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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum usaramense Dammer

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Kenya to Mozambique.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Type
    Type from Tanzania.
    General
    Climbing to sprawling perennial herb to small shrub up to 2 m; sympodia difoliate; hairs stellate, ± short stalked, regular or irregular, thinly radiate, often bearing a very short central ray; prickles yellowish ± fuscescent, shining, 0.5–3 mm long, 0.2–2.5 mm wide at the base, laterally compressed, broadly based, ± recurved, striate, with a few stellate hairs downwards or quite glabrous
    Branches
    Branches often much elongated, slender, whitish tomentose when young, becoming ashy-grey hairy with age, moderately or densely prickly Branches often much elongated, slender, whitish tomentose when young, becoming ashy-grey hairy with age, moderately or densely prickly.
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary; petiole 5–25 mm long; lamina membranous, 1. 5–6.5 × 1–4.3 cm, ovate or elliptic to sub-orbicular, base rounded-obtuse, truncate or sub-cordate and ± unequal-sided, apex rounded to acute, entire to repand-lobed, the lobes very obtuse or rounded, finely tomentose at first, becoming thinly hairy beneath and to a lesser extent above, with 2–4 pairs of curved-ascending lateral nerves, unarmed or with a few scattered prickles along the midvein beneath Leaves solitary; petiole 5–25 mm long; lamina membranous, 1.5–6.5 × 1–4.3 cm, ovate or elliptic to sub-orbicular, base rounded-obtuse, truncate or sub-cordate and ± unequal-sided, apex rounded to acute, entire to repand-lobed, the lobes very obtuse or rounded, finely tomentose at first, becoming thinly hairy beneath and to a lesser extent above, with 2–4 pairs of curved-ascending lateral nerves, unarmed or with a few scattered prickles along the midvein beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes appearing lateral, leaf-remote, unbranched or rarely once-forked, racemiform, 2–6 cm long, 2–10-flowered, tomentose to sparsely hairy, often with a few recurved to nearly straight prickles, all flowers hermaphrodite and fertile, occasionally the flowers solitary; peduncle 0–10 mm long; rhachis 2–45 mm long, gradually elongate to 85 mm in fruit Cymes appearing lateral, leaf-remote, unbranched or rarely once-forked, racemiform, 2–6 cm long, 2–10-flowered, tomentose to sparsely hairy, often with a few recurved to nearly straight prickles, all flowers hermaphrodite and fertile, occasionally the flowers solitary; peduncle 0–10 mm long; rhachis 2–45 mm long, gradually elongate to 85 mm in fruit.
    Flowers
    Flowers (4)5-merous. Flowers (4)5-merous; pedicels 6–17 mm long, slender but thickened distally, with dense hairs and sparse recurved prickles, in fruit elongate to 25 mm, very thickened distally, deflexed.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 6–17 mm long, slender but thickened distally, with dense hairs and sparse recurved prickles, in fruit elongate to 25 mm, very thickened distally, deflexed
    Calyx
    Calyx (2)2.5–5 mm long, 4–5 mm across, very accrescent, shortly campanulate or cupular, deeply lobed, tomentose to ± hairy, with curved or ± straight prickles; lobes ± unequal, 0.5–3.5 × 1–1. 5 mm, ovate-triangular or lanceolate, acute, in fruit enlarged to 5(6) × 2(2.5) mm, curved out at the apex, later ± spreading Calyx (2)2.5–5 mm long, 4–5 mm across, very accrescent, shortly campanulate or cupular, deeply lobed, tomentose to ± hairy, with curved or ± straight prickles; lobes ± unequal, 0.5–3.5 × 1–1.5 mm, ovate-triangular or lanceolate, acute, in fruit enlarged to 5(6) × 2(2.5) mm, curved out at the apex, later ± spreading.
    Corolla
    Corolla purplish to bluish, stelliform; limb 11–20 mm across; lobes 7–10 × 1. 2–3 mm, lanceolate, slightly acute, tomentose outside and with hairs along the midrib inside, ± reflexed Corolla purplish to bluish, stelliform; limb 11–20 mm across; lobes 7–10 × 1.2–3 mm, lanceolate, slightly acute, tomentose outside and with hairs along the midrib inside, ± reflexed.
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments 0.7–1. 5 mm long; anthers 6–7 × 1–1. 5 mm, lanceolate-elliptic in outline, not very emarginate at the ends Stamen filaments 0.7–1.5 mm long; anthers 6–7 × 1–1.5 mm, lanceolate-elliptic in outline, not very emarginate at the ends.
    Ovary
    Ovary c.  1 × 0.8 mm, ovoid-subglobose, glabrous.
    Style
    Style 10–12 mm long, exceeding the stamens, straight or ± curved at the apex
    Ecology
    Coastal bushland and thickets, habitations and disturbed places; low altitudes.
    Distribution
    Mozambique Also in coastal Tanzania. MOZ Z, MOZ GI, MOZ M
    Habit
