1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Sterculia L.
      1. Sterculia appendiculata K.Schum.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Somalia to Mozambique.

    [FTEA]

    Sterculiaceae, Martin Cheek & Laurence Dorr; Nesogordonia, Laurence Dorr, Lisa Barnett. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2007

    Type
    Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: Usambaras, Holst 2529 (K!, iso.)
    Habit
    Deciduous tree 12–40 m tall.
    Bole
    Bole straight, bark smooth, pale grey or greenish yellow or white, usually with short buttresses up to 20 m high, slash white.
    Branches
    Flora districts: Ultimate branchlets strongly longitudinally ridged, (3–)5–8(–18) mm thick, pale brown or grey brown, glabrous except the rusty, thickly woolly apex; bud-scales triangular, ± 3 mm long, 2 mm wide, rusty and scurfy when young
    Leaves
    Leaf-blade ± orbicular in outline, shallowly (3–5–)7–lobed, 10–24 cm long, 7–19 cm wide, lobes widely based, acuminate, apical lobe 4–9 cm long, 5.5–11.5 cm wide, lateral lobes much smaller, 0.5–3.7 cm long, base deeply cordate, sinus 1.5–6 cm deep, edges never overlapping, glabrous above and below when adult, young leaves scurfy with dense rusty tomentum.
    Petiole
    Petiole terete, sometimes slightly swollen at base and tip, 5.5–15.5 cm long, (0.7–)1–2 mm wide, glabrous when mature, scurfily brown-tomentose when young; stipules caducous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence usually borne with the leaves, 1–14 per stem, each 4–11 cm long, 3–5 cm wide, thickly covered in yellow-brown stellate hairs; bearing 6–9 short branches, the lowest 2–22 mm from the base, 4–28 mm long, bearing 1–3(–5) flowers.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 2(–12) mm long; 3 bracts at apex of pedicel, whorled, equal, subvalvate, calyx-like, elliptic, 7 mm long, 3 mm wide, velutinous, outer surface brown, inner purple grey.
    Flowers
    Flowers yellowish, perianth widely campanulate, 12–14 mm long, 18–23 mm wide, divided into 5 elliptic lobes, 6–8 mm long, 4–6.5 mm wide, indumentum as inflorescence, rusty yellow-brown, with stellate hairs, texture felty
    Fruits
    Fruit with undehisced follicles ellipsoid, (5–)7–9 cm long, 3.5–6 cm wide, suture thickened, rostrum short and blunt, 3–5 mm long, stipe absent or very short and stout, 0–7 mm long, surface subscabrid with rusty brown dense stellate tomentum, pericarp woody, 2.5 mm thick increasing to 10 mm thick at the suture; follicle only opening slightly at dehiscence, inner surface glabrous, white, perhaps pulpy at maturity.
    Seeds
    Seeds large, pale yellow, rounded oblong, 15–21 mm long, 10–13 mm wide, hilum ± rounded, 4–5 mm wide, white, lacking an aril, dangling from the fruit on a white thread 1–2 cm long
    Figures
    Fig 1/2, 8, p 6
    Ecology
    Coastal and lowland riverine forest, often left standing on cultivated land, presumably for religious or superstitious reasons; 5–750 m
    Conservation
    This species is here assessed as “Least Concern” in view of its large geographic range and because of its fairly common habitat.
    Note
    The palmately lobed leaves of S. appendiculata are similar in shape and in their large size to those of S. quinqueloba. The latter however, grows in drier forest and has a variegated trunk, the bark flaking off in plates, unlike the smooth whitish trunk of S. appendiculata. The leaves of S. quinqueloba are tomentose beneath, in contrast to the glabrous S. appendiculata. The similarity of the two species is only superficial, they differ very greatly in flowers and fruit. Dorr has shown that Sterculia lindensis Engl., the placement of which has been much debated (e.g. Brenan 1956 loc. cit. placed it tentatively as a synonym of Cola scheffleri K. Schum.), is probably this species (Dorr in K.B. 59: 161 (2004)). The lower altitudinal record was reported by Luke (pers. comm.), his record being “Luke sr Buxton Plot, Vipingo, Kilifi Distr.”.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: K7 T3 T6 T7 T8; Z Range: Somalia, Malawi, Mozambique
    [FZ]

    Sterculiaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Tall tree up to 40 m. tall or even more; bark pale yellow and smooth.
    Leaves
    Leaves towards the ends of the branches, on glabrous or glabrescent petioles c. 12 cm. long; lamina 8–20 × 7–15 cm., broadly cordate-ovate with 3–7 usually caudate-acuminate lobes or angles, glabrous at maturity, c. 7-nerved at the base; petiole up to c. 12 cm. long, glabrous or nearly so.
    Flowers
    Flowers in terminal yellowish-hairy racemes or panicles 10–12 cm. long; bracteoles c. 5 mm. long, caducous, oblong, tomentellous on both sides. Female flower: ovary ovoid, tomentose, with a ring of vestigial subsessile anthers at its base, on a disk-like gynophore c. 1 mm. long; style c. 3 mm. long, tomentose Follicles 2–3, 7–9 × 5–6 cm., ovoid-globose, scarcely apiculate, brown-tomentellous outside. Male flower: anthers numerous, in a capitate-globose cluster on a glabrous androphore c. 4 mm. long with a tomentose disk at its base.
    Calyx
    Calyx 1·2–1·4 cm. long, yellowish-brown or greenish, campanulate, 5–6-lobed to about half-way, tomentose outside and inside except towards the base.
    Male
    Male flower: anthers numerous, in a capitate-globose cluster on a glabrous androphore c. 4 mm. long with a tomentose disk at its base.
    Female
    Female flower: ovary ovoid, tomentose, with a ring of vestigial subsessile anthers at its base, on a disk-like gynophore c. 1 mm. long; style c. 3 mm. long, tomentose Follicles 2–3, 7–9 × 5–6 cm., ovoid-globose, scarcely apiculate, brown-tomentellous outside.
    Seeds
    Seeds c. 2 × 1–3 cm., dark brown, numerous, cylindric or radially compressed, surrounded by a yellow aril or dry pulp similar to that of baobab seeds.
    [FTEA]
    Use
    “Timber has been sawn for box staves at Mikesse, soft, perishable and requiring precautions against borers. Possible use for plywood?” Wigg 1350; “soft timber tree, wood easy to work, not very durable” Semsei 936; “leaves used as a side dish” Barker 464.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania

    Sterculia appendiculata K.Schum. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Holst, C. [2529] K000240947

    First published in Abh. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1894: 36 (1894)

    Accepted by

    • Cheek, M. & Dorr, L. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Sterculiaceae: 1-134.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Cheek, M. & Dorr, L. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Sterculiaceae: 1-134.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • K.T.S.L.: 167, map (1994).
    • F.Z. 1: 554, t.104/B (1961)
    • K.T.S.: 551 (1961)
    • T.T.C.L.: 602 (1949)
    • E.M. 5: 105, t. 9/c (1900)
    • P.O.A. C: 272, t. 24 (1895)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0