Skip to main content
  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum terminale Forssk.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Type
    Type from Yemen.
    Branches
    Branches scurfy pubescent with simple and branched hairs on youngest parts, soon glabrescent Branches scurfy pubescent with simple and branched hairs on youngest parts, soon glabrescent.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes terminal, becoming displaced laterally, paniculiform to racemiform or spiciform, lax to congested, usually many-flowered, the pedicels clustered in groups, often ± puberulous; peduncle (0.7)1–6.5(8.5) cm long; rhachis 0.2–5.5 cm long; pedicels 5–18 (22 in fruit) mm long Cymes terminal, becoming displaced laterally, paniculiform to racemiform or spiciform, lax to congested, usually many-flowered, the pedicels clustered in groups, often ± puberulous; peduncle (0.7)1–6.5(8.5) cm long; rhachis 0.2–5.5 cm long; pedicels 5–18 (22 in fruit) mm long.
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments 0.3–1. 3 mm long, linear, free (or connate outside the Flora Zambesiaca area); anthers 2–5 mm long, ± ellipsoid, emarginate at both ends, free or connate, densely papillose to epapillose on inner side Stamen filaments 0.3–1.3 mm long, linear, free (or connate outside the Flora Zambesiaca area); anthers 2–5 mm long, ± ellipsoid, emarginate at both ends, free or connate, densely papillose to epapillose on inner side.
    Ecology
    Forest, often at edges, along streams or in rocky places, marginally extending into higher rainfall miombo woodland, especially on termite mounds, and in disturbed places; 910–2200.
    Note
    Heine (1960, 1963) recognized 4 subspecies under S. terminale, viz.: subsp. inconstans (C.H. Wright) Heine, with axillary, sub-racemiform, short, few-flowered inflorescences, free or connate filaments, connate anthers and ellipsoid fruits, usually from lowlands; subsp. welwitschii (C.H. Wright) Heine (from intermediate altitudes, discussed further below), with terminal, ± spiciform, ± long inflorescences, free filaments, connate anthers and globose fruits; subsp. sanaganum (Bitter) Heine (the material from the Flora Zambesiaca area mostly corresponding to this, elsewhere in highlands), with terminal, racemiform inflorescences shorter than in the preceding, free filaments, free anthers papillose on the inner side and ellipsoid fruits; and subsp. terminale, also from highlands, with spiciform to racemiform inflorescences shorter than in the second, free filaments, free anthers epapillose on inner side and globose fruits. As in the Flora Zambesiaca area there is regional overlapping of the "subspecies", and considering also that intermediates have been found, I believe that the right decision taken at the present state of knowledge is to consider S. terminale as a very polymorphic species, not accepting Heine's "subspecies" as such. However, Professor Friis is proposing to retain S. welwitschii for the Flora of Ethiopia; it occurs at lower altitudes in that country, and is easily recognized there by the spiciform, rather than paniculiform or umbelliform cymes, and by its more coriaceous leaves. In Zambia some material from around Mwinilunga, e.g. Brummitt, Chisumpa & Polhill 14028 (K) and Milne-Redhead 3723 (K), does have unbranched cymes with relatively short pedicels, whereas White 3442, cited above, has branched cymes and long pedicels.
    Distribution
    Distributed throughout Africa from Guinea eastwards to Ethiopia and southwards to Angola and South Africa (Limpopo, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Provinces); also in Yemen and the Comoro Is. Zambia Mozambique Malawi ZAM N, ZAM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ Z, MOZ MS, MOZ GI
    Habit
    Woody climber up to 15 m, sometimes a straggling shrub or trailing in absence of support. Woody climber up to 15 m, sometimes a straggling shrub or trailing in absence of support
