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  1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Melochia L.
      1. Melochia corchorifolia L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FTEA]

    Sterculiaceae, Martin Cheek & Laurence Dorr; Nesogordonia, Laurence Dorr, Lisa Barnett. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2007

    Type
    Lectotype (“as type”), selected by Goldberg (1967: 305): India, “Melochia corchori folio,” Dillenius, Hort Eltham.: t. 176, fig. 217 (1732), based on a specimen in Herb. Dillenius (OXF)
    Habit
    Annual or perennial herb or subshrub, 0.4–2.5 m tall.
    Stem
    Stems erect or decumbent, with scattered stellate and sometimes also bifurcate and simple hairs, often with a line of stellate hairs decurrent from the stipule bases
    Leaves
    Leaves narrowly ovate or ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 1.5–7.5 cm long, 0.8–3.8 cm wide, apex acute, margin irregularly crenate-serrate, base cuneate to truncate, membranaceous, sparsely hispidulous, a few simple (rarely stellate) hairs on the midrib above and veins below; 5-nerved; petiole 0.4–3.8 cm long, pubescent on the upper surface at least with mostly simple but also bifurcate and stellate hairs; stipules subulate-lanceolate, 6–10 mm long, 1–2 mm wide, margins ciliolate, often persisting
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences dense terminal or rarely axillary cymes with 5–25 flowers each; peduncle to 7.5 cm long, hispidulous; bracts numerous, 8–9 mm long, 0.5–2 mm wide, outer bracts stipule-like, subulatelanceolate to falcate, inner ones linear to filiform, often the 4 bracts immediately subtending the calyx forming an involucre, margins ciliolate
    Flowers
    Flowers homomorphic (all brevistylous in material examined)
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, 2–3.5 mm long, hispidulous without, glabrous within, the lobes widely deltoid, 0.4–0.6 mm long, 0.8–1 mm wide, with abruptly acuminate teeth, margins ciliolate
    Corolla
    Petals obovate to oblanceolate, shortly clawed, 3–5.5(–8) mm long, 1–2.5 mm wide, white with yellow (or green) throat, rarely yellow, pink or pale pink (Zanzibar material), glabrous
    Stamens
    Stamens adherent to the petals below, or almost entirely free, ± 2–2.5 mm long, filaments united in a tube almost to apex, ± 2 mm long, free portion of filaments at most 1 mm long
    Ovary
    Ovary oblong-ovoid, 1.5–2(–3) mm long, 1–2 mm in diameter; densely pilose; styles ± 1–1.5 mm long, free or sometimes slightly connate below, papillate
    Fruits
    Capsule depressed-globose with 5 ± rounded angles, 4–5 mm long, 4–5 mm in diameter, hispidulous; 1(–2) seed per loculus.
    Seeds
    Seed ± trigonal with rounded dorsal and two flat surfaces, 2–2.5 mm long, 1–1.5 mm wide, blackish-brown or greyish, testa minutely striate
    Figures
    Fig. 21, p 124
    Ecology
    A weed of cultivation, roadsides, and grassland, often in wet areas; 0–950 m
    Conservation
    A widespread and common weedy species, here assessed as of Least Concern for conservation.
    Distribution
    Range: Tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia, and Australia Flora districts: U2 U3 U 4 ; K7 T1 T3 T4 T5 T6 T8 Z P Range: Introduced in tropical and subtropical America
    [FZ]

    Sterculiaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Erect annual herb up to c. 2 m. tall but often less; stems glabrescent but with a line of stellate hairs decurrent from the stipule bases.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina up to c. 7 × 4·5 cm., oblong-lanceolate, narrowly ovate or ovate, apex acute, margin acutely serrate, base broadly cuneate or truncate and 5-nerved, thinly hispidulous at least on the nerves below; petiole up to 2·3 cm. long, pubescent at least on the upper surface; stipules c. 1 cm. long, subulate-lanceolate, margins ciliolate.
    Flowers
    Flowers numerous, in dense terminal or axillary cymes; peduncle up to 5 cm. long; pedicels 1–3 mm. long, hispidulous; bracts 4–10 mm. long, numerous, subulate-lanceolate, ciliolate at the margins.
    Calyx
    Calyx 3 mm. long, campanulate, with very short abruptly acuminate teeth, ciliolate.
    Corolla
    Petals white, yellow at the base inside, c. 8 mm., obovate.
    Stamens
    Stamens adherent to the petals below; filaments united in a tube almost to the apex, about 1/2 the length of the petals, free portion of filaments c. 1 mm. long; pairs of anther-thecae connate in the lower half, free above.
    Pistil
    Ovary oblong-ovoid, densely pilose; styles 5, slightly connate below, c. 2 mm. long, hirsute.
    Fruits
    Capsule 5 mm. in diam., subglobose, hispidulous, 5-valved, surrounded by the persistent calyx and bracts.
    Seeds
    Seeds c. 3 × 2·5 mm., 1 per loculus, dark brown or greyish, 3-sided; testa minutely striate.
    [FWTA]

    Sterculiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    Herb or undershrub, -11/2–2 ft. or more
    Stem
    Hollow stems, erect or sometimes prostrate
    Flowers
    Flowers small, white or sometimes yellowish or pinkish
    Ecology
    More common in wet places.
    [FTEA]
    Use
    In Kenya, the leaves are eaten as a vegetable ( Graham 1717). They are also used to treat unspecified stomach diseases ( Jeffrey K.518).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Kenya, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, Philippines, Qinghai, Queensland, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Arkansas, Fiji, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Korea, Louisiana, Mauritius, Mississippi, Nicobar Is., North Carolina, Panamá, Réunion, South Carolina, Texas

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Melochia corchorifolia L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Roger [119], Senegal K000241648
    Senegambia [494], Senegal K000241649
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1196], Myanmar K001112377
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 1196], Myanmar K001112378
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 1196] K001112379
    Glaziou, A. [14518], Brazil K001212756
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132307
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132308
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1196] K001112380
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1196] K001112381
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1196] K001112382
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1196] K001112383
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1196] K001112384
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1196] K001112385
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1196] K001112386
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1196] K001112387
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1196] K001112388
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1198], Myanmar Melochia affinis K001112390
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1197] Melochia concatenata K001112389

    Bibliography

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 675 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lejoly, J. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo): Familles des Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae Taxonomania 29: 1-41.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Singh, M. & Ali, S.J. (2008). A study on aquatic Angiosperms of district Mau (East U.P.) Journal of East African Natural History 32: 877-890.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Cheek, M. & Dorr, L. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Sterculiaceae: 1-134.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1995). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 9: 1-482. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1987). Flore des Mascareignes 51-62: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Brenan, J.P.M. (1970). Flora Zambesiaca 3(1): 1-153. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Chev. Bot. 84.
    • K. Schum. in Engl. Monogr. Afr. Sterculiac. 41, t. 39
    • —F.T.A. 1: 236

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lejoly, J. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo): Familles des Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae Taxonomania 29: 1-41.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Singh, M. & Ali, S.J. (2008). A study on aquatic Angiosperms of district Mau (East U.P.) Journal of East African Natural History 32: 877-890.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Cheek, M. & Dorr, L. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Sterculiaceae: 1-134.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Santisuk, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Thailand 7(3): 351-654. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1995). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 9: 1-482. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1987). Flore des Mascareignes 51-62: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Brenan, J.P.M. (1970). Flora Zambesiaca 3(1): 1-153. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Thulin, Fl. Som. 2: 30, fig. 16/A-E (1999).
    • Fl. Eth. 2(2): 178, fig. 80.6/1–5 (1995)
    • Opera Bot. 59: 34 (1980)
    • Fl. Moçamb. 27: 23, t. 3/B (1979)
    • U.K.W.F.: 193 (1974)
    • Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 34(5): 304 (1967)
    • F.C.B. 10: 256 (1963)
    • F.Z. 1(1): 535, t. 100/B (1961)
    • F.W.T.A., ed. 2, 1(2): 318 (1958)
    • F.P.S. 2: 6 (1952)
    • F.W.T.A., App.: 108 (1937)
    • De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 1: 515 (1922)
    • E.M. 5: 41, t. 3/G (1900)
    • Acad. Roy. Belg., Mém. 53(4): 81 (1896)
    • Engl., P.O.A. C: 271 (1895)
    • F.T.A. 1: 236 (1868)
    • Sp. Pl. 675 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0