Tanzania K001157980
    Drummond, R.B. [4309], Kenya K001157987
    Drummond, R.B. [4309], Kenya K001157989
    s.coll [2079], Tanzania K001157941
    s.coll [854], Tanzania K001157947
    s.coll [1221], Tanzania K001157958
    s.coll [32], Tanzania K001157985
    s.coll [420] K001157994
    Nyaki [8], Tanzania K001157978
    Mbailwa [97], Tanzania K001157986
    Richards, M.A.E. [14122], Tanzania K001157964
    Christenhusz, M.J.M., Kamau, P., Mbale, M. [6642], Kenya K000696652
    Banda, E.A.K. [2177], Malawi K001158740
    Silloin-Thompson, G. [646], Tanzania K001157939
    Roumce, N.V. [565], Tanzania K001157952
    Drummon, R.B. [1651], Tanzania K001157954
    Farkas [89264], Tanzania K001157979
    Stuhlmann [911], Tanzania Solanum ulugurense K000413985

    Bibliography

    First published in Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 352 (1895)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • White, Dowsett-Lemaire & Chapman, Evergreen For. Fl. Malawi: 554 (2001).
    • Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl., ed. 2: 243 (1994).
    • Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs & Lianas: 582 (1994).
    • Gentes Herb. 12: 215 (1984).
    • Binns, First Check List Herb. Fl. Malawi: 99 (1968).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 81: 326 (1962).
    • Brenan & Greenway, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 578 (1949) incl. var. stolzii Dammer.
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 57: 263 (1921) incl. var. stolzii Dammer.
    • Bot. Jahrb. 38: 190 (1906) pro parte.
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 234 (1906).
    • Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C: 352 (1895)

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • F.Z. 8(4): 90 (2005).
    • K.T.S.L.: 582 (1994)
    • U.K.W.F., 2nd ed.: 243 (1994)
    • Blundell, Wild Flowers E. Africa: 191, t. 842 (1992)
    • Jaeger, Syst. stud. Solanum in Africa: 350 (1985, ined.)
    • E.J. 81: 326 (1962)
    • Polhill, Solanum in E & NE Africa: 14 (ined., 1961)
    • T.T.C.L.: 578 (1949)
    • E.J. 57: 263 (1921)
    • E.J. 38: 190 (1906)
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 234 (1906)
    • P.O.A. C: 352 (1895)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0