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary or occasionally geminate; petiole (0.3)0.5–4 cm long; lamina usually membranous, 2–13.5 × (0.6)1–7 cm, generally ovate-lanceolate to elliptic, occasionally somewhat oblanceolate to obovate, rounded to cuneate at the base, ± decurrent into the petiole, apically usually ± acuminate, entire or sub-undulate and somewhat revolute, generally with only a few hairs, the more persistent ones somewhat swollen; lateral nerves 5–7 pairs, curved-ascending. Leaves solitary or occasionally geminate; petiole (0.3)0.5–4 cm long; lamina usually membranous, 2–13.5 × (0.6)1–7 cm, generally ovate-lanceolate to elliptic, occasionally somewhat oblanceolate to obovate, rounded to cuneate at the base, ± decurrent into the petiole, apically usually ± acuminate, entire or sub-undulate and somewhat revolute, generally with only a few hairs, the more persistent ones somewhat swollen; lateral nerves 5–7 pairs, curved-ascending
    Calyx
    Calyx 1.2–3 mm long, campanulate or cupular, pubescent, and sometimes with glandular hairs, to glabrous; lobes ± triangular to ovate, acute to sub-truncate; in fruit somewhat enlarged. Calyx 1. 2–3 mm long, campanulate or cupular, pubescent, and sometimes with glandular hairs, to glabrous; lobes ± triangular to ovate, acute to sub-truncate; in fruit somewhat enlarged
    Corolla
    Corolla blue to mauve or purple, sometimes white, with or without a conspicuous yellow or orange centre, 10–19 mm across, ± deeply stelliform; lobes 5–10 × 1–2.5 mm, linear-oblong or lanceolate, hooked, obtuse or acute, tomentellous to puberulous outside, often reflexed. Corolla blue to mauve or purple, sometimes white, with or without a conspicuous yellow or orange centre, 10–19 mm across, ± deeply stelliform; lobes 5–10 × 1–2.5 mm, linear-oblong or lanceolate, hooked, obtuse or acute, tomentellous to puberulous outside, often reflexed
    Ovary
    Ovary 0.75–1.5 mm in diameter, subglobose-conic or ellipsoid. Ovary 0.75–1. 5 mm in diameter, subglobose-conic or ellipsoid
    Fruits
    Fruits orange or red to deep blue, 5–10 mm in diameter, globose to ellipsoid, glabrous. Fruits orange or red to deep blue, 5–10 mm in diameter, globose to ellipsoid, glabrous
    Seeds
    Seeds pale brownish, 2.5–3 × 2–2.5 mm, reniform or ± obovate in outline, reticulate-veined, pseudo-tomentose with minute fibrils. Seeds pale brownish, 2.5–3 × 2–2.5 mm, reniform or ± obovate in outline, reticulate-veined, pseudo-tomentose with minute fibrils
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: Yemen, ? Mukham [Mochham fide Forsskål (1775) but Mokhaja is given as the locality on the original label which, according to Hepper & Friis (1994) refers to Mukhajah, Jebel Barad], Forsskål 406 (C!, syn; microfiche 102: II, 5,6 !); 419 (C!, syn; microfiche 102: II, 3,4 !)
    General
    Climbing or straggling shrub, perennial vine or liana, 1–7 m, usually scandent over dominant vegetation, sometimes with woody rootstock or rhizomatous;
    Stem
    Stems woody basally, sometimes herbaceous and slender, often prominently lenticellate, pubescent with mixture of simple and occasionally branched (never stellate) hairs when young, often becoming glabrescent; branches often pendent
    Leaves
    Leaves usually alternate, membranaceous to coriaceous, light to dark green, ovate to lanceolate, rarely linear-lanceolate, 4.8–9.5(–12) × (1.7–)2.2–7.3 cm, becoming smaller towards stem apices, bases cordate to cuneate and decurrent, margins entire, apices acute to acuminate; venation often prominent, surfaces pilose to glabrescent, hairs as on stems, denser and more branched on veins, midribs and on lower surfaces, pubescent domatia usually present; petioles 0.8–3(–5) cm long, often curved to facilitate climbing
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, forked, often multiply so, racemose or corymbose cymes with umbellate fascicles of flowers, either broadening towards the apex with short central rachides or narrowing towards the apex with long central rachides, sometimes pendent, sometimes sweetly fragrant, 4–16(–25) × 4–10(–15) cm, 15–70( > 100)-flowered; peduncles (1–)2–7(–9) cm long though sometimes appearing as a continuation of the main stem; pedicels in umbellate clusters but sometimes lateral, 5–12(–19) mm long in flower, 10–22 mm in fruit; inflorescence axes pilose to glabrescent, rarely villous, hairs short or long, simple and occasionally branched; fuscous papillate collar around junctions with branches or pedicel bases
    Calyx
    Calyx cupulate, 1–2(–3) mm long, pilose to glabrescent externally with short hairs; calyx lobes broadly triangular, 0.5–1.5(–2) × 0.9–1.8 mm, acute to apiculate, usually with apical tufts of hairs; reflexed becoming adherent in fruit when 1–2(–3) × 1.2–2.5 mm
