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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum tarderemotum Bitter

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Cape Verde, Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Type
    Type from Tanzania.
    General
    Erect or spreading annual herb up to 0.4–1.5 m tall, spreading to 2 m, glabrescent to moderately pubescent with eglandular appressed and spreading hairs
    Branches
    Branches slightly ridged, the ridges smooth or inconspicuously dentate Branches slightly ridged, the ridges smooth or inconspicuously dentate.
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary or occasionally paired; petiole 0.8–5 cm long, ± narrowly winged distally; lamina 4–15 × 2–7 cm, lanceolate to ovate-elliptic, base cuneate and attenuate into the petiole, apex acute to acuminate, usually entire, sometimes sinuate-dentate, sparsely pubescent or early glabrescent Leaves solitary or occasionally paired; petiole 0.8–5 cm long, ± narrowly winged distally; lamina 4–15 × 2–7 cm, lanceolate to ovate-elliptic, base cuneate and attenuate into the petiole, apex acute to acuminate, usually entire, sometimes sinuate-dentate, sparsely pubescent or early glabrescent.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes lateral, unbranched, lax, extended, (6)8–12(16)-flowered; peduncles 10–30 mm long, erect; rhachis 3–10 mm long, up to 14 mm in fruit; pedicels 3–6 mm long in flower, up to 9 mm and usually reflexed in fruit Cymes lateral, unbranched, lax, extended, (6)8–12(16)-flowered; peduncles 10–30 mm long, erect; rhachis 3–10 mm long, up to 14 mm in fruit; pedicels 3–6 mm long in flower, up to 9 mm and usually reflexed in fruit.
    Note
    Chromosome number: 2n=48 Richards 22255 (K) from Zambia, Mbala Distr., Lunzua R., lower falls, fl. & fr. 24.v.1967, and P.A. Smith 589, from northern Botswana, cited above, have occasional forked inflorescences, a characteristic of Solanum forentulum Bitter, described from Tanzania, but seem to belong to this species. The inflorescences are more complexly forked in typical S. florentulum.
    Ecology
    Forest margins and characteristically in rather wet places by swamps and dambos, also in disturbed places in gardens, plantations, along roads and in waste places; 900–2160 m.
    Distribution
    Botswana. Malawi BOT N, ZAM N, ZAM C, ZAM S, ZIM C, ZIM E, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ S Also in Dem. Rep. Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. Mozambique Zambia Zimbabwe
    Habit
    Erect or spreading annual herb up to 0.4–1.5 m tall, spreading to 2 m, glabrescent to moderately pubescent with eglandular appressed and spreading hairs.
    Calyx
    Calyx 1.3–2.5 mm long, campanulate, in fruit somewhat enlarged, pubescent; lobes 0.5–1 mm long and wide, enlarging to 1.25–2 mm in fruit and becoming reflexed. Calyx 1. 3–2.5 mm long, campanulate, in fruit somewhat enlarged, pubescent; lobes 0.5–1 mm long and wide, enlarging to 1. 25–2 mm in fruit and becoming reflexed
    Corolla
    Corolla white, occasionally tinged purple, 3.5–5.5 mm across, stelliform; lobes 2–2.8 × 1.2–1.5 mm. Corolla white, occasionally tinged purple, 3.5–5.5 mm across, stelliform; lobes 2–2.8 × 1. 2–1. 5 mm
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments 0.5–1 mm long; anthers 1.5–2 mm long, oblong. Stamen filaments 0.5–1 mm long; anthers 1. 5–2 mm long, oblong
    Style
    Style 3–6 mm long, exserted 1–2 mm above the anthers and often geniculate. Style 3–6 mm long, exserted 1–2 mm above the anthers and often geniculate
    Fruits
    Fruits dark purple to black, 4–6 mm in diameter, globose, with small sclerotic granules. Fruits dark purple to black, 4–6 mm in diameter, globose, with small sclerotic granules
    Seeds
    Seeds 1.25–1.5 mm long, ± ovate in outline, pitted. Seeds 1. 25–1. 5 mm long, ± ovate in outline, pitted
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=48.
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: Tanzania, Kilimanjaro, Marangu, Winkler 3856 (WRSL, holo.)
