1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Sterculia L.
      1. Sterculia mhosya Engl.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to N. Zambia.

    [FZ]

    Sterculiaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree up to c. 8 m. tall; bark dark grey and peeling.
    Leaves
    Leaves collected at the ends of the branches; lamina up to 15 cm. in diam., very broadly cordate-ovate to orbicular, more or less divided into 3–5 acuminate lobes, pubescent on both sides, c. 7-nerved at the base; petiole up to 12 cm. long, glandular-pubescent.
    Flowers
    Flowers dull red or purplish, appearing with the leaves, in terminal panicles up to 12 cm. long; branches of inflorescence sticky with dark purplish, glandular-viscid hairs; bracteoles c. 5 mm. long, linear, glandular-pubescent. Female flower: ovary ovoid, densely pubescent, with a ring of vestigial stamens at the base, on a glabrous gynophore c. 5 mm. long; style 3–4 mm. long, reflexed, pubescent. Male flower: androphore c. 7 mm. long, slender, glabrous; anthers numerous, in a capitate cluster.
    Calyx
    Calyx up to 1·2 cm. long, campanulate, 5–6-lobed rather more than 1/2-way, densely pubescent and somewhat glandular outside, pubescent towards the tips of the lobes inside.
    Male
    Male flower: androphore c. 7 mm. long, slender, glabrous; anthers numerous, in a capitate cluster.
    Female
    Female flower: ovary ovoid, densely pubescent, with a ring of vestigial stamens at the base, on a glabrous gynophore c. 5 mm. long; style 3–4 mm. long, reflexed, pubescent.
    Fruits
    Follicles c. 5, 5–7 × 1–1·5 cm., subsessile, spreading, oblong-cylindric with a very short apiculus, brown-tomentellous outside.
    Seeds
    Seeds 10–20 per follicle, 1–1·5 × 0·7 cm., oblong-ellipsoid; testa black; aril white or orange.
    [FTEA]

    Sterculiaceae, Martin Cheek & Laurence Dorr; Nesogordonia, Laurence Dorr, Lisa Barnett. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2007

    Type
    Types: Tanzania, Kahama District: Usumbwa [Ussumbwa] and Dodoma/Mpwapwa District: Ugogo, Tabora, collector not indicated but probably Braun (presumably B†, holo.); Lushoto District: Usambara Nyembe-Bubungwa, Hammirstein 3079 (EA!, lecto., selected here)
    Habit
    Tree, rarely a shrub, 0.9–10 m tall.
    Bole
    Bole smooth, bark sometimes slightly corrugated, greyish or greenish, papery, thinly flaking; ultimate branchlets usually glossy coppery red, 2.5–6 mm thick, mostly glabrous, but tomentose towards the tip
    Leaves
    Leaf-blade ± orbicular in outline, 3–5(–7)-lobed for half its length, rarely entire, (5–)7–12(–19) cm long, (4.5–)7–16(–22) cm wide, ovate-acuminate, the lobes subequal or the basal lobes partly to completely reduced, usually rounded, 2–7.5 cm long, 2–8 cm long, with a narrowly acuminate tip 1–2.5(–4) cm long, 0.2–0.6(–1) cm wide, base deeply cordate, sinus (0.8–)1–3(–4.5) cm deep, the edges rarely overlapping, margin sometimes repand to rounded serrate, texture papery to thinly leathery, glabrous to subscabrid above, puberulent to subscabrid, rarely glabrous, with scattered stellate hairs beneath.
    Petiole
    Petiole terete, (2–)3–8(–13.5) mm long, (0.5–)1(–2) mm wide, tomentellous, often with simple, purple glandular hairs amongst the more numerous stellate hairs, or glabrous; stipules caducous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences borne from the stem apex (or short spurshoots near the stem apex) when leafless or nearly so, 1–6(–10) per stem, sticky, covered with large purple glandular hairs mixed with white stellate hairs, each inflorescence (3–)5–10(–14) cm long, 1.5–3.5 cm wide, bearing 3–9 branches, each 1(–3)-flowered; pedicels 3–7 mm long
    Flowers
    Flowers with perianth yellow-green to dull red or crimson, widely campanulate, (7–)9–12(–14) mm long, (8–)11–16(–19) mm wide, divided into 5 triangular-acute lobes 5–9.5 mm long, 2–4 mm wide, outer surface with indumentum as the inflorescence
    Fruits
    Fruits with follicles cylindrical, 6–9 cm long, 1–2.4 cm wide, dehiscing flat, then slightly shorter, 2.2–3.5 cm wide, rostrum stout, (0.3–)1 cm long, stipe absent or very short, 0.1 cm long, pericarp rather thin and leathery, 1 mm thick, outer surface dull pink, drying brown, tomentose to tomentellous.
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid, 9–11 mm long, 5–6.5 mm long, grey-black, hilum subapical, round, 1 mm wide, at the margin and partly occluded by the apical aril 2–3.5 mm wide, 1.5–2 mm high, orange, drying orange or white
    Figures
    Fig 1/6, 12, p 6
    Ecology
    Dry bushland or woodland with Acacia, Commiphora and Combretum, often on rocky hillsides; 700–1300 m
    Conservation
    This species is here assessed as “Least Concern” in view of its large geographic range and because of its wide habitat range.
    Note
    Most of the abundant material of S. mhosya from Tanzania has until now borne the name S. sp. nr. mhosya, bestowed by Brenan (T.T.C.L.: 602 (1949)). Brenan pointed out that although Engler’s plate of S. mhosya matched the material available to him, Engler’s description (at odds with the plate) mentioned a stipe 1 cm long (not seen in such East African material). He concluded that two species were involved, but pointed out that if the description of it as stipitate was in error, as now seems likely (no such stipitate specimens have come to light), then ‘what I have called S. sp. nr. mhosya and S. mhosya are presumably the same’. I have no doubt that this is the case. It is quite concievable that Engler mistakenly described as a basal stipe the terminal rostrum of the fruitlet, which is usually 1 cm long in this species.  The protologue of S. mhosya Engl. does not cite specimens and in any case material at B is believed destroyed so a lectotype is necessary. Two specimens present themselves as candidates: Braun 5390 (collected 1913) and Hammirstein 3079 (1910), both being made for the Amani herbarium (specimens since transferred to EA and K) and so likely to have been available to Engler in drawing up his protologue. Moreover both have localities mentioned in the protologue. The second specimen is selected because it bears the unusual orthography of the local name used by Engler, “mhosya”. Brenan’s (T.T.C.L.: 604 (1949)) thirteenth Sterculia, ‘ S. sp.’ ( S. burtti) is based merely on an aberrant, poorly lobed specimen of S. mhosya. The fruits, and the presence of purple glandular hairs which so clearly characterize this species indicate its true identity.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: T1 T3 T4 T5 T7 Range: Zambia
    [FTEA]
    Use
    Bark commonly used as amulet string, on the wrist in children against disease ( Gane 24), also used for making rope ( Ruffo 1483) and as a decoction against indigestion. Leaves used as toilet paper for children; boles for canoes but plants of enough size hard to obtain ( Azuma 563). Seeds edible, used as groundnuts ( Ruffo 1315, 1483 and others).

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Tanzania, Zambia

    Sterculia mhosya Engl. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in H.G.A.Engler & O.Drude, Veg. Erde 9(III 2): 455 (1921)

    Accepted by

    • Cheek, M. & Dorr, L. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Sterculiaceae: 1-134.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • F.Z. 1: 555, t. 104/F (1961).
    • T.T.C.L.: 602 (1949)
    • V.E. 3 (2): 455, t. 208/A–H (1921)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0