    Corolla
    Corolla white, whitish-green, cream, mauve or blue with yellowish basal star, stellate, 1–2(–2.8) cm diameter, tube 1–1.6 mm long; lobes broadly ovate to lanceolate, rarely ligulate, 4.5–9 × 1.5–3 mm, densely pilose/papillate externally with short often branched hairs, glabrous internally, strongly reflexed after anthesis
    Stamens
    Stamens usually equal; filaments free for 0.3–1.3 mm, glabrous; anthers yellow to orange-yellow, 2.5–3.5(–4) × 0.9–1.2(–1.6) mm, papillate or not internally, free and often spreading
    Ovary
    Ovary whitish, 0.9–2.5 × 0.8–2.2 mm, glabrous; style geniculate becoming straight, white to green, often twisted, 5–9 mm, glabrous, exserted 2–3(–4) mm; stigma pale green, capitate, 0.3–0.5 mm diameter
    Fruits
    Fruit smooth, orange to red, globose to ovoid with coriaceous pericarp, 5–10 × 5–8 mm
    Seeds
    Seeds 3–26 per berry, dark brown, ovoid, discoid or reniform, 2–3 × 1.8–2.5 mm, winged with flattened margins, foveolate; sclerotic granules absent
    Figures
    Fig 16/1–9, p 109
    Ecology
    Forest, riverine and scrub forest, secondary forest and scrub, forest margins and clearings, thicket, scattered tree grassland, bushland, grassland; 400–3000 m
    Note
    This is an extremely variable polymorphic and widespread species which is common, especially in montane forests, throughout tropical Africa. Two major variants are apparent in the inflorescence structure of herbarium material. All inflorescences are pyramidal, but the majority are corymbose cymes which broaden towards the apex, have short central rachides and irregular ascending branches and are often referred to as subsp. terminale. The less common type has paniculate cymes which narrow towards the apex, have long central rachides (4–14 cm) and ascending lateral branches. This is the form which is often referred to as S. plousianthemum. Moreover, though inflorescences in this species are typically forked and many-flowered, some are few-flowered and occasionally simple. These are often identified as S. inconstans. There are, however, a number of specimens in which the inflorescence structure is intermediate between all these variants, indicating that the formal recognition of such variation is unwise pending further work with living material.  The variability in inflorescence structure is clearly portrayed by Bitter’s treatment of species belonging to his new section when he described 14 infraspecific variants of the “polymorphic species” S. plousianthemum Dammer, most of which are minor morphological variants and all synonymous with S. terminale. Heine (1960, 1963) too thought that the variation in S. terminale should be recognised infraspecifically, and he described the four subspecies: terminale itself; inconstans (C.H. Wright) Heine characterised by very small, longpeduncled and usually lateral inflorescences with ellipsoid fruits; sanaganum (Bitter) Heine delimited by large terminal inflorescences and ellipsoid fruits; and welwitschii (C.H. Wright) Heine with spicate, terminal inflorescences and globose fruits. Gonçalves (2005) later elaborated on these differentiating characters, adding discriminatory anther morphology, and describing the inflorescences as varying from racemose to spiciform in subsp. terminale, but being shorter than those found in subsp. welwitschii. Nevertheless because of intermediate forms he decided not to recognize these subspecific taxa in F.Z. Heine’s earlier conclusion that S. plousianthemum should also be reduced to subspecific rank was apparently never published (cf. Cameroonian specimen Ujor 30026 determined as S. terminale Forssk. subsp. plousianthemum (Dammer) Heine in 1958). Solanum terminale is described as a forest species in Uganda where the roots are used medicinally for the relief of stomach pains (Bukenya & Carasco in Nee et al. (eds), Solanaceae IV: 356 (1999)). It is also listed as a medicinal plant in PROTA (11: 308 (2002)). The species can be confused with the Ethiopian species S. schimperianum in the herbarium, but Friis (2006) considered the latter to be a somewhat scrambling shrub rather than a true climber, with the stems continuing growth after inflorescence formation thereby not being truly