    General
    Erect, procumbent or scrambling herb 0.3–1(–1.5) m high, often much-branched, occasionally with procumbent branches spreading to 3 m, rarely shrubby and woody basally;
    Stem
    Stems smooth to dentate; all parts pilose often glabrescent, with simple appressed and spreading usually long eglandular hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves membranaceous, pale to dark green, lanceolate, 4.5–10(–14) × 2.5–5(–7) cm, bases cuneate and decurrent, margins entire, sinuate, or sinuate-dentate, apices acute to acuminate; surfaces pilose to glabrescent as stems, with hairs denser on lower surfaces, especially on veins and midribs; petioles 1–3.5(–5) cm, often winged above from decurrent lamina. Inflorescences simple cymes, often umbellate in flower becoming lax and extended with rachides 0.4–1.4 cm long in fruit, occasionally also forked, 5–14-flowered; peduncles usually erect, 1–1.5 cm long in flower, 1.5–3.7 cm long in fruit; pedicels erect and 4–6 mm long in flower, recurved to spreading and 6–12 mm long in fruit; axes often densely pilose
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, 1–2.5 mm long, pilose externally; lobes broadly ovate to ligulate, obtuse, 0.5–1.3 × 0.4–1 mm, becoming broadly ovate or triangular and 1–2 × 0.8–2.3 mm in fruit when adherent becoming reflexed
    Corolla
    Corolla white or sometimes pale purple, with yellow or translucent basal star, sometimes with purple median vein to lobes, stellate, 6–12(–16) mm diameter, tube ± 1 mm long; lobes spreading to reflexed at anthesis, ovate to triangular, 2–4(–6) × 0.7–1.5(–2) mm, pilose externally with shortly pilose (to papillate) margins, sometimes with band of long hairs basally around tube mouth
    Filaments
    Filaments 0.5–1 mm long, glabrous to villous internally; anthers yellow to yellow-orange, 1.2–2(–2.5) × 0.5–1 mm
    Ovary
    Ovary brown, 0.6–1.5 × 0.5–1.2 mm, glabrous; style often sigmoid or geniculate, 2.5–4(–5) × 0.2–0.3 mm, pilose or villous in lower half to two thirds, exserted up to 2 mm; stigma capitate, 0.1–0.3 mm diameter
    Fruits
    Berries yellowish-green to dark purple or black, globose, 4–6(–7) mm diameter; usually shed still attached to pedicels leaving scars on rachides
    Seeds
    Seeds 13–56 per berry, light to dark brown or yellowish, obovoid to discoidal, 1.3–1.9 × 1–1.5 mm, reticulate; 1–3 ovoid sclerotic granules usually present, 0.2–0.7 × 0.2–0.6 mm, occasionally absent
    Figures
    Fig 17/1–9, p 126
    Ecology
    In disturbed vegetation, moist forest margins, -clearings and -paths, gallery forest, streamsides, bushland, rough grassland, on wasteland, on rocky hills, weed of cultivation, often in wet areas; 550–2950 m
    Note
    The holotype of S. viridimaculatum has sinuate-dentate leaves, dentate stems and slightly larger flowers than those typical of S. tarderemotum. However, the anthers are slightly smaller on the holotype (2.4–2.5 mm long) than those cited in the protologue (2.5–3mm), and all floral dimensions are within the overall morphological variability displayed by this species throughout its geographical range; they are considered to be conspecific. According to Schippers (2004) the name eldorettii or eldoretii was introduced in 1987 by “Mtotomwema” for green-fruited plants frequently cultivated in Eldoret, Kenya, without any published description. He later correctly identified these plants as S. tarderemotum, and this was confirmed by the AFLP clustering patterns derived by Manoko (2007) during his multidisciplinary analyses of this group. This fairly well defined taxon has been frequently recorded from Ethiopia to Tanzania and Malawi, where it has invariably been identified as S. nigrum. It conforms to the protologue of S. tarderemotum although isotype material of this species has not yet been located. Vegetatively it is extremely variable, with the pubescence varying from glabrescent to conspicuously pilose, and the leaf margins from entire to sinuate dentate. As with S. nigrum sensu stricto and with the following species S. florulentum, the berry colour can vary from yellowish green to purple or blackish. Olet (2004) recognised three morphological forms/variants in Uganda, though she did not give them formal taxonomic recognition. Manoko (2007) later concluded that some of her plants represented introgressed hybrids. The species is used as a vegetable or pot-herb throughout its range (cf. Schippers, 2002) but especially in Kenya, Tanzania and parts of Ethiopia. Decoctions of the leaves are used to treat malaria; raw roots are eaten as a treatment for stomach ache in T 4 and fresh leaf juice used to treat conjunctivitis in T 6. However, there are reports that specimens of this species are poisonous to stock in K 1. It is close to the small-flowered diploid species S. americanum (see above), but is tetraploid (cf. Olet, 2004; Manoko, 2007). The mature infructescences illustrated in Schippers’ (2004) are very similar to those of the South American diploid S. chenopodioides Lam. which, as far as is known, has only been identified in South Africa (cf. Edmonds & Chweya 1997), possibly indicating a common genome. Like this species, the fruiting peducles of S. tarderemotum can be deflexed, the fruiting pedicels splayed and the berries fall still attached to the pedicels. Jaeger’s (1985) suggestion that this species is synonymous with S. sarrachoides is erroneous. This glandular-haired South American species is only found sporadically in South Africa, and its fruiting sepal dimensions, for example, are far greater than those cited. Two Tanzanian specimens ( Richards 9735 and 9775) collected from 2340 m, are probably conspecific with S. tarderemotum. They have larger flowers than those usually associated with this species, with anthers ranging from 2.2–2.5 mm long. However, they also have long flowering peduncles (–3.5cm), with slightly extended cymose inflorescences to 8-flowered. Their flower size might be due to the shady habitat at high elevation from which they were collected; overall they show more affinity with S. tarderemotum than any of the other section Solanum species found in East Africa. The inflorescences on the duplicate type material of S. pentagonocalyx are umbellate to extended racemose cymes with up to 9 flowers, whose floral dimensions and stylar exsertion indicate the conspecificity of Bitter’s species with S. tarderemotum. Bitter did not cite the locality of his holotypes for either S. tetrachondrum or its variety subintegrum and no duplicate specimens of these two taxa have yet been found. The long 5–10- flowered peduncles and all the floral and berry dimensions given in the protologue of S. tetrachondrum generally match those found in S. tarderemotum, and all three taxa were collected from Marangu near Kilimanjaro. The dense pubescence and the dentate leaf margins cited are within the margins of variability exhibited by this species – especially in the habitat cited. However, the pedicels are described as being congested on the top of the peduncle. This species has therefore only been provisionally synonymised. Bitter differentiated his var. subintegrum from S. tetrachondrum largely on the basis of its entire rather than dentate leaf margins. Leaf margins in typical S. tarderemotum are entire to sinuate, and this variety has also been provisionally synonymised with the latter.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 Range: Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, CongoKinshasa, Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan, Ethiopia, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia and South Africa
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: Kwai, Albers 189 (B†, holo.)
    Habit
    Erect or scrambling herb to 1.5 m high, occasionally sub-shrubby or scandent;
    Stem
    Stems sometimes woody basally, but usually succulent and angulate to winged, the ridges or wings usually dentate, pilose with simple long eglandular hairs and especially young parts sometimes appearing ochraceous, older parts glabrescent
    Leaves
    Leaves fleshy to membranaceous, pale to dark green, occasionally ochraceous, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 5–10(–16) × (1.5–)3–8 cm, bases cuneate and decurrent often to stem, margins entire to sinuate, rarely sinuate-dentate with 3–8 lobes, apices acute; pubescent as stems with hairs denser on veins and midribs especially below; petioles 1–4(–6) cm