    Climbing to sprawling perennial herb to small shrub up to 2 m; sympodia difoliate; hairs stellate, ± short stalked, regular or irregular, thinly radiate, often bearing a very short central ray; prickles yellowish ± fuscescent, shining, 0.5–3 mm long, 0.2–2.5 mm wide at the base, laterally compressed, broadly based, ± recurved, striate, with a few stellate hairs downwards or quite glabrous.
    Pistil
    Ovary c. 1 × 0.8 mm, ovoid-subglobose, glabrous; style 10–12 mm long, exceeding the stamens, straight or ± curved at the apex.
    Fruits
    Fruit shining red when ripe, drying dirty fuscescent, 8–11 mm in diameter, globose. Fruit shining red when ripe, drying dirty fuscescent, 8–11 mm in diameter, globose
    Seeds
    Seeds ± numerous, pale fuscescent, sub shining, 3–3.5 × 2.5–3 mm, much compressed, oblique-reniform, manifestly reticulate all over. Seeds ± numerous, pale fuscescent, sub shining, 3–3.5 × 2.5–3 mm, much compressed, oblique-reniform, manifestly reticulate all over
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: Tanzania, Usaramo, Bunha, Stuhlmann 7066 (B†, holo.; GOET!, lecto., designated by Vorontsova & Knapp in Taxon 59: 1600, 2010)
    General
    Prostrate or climbing subshrub to 3 m, armed; young stems densely stellatepubescent, trichomes porrect, white-translucent, stalked, stalks (0.1–)0.2–0.3(0.4) mm, rays (5–)6–8, 0.1–0.4 mm, midpoints short or up to 0.2(–0.5) mm; prickles ± 1(–3) mm long, 0.2–0.5 mm wide at base, curved, flattened
    Leaves
    Leaf blades drying strongly discolorous, green-brown or yellow-green, ovate to elliptic, 3–8 × 1.5–4 cm, ± 2 times longer than wide, base cuneate to rounded, often unequal, margin almost entire to weakly lobed, the lobes 1–3 on each side, up to 5 mm long, broadly rounded, apically rounded, extending up to 1/3 of the distance to the midvein; apex rounded to acute; densely stellate-pubescent on both sides, trichomes on abaxial surface porrect, stalked, stalks 0.1–0.3 mm, rays ± 8, 0.15–0.3 mm, midpoints up to 0.1 mm long, adaxially with thicker stalks and reduced rays and midpoints; primary veins 3–5(–8) pairs; petiole 0.5–2 cm, 1/3–1/5 of the leaf length
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences not branched, 3–5 cm long, with 2–10 flowers; peduncle 0–5(–10) mm long; rachis 0.5–4.5 cm long; peduncle and rachis with 2–20 prickles; pedicels 0.6–0.8(–1.5) cm long, in fruit 1.2–1.7(–2.5) cm long, with up to 20 prickles
    Flowers
    Flowers perfect, (4–)5merous
    Calyx
    Calyx 3–9 mm long, lobes deltate, 1–6 mm long, acute to acuminate, with up to 30 prickles
    Corolla
    Corolla mauve to purple, 2.5–3 cm in diameter, lobed for ± 4/5 of its length, lobes narrowly ovate to deltate, 7–15 × 2–5 mm. Stamens equal; anthers 6–10 mm
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous; style 10–17 mm long
    Fruits
    Berries 2–5 per infructescence, red at maturity, spherical, 8–11 mm in diameter
    Seeds
    Seeds 2.5–3.5 × 2.5–3 mm
    Ecology
    Coastal bushland, thickets, disturbed places; 0–500 m
    Note
    Solanum usaramense is a distinctive climber, easily recognised by its dense covering of small uniform hooked prickles, strongly discolorous leaves, fairly big flowers, and trichomes with stalks 0.2–0.3 mm long. It spends the dry season as unremarkable-looking spiny twigs with almost no leaves or flowers. Anecdotal evidence suggests it is one of the first species to be eaten by goats. The name Solanum monotanthum Dammer has been erroneously applied to populations of Solanum usaramense in coastal Kenya and Tanzania. Type material of S. monotanthum found in GOET demonstrates the name S. monotanthum is actually a synonym of S. zanzibarense Vatke.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: K7 T3 T6 Range: Mozambique

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum usaramense Dammer appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2011 Malombe, I. [3MRI 1641], Kenya K000662267
    Jun 30, 1905 Drummond, R.B. [3661], Tanzania K000441592
    Jun 30, 1905 Faulkner, H.G. [3163], Tanzania K000441590
    Jun 30, 1905 Faulkner, H.G. [1410], Tanzania K000441593
    Jun 30, 1905 Battiscombe, E. [772], Kenya K000441588
    Jun 30, 1905 Vaughan, J.H. [1833], Tanzania K000441589
    Jun 30, 1905 Richards, H.M. Mrs [21975], Tanzania K000441591
    Barbosa, L.A.G. [8516], Mozambique K001158865
    Balsinhas, A.A. [728] K001158864

    Bibliography

    First published in Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 353 (1895)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Brenan & Greenway, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 581 (1949).
    • Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 16: 133 (1923).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 38: 190 (1906).
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 246 (1906).
    • Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C: 353 (1895)

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • F.Z. 8(4): 100 (2005).
    • T.T.C.L.: 581 (1949)
    • P.O.A. C: 353 (1895)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0