terminal as in S. terminale. Hair types too differ in these two species, with those in S. terminale being branched but never stellate as are those in S. schimperianum. Superficially S. terminale is very similar to S. madagascariense Dunal, another climbing Dulcamaroid species which is thought to be endemic to Madagascar, though Bitter did not include it in his Section Afrosolanum (cf. Bitter 1917). While closely related, Madagascan specimens seem to form a comprehensive suite and should probably be recognised specifically – though future field work might suggest subspecific recognition to be more appropriate. The considerable variation in stem indumentum density, the hair type and structure, and the floral and fruiting characters are extremely similar in both species. However, the leaves are invariably glabrous, coriaceous, shining and obovate with prominent veining and mucronate apices and lack domatia in S. madagascariense. In addition, while similarly multi-flowered, the inflorescences branches and peduncles do not terminate in such distinct dense umbellate clusters as in S. terminale, the anthers are often shorter and broader with distinct and prominent papillae, and the berries seem to be many-more seeded (often > 60/berry). Among the synonyms of S. madagascariense, verified from their protologues and as far as possible from the type specimens, are S. madagascariense Dammer; S. nitens Baker; S. madagascariense Dunal var. nitens D’Arcy & Rakot.; S. apocynifolium Baker; S. clerodendroides Hutch. & Dalziel; S. antalaha D’Arcy & Rakot.; S. marojejy D’Arcy & Rakot., and possibly S. trichopetiolatum D’Arcy & Rakot. With the exception of S. clerodendroides, these taxa were all described from Madagascar and differentiated on very minor morphological differences which would be expected in such a variable species closely aligned to the extremely diverse S. terminale. It is widely thought (cf. Jaeger, 1986 and Heine in sched.) that the label on the type specimen of S. clerodendroides ( Talbot & Talbot 3211) citing its provenance as Eket District in Southern Nigeria was misplaced, as this specimen clearly belongs to the Madagascan taxon under discussion, with all other Nigerian specimens examined clearly belonging to S. terminale sensu stricto. The two names S. bifurcatum and S. bifurcum are apparently orthographic variants, with the Paris specimens suggesting that although Hochstetter originally spelt the name of this taxon as bifurcum Richard later changed the spelling to bifurcatum; see Lester l.c. (1997) for a full discussion. The lecto- (K) and isolecto- (BM) type specimens of S. togoense are poor with the inflorescence bearing only two and seven buds respectively. The Paris duplicate is similarly poor and bears a note saying that Bitter (1917), who retained Dammer’s species (first published without a description), cited Schlechter 12974 as the only specimen of this species. It’s vine-like stems certainly indicate its affinity with S. terminale sensu lato, though the potentially few-flowered inflorescences led Heine (1960) to identify it as S. terminale subsp. inconstans, and place S. togoense in synonymy with this subspecies. Bitter (1917) based his S. plousianthemum Dammer var. conglutinans Bitter (see below) on the Holst 8927 specimen cited as a syntype of Dammer’s species. Though Dammer cited Schmidt 263 and 284 as syntypes of S. comorense without mentioning their location, Bitter later redescribed it (in Latin), citing the two specimens Schmidt 263 (with the same collection details as those given by Dammer) and Humblot 284 (where the collection label simply stated Comoro Islands). Both of these specimens were in the Berlin Herbarium, and it is likely that Dammer mistakenly assigned the number 284 to Schmidt instead of Humblot. A duplicate of Humblot 284 is extant at Kew. Unfortunately, this consists of two apical fragments in which the inflorescences appear broken. Superficially these fragments indicate conspecificity with S. welwitschii, but the anthers are free and papillate internally, the buds ovoid and one peduncle has one short branch. The affinity of this species is difficult to discern from Dammer’s protologue, while Bitter’s later elaboration on this socalled endemic species allied to ‘ S. plousianthemum’ provided little in the way of additional