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences extra-axillary, usually forked, often multiply so, extended cymes, sometimes also simple, 10–32-flowered; peduncles usually erect, 9–26 mm long in flower, 1–3(–5) cm long in fruit; pedicels erect becoming reflexed, 3–6 mm long in flower, 7–10 mm long in fruit; axes pilose. Calyx cupulate, 1–2(–2.5) mm long, pilose externally; lobes shallowly triangular to obovate, often unequal, 0.5–1 mm, obtuse; in fruit with broadly triangular obtuse persistent calyx lobes enlarging to 0.8–2 × 1.3–3 mm
    Corolla
    Corolla white with yellow basal star, often with median purple or green vein to lobes, stellate, 6–12 mm diameter, tube 1–1.3 mm long; lobes spreading or reflexed after anthesis, ovate to narrowly triangular, 2.2–4 × 1.3–2.5 mm, pubescent externally with shortly pilose margins, glabrous internally
    Filaments
    Filaments 0.3–0.8 mm long, pilose/villous internally; anthers yellow to yellow/orange, 1.6–2(–2.2) × 0.5–0.9 mm
    Ovary
    Ovary brown, 1–1.6 × 0.7–1.7 mm; style geniculate to straight, whitish, 2.8–5 mm, lower half pilose, exserted up to 2.5 mm; stigma capitate, 0.1–0.3 mm diameter
    Fruits
    Berries purplish black or greenish yellow, globose, 4–6 mm diameter, basal adherent calyx appearing pentagonal; usually falling with pedicels attached
    Seeds
    Seeds up to 46 per berry, yellow to brown, obovoid to discoidal, 1.4–1.5(–1.8) × 0.9–1.3 mm, reticulate; with up to 6 small (0.3–0.7 mm diameter) sclerotic granules per berry
    Figures
    Fig 17/10 & 11, p 126
    Ecology
    Grassland and clearings, especially in damp habitats such as stream- or river-banks and lake-shores, and on steep or rocky hillsides, wasteland, roadsides, cultivated ground, scrubland; also a weed of cultivation; 1100–2450 m
    Note
    This species seems to be indigenous to parts of East Africa – particularly to Kenya where it is widely cultivated, though the leaves from plants occurring spontaneously are eaten as spinach in K 3, U 2 and U 4. It is morphologically close to S. tarderemotum but the inflorescences are generally complexly branched lax cymes, though simple inflorescences can occur on the same plant. Indeed Olet (2004) described inflorescences with up to 5 branches in Ugandan plants of this species, where she also recognised three morphological variants without giving them formal taxonomic recognition. Manoko (2007) recorded up to 48 flowers on inflorescences of this species. Jaeger (1985) suggested that although S. tarderemotum and S. florulentum were recognisable entities, they might be subspecies of the same taxon. However, Olet (2004) found that these two species were well differentiated from each other in her numerical analyses, though not so in molecular studies. Later Manoko (2007) proposed that his systematic results indicated that these two taxa are distinct species. Both S. florulentum and S. tarderemotum are tetraploid (cf. Olet, 2004; Manoko, 2007) and it is likely from their morphology that they possess a common genome from the widespread diploid S. americanum. Bitter described S. dasytrichum Bitter (in E.J. 49: 568 (1913); type: Eick 227, B†, holo.) from Kwai, the same Tanzanian type locality as that cited for S. florulentum. From its protologue, the description of dense pubescence on juvenile parts which later become glabrescent, the floral dimensions, peduncle lengths and berry characteristics are all similar to those found in both S. florulentum and S. tarderemotum, though the description of a pentagonal fruiting calyx is more typical of S. florulentum. However, no mention was made of the inflorescence forking. Jaeger (1985) thought that S. dasytrichum showed an affinity with S. americanum, presumably since the protologue described densely congested pedicels at the apex of the peduncle. The floral and fruit dimensions are larger than those usually associated with the latter, and its true status awaits future collection of material from the type locality.
