1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Sterculia L.
      1. Sterculia quinqueloba (Garcke) K.Schum.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to NW. Namibia.

    [FTEA]

    Sterculiaceae, Martin Cheek & Laurence Dorr; Nesogordonia, Laurence Dorr, Lisa Barnett. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2007

    Type
    Types: Mozambique, Sena, Peters s.n. (B†, syn.); Macanga, Peters s.n. (B†, syn.)
    Habit
    Deciduous tree 2.7–21(–40) m tall, rarely a shrub, producing a clear hard gum.
    Bole
    Bole to 1 m in diameter, bark smooth and grey, often powdered with white dust and flaking in large plates, so variegated with white and red; slash orange or pink, sapwood white, exudate slight, watery.
    Branches
    Flora districts: Ultimate branchlets 9–18 mm thick, purplish grey; bud-scales triangular, 7–12 mm long, 3.5–7 mm wide
    Leaves
    Leaf-blade orbicular in outline, strongly 5-lobed, 8–36 cm long, 10–34 cm wide, the lobes triangular–acuminate, subequal, the apical lobe 4.5–13 cm long, 3.5–10.5 cm wide, base deeply cordate, edges of the sinus overlapping, sinus 2–5 cm long, glabrous to subscabrid with sparse stellate and simple hairs above (densely tomentose when young), softly tomentose with sparse to very dense, fine stellate hairs beneath.
    Petiole
    Petiole terete, 6–18 mm long, 2–4 mm wide, tomentose to pilose with a mixture of fine, small stellate and simple hairs with large, stout, pointed hairs filled with yellowish gum; stipules caducous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence usually borne with the leaves, 3–8 per stem, each 15–32 cm long, 6–11 cm wide, indumentum sticky, as petiole, the fluid often exuded, the hairs appearing capitate.
    Peduncles
    Peduncle with numerous branches, 1.5–5(–7) mm thick at base, lowest branch 3–11 cm from the base, 7–12 cm long, with 7–9 partial peduncles, each (3–)5(–7)-flowered.
    Bracts
    Bracts caducous, elliptic and acuminate, 3–7 mm long, 1–2.5 mm wide, velutinous.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 1.5–5 mm long
    Flowers
    Flowers with perianth pale or yellowish green, sweetly scented, campanulate, 3–4 mm long, 1.5–4 mm wide, (4–)5 triangular teeth each 1 mm long and wide, sometimes slightly reflexed, indumentum as inflorescence outside, inside largely of stout simple hairs Male flowers with androphore ± 1.5 mm long
    Male
    Male flowers with androphore ± 1.5 mm long
    Fruits
    Fruit often with all 5 follicles developed, each cylindrical, 4.5–8.2 cm long, 1–1.3 cm wide, with a rostrum 0.3–1.6 cm long and a basal stipe 1.7–2.5 cm long, thickly tomentose, yellow-brown, sticky and fragrant; when dehisced 2.5–3 cm wide, revealing a mauve, tomentose inner surface.
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid, 7 mm long, 4–7 mm wide
    Figures
    Fig. 1/5, 11, p 6
    Ecology
    Dry, deciduous forest, woodland, wooded grassland or thicket, often on rocky slopes with Brachystegia or Isoberlinia; 90–1650 m
    Conservation
    This species is here assessed as “Least Concern” in view of its large geographic range and because of its wide habitat range.
    Note
    Although S. leguminosacea is now known only from the original description drawn up from two collections which both lacked flowers and leaves, the fact that the follicles were described as glandular-tomentose and stipitate leaves no doubt that the true identity of this material is S. quinqueloba.   S. quinqueloba is sometimes confused with the unrelated S. appendiculata. The differences are discussed under the latter. The lowest altitudinal record is derived from Luke (pers. comm.), who cites Luke et. al. 5588, Selous Game Reserve.
    Distribution
    Range: Congo-Kinshasa, Burundi, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe Flora districts: T1 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8
    [FZ]

    Sterculiaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Small tree, or occasionally reaching 25 m. tall; bark smooth and peeling off in flakes, silvery or pale in the inner layers; branches thick and stiff.
    Leaves
    Leaves at the ends of the branches; lamina up to 40 × 40 cm., very broadly cordate-ovate, with 3–5 (7) usually acuminate lobes, greyish-tomentose below, less so above; petiole up to 27 cm. long, harshly tomentose.
    Flowers
    Flowers appearing with the young leaves in terminal ample many-flowered panicles 9–30 cm. long; branches of inflorescence tomentose or tomentellous and glandular; bracteoles 5–6 mm. long, caducous, lanceolate, tomentellous, glandular. Female flower: ovary ovoid, tomentellous; style c. 1 mm. long, glabrous; vestigial stamens in three clusters of about 3 on short filaments 1/3 the length of the ovary; gynophore c. 0·5 mm. long, glabrous. Male flower: stamens many, in a capitate-globose cluster on a slender glabrous androphore c. 2 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx c. 4 × 3·5 mm., greenish, campanulate, 5-lobed about 1/3 of the way down, tomentellous outside and inside.
    Male
    Male flower: stamens many, in a capitate-globose cluster on a slender glabrous androphore c. 2 mm. long.
    Female
    Female flower: ovary ovoid, tomentellous; style c. 1 mm. long, glabrous; vestigial stamens in three clusters of about 3 on short filaments 1/3 the length of the ovary; gynophore c. 0·5 mm. long, glabrous.
    Fruits
    Follicles 3–5, up to 6 × 3 cm., held rather erect, on tomentellous stipes c. 1 cm. long, ovoid, shortly apiculate or acute, brown-tomentellous outside.
    Seeds
    Seeds several per follicle, c. 8 × 6 mm., oblong-ellipsoid; testa blackish; aril small.
    [FTEA]
    Use
    Larger trees have been described as providing very hard timber for planks and sleepers ( Hendry 528). However, this may well be a case of mistaken identity as other sources e.g. Semsei 848 describe the wood as soft and easy to work. “Wood soft, wood for making beehives” ( JC Newman 140). The boiled bark is reported as being used as an enema for constipation ( Pirozynski 360). “Food plant of chimpanzees” ( Uehara 131); “leaves eaten by chimpanzees” ( Nishida 82).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Burundi, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Sterculia quinqueloba (Garcke) K.Schum. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1957 Buchanan, C. M. G. [135] K000240933
    Milne-Redhead, E. [9779], Tanzania 31211.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [4539], Zambia 8872.000
    Harley, R.M. [9378], Tanzania 25785.000
    Welw. [4694] K000240934

    First published in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 15: 135 (1892)

    Accepted by

    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cheek, M. & Dorr, L. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Sterculiaceae: 1-134.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Troupin, Fl. Pl. lign. Rwanda: 667, t. 230/2 (1982).
    • F.C.B. 10: 267 (1963)
    • F.Z. 1: 555, t. 104/E (1961)
    • T.T.C.L.: 602 (1949)
    • E.M. 5: 104 (1900)
    • P.O.A. C: 271 (1895)
    • E.J. 15: 135 (1892)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0