morphological features to differentiate it from S. terminale sensu lato. It seems sensible to regard the extant Humblot 284 specimens as isosyntypes, though the two P specimens have been labelled neotype and isoneotype. Bitter (1917) must have decided that the two syntypes cited by Dammer (1914) for S. leucanthum represented different species. He redescribed Dammer’s species as S. leucanthum Bitter & Dammer, basing it on Mildbraed 894. He then went on to describe the new species S. ruandae, basing it on Mildbraed 1431a, the second of Dammer’s syntypes. Both of his species are described from high altitudes and from their protologues clearly belong to S. terminale. The locality Handei ( T 3, Lushoto) cited in the protologue by both Dammer for his S. plousianthemum (for which Holst 8927 is a syntype) and later by Bitter for his var. conglutinans  (for which Holst 8927 becomes an isotype) is not given on the labels of any of the duplicate specimens. All plant parts on these specimens are glabrescent, with the inflorescences being multi-(± 65)-flowered and typical of S. terminale. The isotype of S. plousianthemum Dammer var. ugandae is another poor fragmentary specimen; though most of the flowers are only in bud their floral morphology suggests that this taxon is a synonym of S. terminale.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U2 U 3 & 4; K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Range: From Nigeria, Togo, Gabon, Congo-Kinshasa, Cameroon, Burundi, Rwanda, Congo-Kinshasa, Sudan, to Ethiopia, and south to Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa Range: Mascarenes

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Comoros, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum terminale Forssk. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Feb 1, 2014 Greenway, P.J. [13883], Kenya K000788788
    Feb 1, 2014 Gillett, J.B. [16771], Kenya K000788796
    Feb 1, 2014 Gillett, J.B. [19032], Kenya K000788799
    Feb 1, 2014 Troupin, G. [6631], Rwanda K000788654
    Feb 1, 2014 Bally, P.R.O. [B4577], Kenya K000788790
    Feb 1, 2014 Bally, P.R.O. [B1121], Kenya K000788800
    Feb 1, 2014 Andrews, F.W. [A1430], Sudan K000788675
    Feb 1, 2014 Hepper, F.N. [4976], Kenya K000788795
    Feb 1, 2014 Napier, E.R. [5337], Kenya K000788783
    Feb 1, 2014 Tanner, R.E.S. [3221], Tanzania K000788747
    Feb 1, 2014 Tanner, R.E.S. [4703], Tanzania K000788825
    Feb 1, 2014 Lawton, R.M. [2155], Tanzania K000788827
    Feb 1, 2014 Hendrichx, F.L. [1288], Congo K000788657
    Feb 1, 2014 Burtt, B.D. [1141], Tanzania K000788753
    Feb 1, 2014 Robertson, S.A. [445], Tanzania K000788745
    Feb 1, 2014 Faulkner, H.G. [4603], Tanzania K000788842
    Feb 1, 2014 Norman, E.M. [222], Uganda K000788725
    Feb 1, 2014 Stauffer, H.U. [1043], Congo K000788653
    Feb 1, 2014 Cribb, P.J. [10489], Tanzania K000788723
    Feb 1, 2014 Cribb, P.J. [11340], Tanzania K000788739
    Feb 1, 2014 Cribb, P.J. [10489], Tanzania K000788761
    Feb 1, 2014 Cribb, P.J. [10489], Tanzania K000788762
    Feb 1, 2014 Cribb, P.J. [10441], Tanzania K000788763
    Feb 1, 2014 Cribb, P.J. [10080], Tanzania K000788826
    Feb 1, 2014 Cribb, P.J. [10080], Tanzania K000788847
    Feb 1, 2014 Wright, J.M. [6], Tanzania K000788824
    Feb 1, 2014 Brummitt, R.K. [8112], Tanzania K000788737
    Feb 1, 2014 Archbold, M.E. [216], Tanzania K000788841
    Feb 1, 2014 Bauer, P.J. [44], Cameroon K000788665
    Feb 1, 2014 Mabberley, D.J. [1346], Tanzania K000788755
    Feb 1, 2014 Mabberley, D.J. [199], Kenya K000788814
    Feb 1, 2014 Verdcourt, B. [653], Kenya K000788791
    Feb 1, 2014 Thulin, M. [2916], Tanzania K000788764
    Feb 1, 2014 Bidgood, S. [1674], Tanzania K000788782
    Feb 1, 2014 Abdallah, R. [96/257], Tanzania K000788849
    Feb 1, 2014 Abdallah, R. [96/257], Tanzania K000788850
    Feb 1, 2014 Breteler, F.J. [1205], Cameroon K000788667
    Feb 1, 2014 Linder, D.H. [2432], Congo K000788648
    Feb 1, 2014 Batty, M. [983], Tanzania K000788836
    Feb 1, 2014 Lynes, H. [Fr-57], Tanzania K000788775
    Feb 1, 2014 Grimshaw, J.M. [9379], Tanzania K000788837
    Feb 1, 2014 Whittall, E. [28], Kenya K000788810
    Feb 1, 2014 Whyte, A. [s.n.], Kenya K000788802
    Feb 1, 2014 Whyte, A. [s.n.], Kenya K000788803
    Feb 1, 2014 Whyte, A. [s.n.], Kenya K000788804