    Distribution
    Range: Congo-Kinshasa and northern Namibia Flora districts: U2 U4 K1 K3 K4 K5 T2 T3 T7 T8

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Comoros, Madagascar

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum tarderemotum Bitter appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2006 Etuge, M. [3416], Cameroon K000460277
    Jan 1, 2006 Etuge, M. [2305], Cameroon K000460276
    Jan 1, 2006 Munyenyembe, P. [790], Cameroon K000460275
    Jan 1, 2005 Cheek, M. [8455], Cameroon K000460274
    Jan 1, 2005 Olet, E.A. [106], Uganda K000787983
    Greenway, P.J. [6951], Tanzania K001158138
    Greenway, P.J. [11113], Tanzania K001158154
    Gillett, J.B. [19099], Kenya K001158118
    Gillett, J.B. [12957], Kenya K001158125
    Bally, P.R.O. [7787], Kenya K001158121
    Eggeling, W.J. [697], Uganda K001158097
    Robson, N.K.B. [1427], Malawi K001158809
    Polhill, R. [1656], Tanzania K001158145
    Tanner, R. [3622], Tanzania K001158155
    Tanner, R. [1975], Tanzania K001158160
    Morton, J.K. [EA18], Tanzania K001158131
    Newbould, J. [4285], Tanzania K001158140
    Gilbert, M.G. [7043], Kenya K001158109
    Jefford, T.G. [1818], Tanzania K001158139
    Jefford, T.G. [1818], Tanzania K001158151
    Maitland, T.D. [916], Uganda K001158103
    Maitland, T.D. [s.n.], Uganda K001158106
    Faulkner, H.G. [3446], Tanzania K001158149
    Stolz, A. [384], Tanzania K001158129
    Mathew, B. [6379], Kenya K001158111
    Mathew, B. [6379], Kenya K001158119
    Haerdi, F. [286/o], Tanzania K001158156
    Brummitt, R.K. [15621], Malawi K001158792
    Brummitt, R.K. [8462], Malawi K001158796
    Richards, M. [20349], Tanzania K001158142
    Richards, M. [22255], Zambia K001158807
    Wilson, J. [609], Uganda K001158110
    Polhill, E. [148], Kenya K001158130
    Chapman, J.D. [1248], Malawi K001158784
    Mhoro, B. [864], Tanzania K001158158
    Mabberley, D.J. [1169], Tanzania K001158143
    Carter, S. [381], Kenya K001158126
    Lovett, J. [327], Tanzania K001158134
    Lovett, J. [2192], Tanzania K001158157
    Lovett, J. [1489], Tanzania K001158161
    Richards, H.M. [6571], Tanzania K001158133
    Richards, H.M. [21308], Tanzania K001158136
    Richards, H.M. [13004], Tanzania K001158137
    Richards, H.M. [9735], Tanzania K001158147
    Richards, H.M. [9775B], Tanzania K001158148
    Richards, H.M. [13858], Tanzania K001158153
    Richards, H.M. [8286] K001158806
    Batty, M. [233], Tanzania K001158132
    Polhill, R.M. [2302], Tanzania K001158152
    Schlieben, H.J. [413], Tanzania K001158141
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Uganda K001158098
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Uganda K001158105
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Kenya K001158108
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Malawi K001158787
    Perdue, R.E. [8280], Kenya K001158112
    Perdue, R.E. [9065], Kenya K001158117
    Macaulay [690], Zambia K001158804
    Macaulay [690], Zambia K001158805
    Lugard, E.J. [209], Kenya K001158114
    Speke [453] K001158102
    Davis, R.L. [201], Tanzania K001158159
    Pawek, J. [14222], Malawi K001158789
    Pawek, J. [3080], Malawi K001158790
    Salubeni, A.J. [513], Malawi K001158783
    Salubeni, A.J. [513], Malawi K001158788
    Salubeni, A.J. [4804], Malawi K001158794
    Salubeni, A.J. [4444], Malawi K001158798
    Kerfoot, O. [1419], Kenya K001158127
    Phillips, E. [3994], Malawi K001158785
    Smith, P.A. [589], Botswana K001158810
    Hazel, C. [219], Uganda K001158104
    Gilliland, H.B. [K.1402], Zimbabwe K001158803
    Oteke, J. [87], Kenya K001158122
    Oteke, J. [87], Kenya K001158123
    Seyani, J.H. [1100], Malawi K001158797
    Blackmore, S. [534], Malawi K001158782
    Davies, R.N. [D461], Tanzania K001158162
    Lawrence, E. [s.n.], Malawi K001158795
    Lawrence, E. [s.n.], Malawi K001158800
    Kaunda, K. [44], Malawi K001158793