    Feb 1, 2014 Dowson, W.J. [608], Kenya K000788797
    Feb 1, 2014 Dowson, W.J. [17], Kenya K000788805
    Feb 1, 2014 Snowden, J.D. [889a], Uganda K000788728
    Feb 1, 2014 Rogers, F.A. [10182], Congo K000788658
    Feb 1, 2014 Chandler, H.P. [2216], Kenya K000788820
    Feb 1, 2014 Lebrun, J. [8979], Congo K000788662
    Feb 1, 2014 Lebrun, J. [8408], Congo K000788663
    Feb 1, 2014 Borhidi, A. [86260], Tanzania K000788750
    Feb 1, 2014 Newbould, J.B. [5699], Tanzania K000788746
    Feb 1, 2014 Loveridge, M.V. [639], Congo K000788661
    Feb 1, 2014 Bequaert, J. [3744], Congo K000788664
    Feb 1, 2014 Dümmer, R.A. [5127], Uganda K000788726
    Feb 1, 2014 Frimodt-Moller, C. [NG041], Tanzania K000788774
    Feb 1, 2014 Pierlot, R. [2771], Congo K000788650
    Feb 1, 2014 Pierlot, R. [2771], Congo K000788651
    Feb 1, 2014 Hornby, A.J. [36], Tanzania K000788767
    Feb 1, 2014 Zerny, H. [350], Tanzania K000788780
    Feb 1, 2014 Witte, G.F. de [8843], Congo K000788655
    Feb 1, 2014 Mortimer, M.J. [T-114], Kenya K000788808
    Feb 1, 2014 Beesley, J.S.S. [285], Tanzania K000788759
    Feb 1, 2014 Mbago, F.M. [1729], Tanzania K000788786
    Feb 1, 2014 Gobbo, G. [671], Tanzania K000788741
    Feb 1, 2014 Ben, D. van der [548], Congo K000788656
    Feb 1, 2014 Hørlyck, V. [TZ-454], Tanzania K000788770
    Feb 1, 2014 Leyser, E.A. de [162], Tanzania K000788773
    Feb 1, 2014 Lebrun, J.P. [4788], Congo K000788659
    Feb 1, 2014 Tweedie Mrs [714], Kenya K000788812
    Feb 1, 2014 Germain, R.G.A. [5920], Congo K000788660
    Feb 1, 2014 Richards, H.M. Mrs [14331], Tanzania K000788740
    Feb 1, 2014 Maas Geesternanus, R.A. [5246], Kenya K000788789
    Feb 1, 2014 Maas Geesternanus, R.A. [5894], Kenya K000788816
    Feb 1, 2014 Maas Geesternanus, R.A. [4905], Kenya K000788817
    Feb 1, 2014 Maas Geesternanus, R.A. [5525], Kenya K000788818
    Feb 1, 2014 Maas Geesternanus, R.A. [5740], Kenya K000788821
    Feb 1, 2014 Maas Geesternanus, R.A. [5378], Kenya K000788822
    Feb 1, 2014 Poc's, T. [89011/C], Tanzania K000788732
    Feb 1, 2014 Poc's, T. [89002/C], Tanzania K000788733
    Feb 1, 2014 Poc's, T. [88179/W], Tanzania K000788760
    Feb 1, 2014 ? [5027], Congo K000788652
    Feb 1, 2014 Richards, M Mrs [24031], Tanzania K000788720
    Feb 1, 2014 Kisena, ? [842], Tanzania K000788721
    Feb 1, 2014 Kisena, ? [137], Tanzania K000788846
    Feb 1, 2014 Chandler, R. [959], Uganda K000788724
    Feb 1, 2014 Jack, C Mrs [s.n.], Uganda K000788727
    Feb 1, 2014 Richards, HM Mrs [14194], Tanzania K000788730
    Feb 1, 2014 Richards, HM Mrs [21732], Tanzania K000788731
    Feb 1, 2014 Richards, HM Mrs [7692], Tanzania K000788736
    Feb 1, 2014 Richards, HM Mrs [7639], Tanzania K000788742
    Feb 1, 2014 Richards, HM Mrs [18618], Tanzania K000788743
    Feb 1, 2014 Richards, HM Mrs [14308], Tanzania K000788744
    Feb 1, 2014 Richards, HM Mrs [19926], Tanzania K000788754
    Feb 1, 2014 Richards, HM Mrs [15628], Tanzania K000788766
    Feb 1, 2014 Richards, HM Mrs [22005], Tanzania K000788784
    Feb 1, 2014 Richards, HM Mrs [25346], Tanzania K000788829
    Feb 1, 2014 Richards, HM Mrs [27244], Tanzania K000788832
    Feb 1, 2014 Richards, HM Mrs [21871], Tanzania K000788833
    Feb 1, 2014 Henlocker, D. [342], Tanzania K000788734
    Feb 1, 2014 Henlocker, D. [246], Tanzania K000788738
    Feb 1, 2014 Manktelow, M. [91009], Tanzania K000788756
    Feb 1, 2014 Clair-Thompson, ? [977], Tanzania K000788785
    Feb 1, 2014 Mettam, R.V. [178], Kenya K000788801
    Feb 1, 2014 Jex-Blake, A.J. [332], Kenya K000788819
    Feb 1, 2014 Damaris [2], Tanzania K000788848
    Jan 1, 2014 Zenker, G. [3473], Cameroon K000788597
    Jan 1, 2011 Kiriki, P. [KMK 79], Kenya K000662266
    Jan 1, 2009 Hunt, L. V. [64], Cameroon K000518865
    Jan 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [5843], Cameroon K000541994
    Jan 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [5400], Cameroon K000541995
    Jan 1, 2008 Baker, W.J. [231], Cameroon K000541983
    Jan 1, 2008 Cable, S. [179], Cameroon K000518861
    Jan 1, 2008 Faucher, P. [32], Cameroon K000541997
    Jun 1, 2007 Carvalho, M.F. do [4232], Equatorial Guinea K000788587
    Jun 1, 2007 Carvalho, M.F. do [4274], Equatorial Guinea K000788612
    Jun 1, 2006 Cheek, M. [11597], Cameroon K000339800
    Jun 1, 2006 Onana, J.-M. [2897], Cameroon K000339799
    Jun 1, 2006 Tadjouteu, F. [575], Cameroon K000339798
    Jul 5, 2005 Stolz, A. [1159], Tanzania K000788777
    Jul 5, 2005 Stolz, A. [1159], Tanzania K000788778
    Jul 5, 2005 Bruce, E.M. [463], Tanzania K000788722
    Mar 1, 2005 Tchiengue, B. [1924], Cameroon K000437376
    Mar 1, 2005 Kenneth Tah [291], Cameroon K000436751
    Jan 1, 2004 Lane, P. [115], Cameroon K000109683
    Jan 1, 2004 Cable, S. [3780], Cameroon K000109682
    Jan 1, 2004 Etuge, M. [2754], Cameroon K000109681
    Jan 1, 2004 Etuge, M. [1324], Cameroon K000109684
    Jan 1, 2004 Etuge, M. [1811], Cameroon K000109686
    Jan 1, 2004 Pollard, B.J. [953], Cameroon K000212998
    Jan 1, 2004 Zapfack, L. [682], Cameroon K000109685
    Jan 1, 2004 Onana, J.-M. [1982], Cameroon K000212997
    Jul 5, 2002 Gilbert, M.G. [8417], Ethiopia K000788673
    Jul 5, 2002 Friis, I. [7011], Ethiopia K000788672
    Jan 1, 1993 Jaff, B. [39], Cameroon K000541999
    Jan 1, 1993 Mbani, J. M. [119], Cameroon K000190189
    Jan 1, 1993 Tekwe, C. [128], Cameroon K000190188
    Jan 1, 1992 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1348], Cameroon K000518864
    May 1, 1989 Swynnerton, C.F.M. [86], Zimbabwe K000414111
    Jul 1, 1961 Troupin, G. [3196], Rwanda K000788631
    Jul 1, 1961 Troupin, G. [3196], Rwanda K000788632
    Jul 1, 1961 Procter, J.E.A. [1055], Tanzania K000788823
    Jul 1, 1961 Haarer, A.E. [995], Tanzania K000788831
    Jul 1, 1961 Koritschoner, H. [609], Tanzania K000788748
    Jul 1, 1961 Koritschoner, H. [1270], Tanzania K000788835
    Jul 1, 1961 Koritschoner, H. [1351], Tanzania K000788838
    Jul 1, 1961 Koritschoner, H. [866], Tanzania K000788843
    Apr 1, 1949 Wallace, G.B. [1164], Tanzania K000788839
    Jul 6, 1905 Lebrun, J.P. [4933], Congo K000788649
    Jul 6, 1905 Richards, H.M. Mrs [18480], Tanzania K000788729
    Jul 5, 1905 Troupin, G. [3795], Congo K000788601
    Jul 5, 1905 Troupin, G. [5975], Rwanda K000788635
    Jul 5, 1905 Jones, A.P.D. [s.n.], Nigeria K000788580
    Jul 5, 1905 Jones, A.P.D. [s.n.], Nigeria K000788581
    Jul 5, 1905 Jones, A.P.D. [s.n.], Nigeria K000788582
    Jul 5, 1905 Jaeger, P. [8531], Sierra Leone K000788579
    Jul 5, 1905 Jeffrey, C. [199], Gabon K000788611
    Jul 5, 1905 Jeffrey, C. [36], Gabon K000788629
    Jul 5, 1905 Louis, J. [2397], Congo K000788593
    Jul 5, 1905 Louis, J. [981], Congo K000788600
    Jul 5, 1905 Boughey, A.S. [190], Equatorial Guinea K000788584
    Jul 5, 1905 Mann, G. [s.n.] K000788638
    Jul 5, 1905 Friis, I. [683], Sudan K000788615
    Jul 5, 1905 Letouzey, R. [15019], Cameroon K000788586
    Jul 5, 1905 Letouzey, R. [12219], Cameroon K000788619
    Jul 5, 1905 Letouzey, R. [12219], Cameroon K000788666
    Jul 5, 1905 Bridson, D.M. [488], Rwanda K000788630
    Jul 5, 1905 Lewalle, J. [6352], Burundi K000788637
    Jul 5, 1905 Jackson, J.K. [3045], Sudan K000788613
    Jul 5, 1905 Breteler, F.J. [2200], Cameroon K000788618
    Jul 5, 1905 Breteler, F.J. [2888], Cameroon K000788620
    Jul 5, 1905 Breteler, F.J. [2744], Cameroon K000788628
    Jul 5, 1905 Linder, D.H. [1785a], Congo K000788607
    Jul 5, 1905 Leonard, A. [5974], Congo K000391995
    Jul 5, 1905 Leonard, A. [932], Congo K000788624
    Jul 5, 1905 Humblot, L. [284], Comoros K000788514
    Jul 5, 1905 Lebrun, J. [5705], Congo K000788622
    Jul 5, 1905 Hallé, N. [5868], Gabon K000788610
    Jul 5, 1905 Guinea, E. [1146], Equatorial Guinea K000788583
    Jul 5, 1905 Guinea, E. [1144], Equatorial Guinea K000788585
    Jul 5, 1905 Mildbraed, G.W.J. [9294], Cameroon K000788616
    Jul 5, 1905 Mildbraed, G.W.J. [9264], Cameroon K000788617
    Jul 5, 1905 Mildbraed, G.W.J. [9057], Cameroon K000788621
    Jul 5, 1905 Evrard, C. [2975], Congo K000788604
    Jul 5, 1905 Reekmans, M. [6747], Burundi K000788626
    Jul 5, 1905 Reekmans, M. [6848], Burundi K000788636
    Jul 5, 1905 Gutzwiller, R. [yamada3406], Congo K000788623
    Jul 5, 1905 Ghesquiere, J. [3486], Congo K000788602
    Jul 5, 1905 Ghesquiere, J. [3486], Congo K000788603
    Jul 5, 1905 Vermoesen, F.C.M. [1564], Congo K000788594
    Jul 5, 1905 Yamada, T. [257], Congo K000788625
    Jul 5, 1905 Compère, P. [160], Congo K000788609
    Jul 5, 1905 Zenker, G. [3884], Cameroon K000788598
    Jul 5, 1905 Zenker, G. [3884], Cameroon K000788627