    Katende, T. [1099], Uganda K001158096
    Wesche, K. [500], Uganda K001158101
    Pirozynski, K.A. [P86], Tanzania K001158144
    E.A.R. [3086], Malawi K001158786
    Tiyoy, L. [1209], Uganda K001158094
    Heath, A. [496], Botswana K001158808
    Drummond, R.B. [3347], Tanzania K001158150
    Purseglove, J.W. [P308] K001158107
    s.coll [458] K001158099
    s.coll [G1/72], Uganda K001158100
    s.coll [74] K001158115
    s.coll [53], Kenya K001158128
    s.coll [P86], Tanzania K001158135
    s.coll [2], Tanzania K001158146
    s.coll [1903], Tanzania K001158163
    s.coll [1], Malawi K001158791
    s.coll [440 (b)], Malawi K001158799
    Tweedie [1480], Kenya K001158095
    Tweedie [1481], Uganda K001158120
    Tweedie [725], Kenya K001158124
    Biegel, A.M. [4632], Zimbabwe K001158802
    Masheti, S. [H-314], Kenya K001158113
    Kerfoot [637], Kenya K001158116
    Walters, J.H. [2183], Zimbabwe K001158801
    Jun 29, 2011 Luke, Q. [14111], Kenya Solanum florulentum K000787984
    Jan 1, 2005 Olet, E.A. [046], Uganda Solanum florulentum K000823775
    Feb 1, 2004 Olet, E.A. [047], Uganda Solanum florulentum K000823774
    Jun 27, 1905 Milne-Redhead, E. [8869], Tanzania Solanum florulentum K000441641
    Jun 27, 1905 Huxley, P. [116], Tanzania Solanum florulentum K000441639
    Jun 27, 1905 Geilinger, G. [2482], Tanzania Solanum florulentum K000441640
    Bally, P.R.O. [B8235], Kenya Solanum florulentum K001157539
    Napier, E.R. [2455], Kenya Solanum florulentum K001157536
    Napier, E.R. [1847], Kenya Solanum florulentum K001157538
    Polhill, E. [145], Kenya Solanum florulentum K001157533
    Dawkins [752], Uganda Solanum florulentum K001157529
    Johnston, H.H. [72], Kenya Solanum florulentum K001157546
    Newbould, J.G.B. [3542], Kenya Solanum florulentum K001157537
    Loveridge, M.V. [350], Uganda Solanum florulentum K001157532
    Dümmer, R.A. [563], Uganda Solanum florulentum K001157540
    Maitland, J.D. [147], Uganda Solanum florulentum K001157545
    Kerfoot, O. [1103], Kenya Solanum florulentum K001157534
    Maas Geesteranus, R.A. [5603], Kenya Solanum florulentum K001157525
    Purseglove, J.W. [P3035], Uganda Solanum florulentum K001157528
    s.coll [s.n.], Uganda Solanum florulentum K001168872
    s.coll [2153], Uganda Solanum florulentum K001157526
    s.coll [145], Kenya Solanum florulentum K001157535
    s.coll [T633], Uganda Solanum florulentum K001157542
    Olet, E.A. [46], Uganda Solanum florulentum K001157531
    Goode, P.M. [62/72], Uganda Solanum florulentum K001157527
    Griffiths, M.E. [47], Uganda Solanum florulentum K001157530
    Gutizwiller [3401], Congo Solanum florulentum K001155949
    Shillits, E.M. [58], Uganda Solanum florulentum K001157541
    Thomas, A.J. [4266], Uganda Solanum florulentum K001157543
    Damulir, E.K. [D35], Uganda Solanum florulentum K001157544

    Bibliography

    First published in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 10: 547 (1912)

    Accepted by

    • Särkinen, T. & al. (2018). A revision of the Old World black nightshades (Morelloid clade of Solanum L., Solanaceae) PhytoKeys 106: 1-223.
    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Edmonds & Chweya, Black Nightshades: 48 (1997).
    • Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 10: 547 (1912).

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Särkinen, T. & al. (2018). A revision of the Old World black nightshades (Morelloid clade of Solanum L., Solanaceae) PhytoKeys 106: 1-223.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Manoko, Syst. Study African Solanum sect. Solanum: chapters 1–8 (2007).
    • Fl. Eth. 5: 121 (2006)
    • F.Z. 8(4): 83 (2005)
    • Légum. Afr. Indig.: 381 (2004)
    • Uganda: papers i-vi (2004)
    • Bothalia 25(1): 48 (1995)
    • Jaeger, Syst. studies Solanum in Africa: 304 (1985, ined.)
    • F.R. 10: 547 (1912)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/