    Jul 5, 1905 Anonymous [7375], Congo K000788590
    Jul 5, 1905 Anonymous [981], Congo K000788599
    Jul 5, 1905 Staner, P. [1528], Congo K000788588
    Jul 5, 1905 Corbisier-Baland, AAPJG [1034], Congo K000788589
    Jul 5, 1905 Gillardin, J. [1094], Congo K000788591
    Jul 5, 1905 Gillardin, J. [317], Congo K000788592
    Jul 5, 1905 Gillardin, J. [202], Congo K000788595
    Jul 5, 1905 Robyns, A. [684], Congo K000788605
    Jul 5, 1905 Robyns, A. [734], Congo K000788608
    Jul 5, 1905 Menavanga [62], Congo K000788606
    Jul 5, 1905 Hamdi, O. [38], Sudan K000788614
    Jun 23, 1905 Mhoro, B. [UMBCP474], Tanzania K000788757
    Jun 10, 1905 Lovett, J.C. [632], Tanzania K000788769
    Gillett, J.B. [17990], Tanzania K000788779
    Drummond, R.B. [2410], Tanzania K000788749
    Drummond, R.B. [3155], Tanzania K000788844
    Drummond, R.B. [3155], Tanzania K000788845
    Polhill, R. [1479], Tanzania K000788765
    Polhill, R. [1479], Tanzania K000788772
    Polhill, R. [2341], Tanzania K000788834
    Fanshawe, D.B. [F11210], Zambia K001158812
    Milne-Redhead, E. [8909], Tanzania K000788787
    Glover, P.E. [1092], Kenya K000788794
    Maitland, T.D. [1690], Cameroon K000028556
    Kirk, J. [s.n.] K001158811
    Townsend, C.C. [2378], Kenya K001158165
    Wood, J.R.I. [1864], Yemen K001152189
    Bridson, D.M. [415], Rwanda K000788634
    Bidgood, S. [368], Tanzania K000788768
    Bidgood, S. [368], Tanzania K000788776
    Swynnerton, C.F.M. [86], Zimbabwe K000414112 isotype
    Perdue, R.E. [8252], Kenya K000788792
    Snowden, J.D. [889/a], Uganda K001158164
    Mgaza, C.D. [120], Tanzania K000788758
    Reekmans, M. [7184], Burundi K000788647
    Thonner, F. [96], Congo, DRC K000414043
    Harris, T. [532], Malawi K000614614
    Shabani, S. [318], Tanzania K000788751
    Massawe, G. [DA75], Tanzania K000788771
    Ngoundai [222], Tanzania K000788752
    Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [3723], Zambia K000788936
    Ujor, E.U. [FHI 30026], Cameroon K000028554
    Richards, H.M. Mrs [20353], Tanzania K000788828
    Richards, H.M. Mrs [26922], Tanzania K000788830
    Richards, H.M. Mrs [26922], Tanzania K000788840
    Stewart, R.B. [B19], Ethiopia K000788674
    Machangu, ? [67], Tanzania K000788781
    Nahier, E.R. [1132], Kenya K000788861
    Drummond, R.B. [3155], Tanzania Solanum bifurcatum 17708.000

    Bibliography

    First published in Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 45 (1775)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • White, Dowsett-Lemaire & Chapman, Evergreen For. Fl. Malawi: 554 (2001).
    • Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl., ed. 2: 242, t. 105 (1994).
    • Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs & Lianas: 583 (1994).
    • Fl. Rwanda 3: 382 (1985).
    • Troupin, Fl. Pl. Lign. Rwanda: 658 (1982)
    • Compton, Fl. Swaziland: 518 (1976).
    • Fanshawe, Check-list Woody Pl. Zambia Showing Distrib.: 40 (1973).
    • Binns, First Check List Herb. Fl. Malawi: 99 (1968).
    • Bull. Jard. Bot. État 33, Suppl.: 879 (1963).
    • F. White, For. Fl. Northern Rhodesia: 436 (1962).
    • Kew Bull. 14: 247 (1960).
    • Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 301 (1922).
    • Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 45 (1775).

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Eth. 5: 114 (2006).
    • F.Z. 8(4): 77 (2005);
    • Fl. Egypt, Solanaceae, Family 159: 45 (1998);
    • Bothalia 25(1): 49 (1995);
    • Fl. Madagascar, Solanaceae: 126 (1994);
    • K.T.S.L.: 583 (1994);
    • U.W.F.K., 2nd ed.: 242 (1994);
    • Hepper & Friis, Pl. Forssk. Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 233 (1994);
    • Pak. J. Bot., 23: 273 (1991)
    • Fl. Rwanda 3: 382 (1985)
    • Jaeger, Syst. studies Solanum in Africa: 277 (1985, ined.);
    • E.P.A.: 879 (1963):
    • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2:331 (1963)
    • F.F.N.R.: 436 (1962)
    • Polhill, Solanum in E & NE Africa: 9 (ined., 1961)
    • K.B. 14: 247 (1960)
    • F.R. 18: 301 (1922)
    • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 105 (1852)
    • G. Don, Gen. Hist. Dichlam. Pl.: 415 (1837)
    • Dunal, Synopsis: 17 (1816)
    • Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 45 (1775)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0