1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Sterculia L.
      1. Sterculia subviolacea K.Schum.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Cameroon to W. Tanzania and Zambia.

    [FTEA]

    Sterculiaceae, Martin Cheek & Laurence Dorr; Nesogordonia, Laurence Dorr, Lisa Barnett. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2007

    Type
    Type: Tanzania, Mwanza District: E Uzinza [Usindscha], Stuhlmann 3549 (B†, holo.); Mwanza District: Geita, Carmichael 473 (K!, neo.; EA!, isoneo. fide Wild 1961)
    Habit
    Evergreen tree 12–27 m tall.
    Bole
    Bole sometimes fluted or buttressed; ultimate branchlets 4–4.5 mm thick, pale greyish-brown, ± glabrous, drying with numerous fine longitudinal creases; bud-scales 4–6, oblong, acuminate, 3.5–4.5 mm long, 1–3 mm wide, caducous
    Leaves
    Leaf-blade elliptic to oblong or slightly obovate, 12–23 cm long, 7–14 cm wide, apex rounded, rarely obtuse or subacuminate, base rounded to truncate, rarely slightly subcordate, very leathery, glabrous and drying pale green above, completely covered by a greenish white layer of interlocking, individually inconspicuous fimbriate peltate scales beneath; midrib, secondary and tertiary veins prominent below, covered with a fragile waxy layer.
    Petiole
    Petiole terete, 15–40 mm long, 1.5–2.5 mm wide, sometimes swollen at base and tip, very sparsely stellate-hairy at first, soon becoming glabrous; stipules caducous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence borne with leaves, 1–4 per stem from the highest leaf axil, 9–20 cm long, covered in long, woolly purplish-red stellate hairs, lowest branch 2–3.5 cm from the base, 2–5 cm long, bearing 4–7 partial peduncles, each (1–)3-flowered.
    Bracts
    Bracts caducous, 3.5–5 mm long, 1–2 mm wide,
    Indumentum
    Indumentum as peduncle.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 4–5 mm long
    Flowers
    Flowers reddish–purple; perianth campanulate, 5–7.5 mm long, 5–6.5 mm wide, divided halfway into 5 lobes initially joined at the tips Female flower with gynophore 0.5 mm long, with ± sessile, reduced stamens at the base of the globose, tomentose ovary Male flowers with androphore 1.5–1.8 mm long
    Male
    Male flowers with androphore 1.5–1.8 mm long
    Female
    Female flower with gynophore 0.5 mm long, with ± sessile, reduced stamens at the base of the globose, tomentose ovary
    Fruits
    Outer surface reddish brown with longitudinal wrinkles, subscabrid with appressed stellate hairs, inner surface softly tomentose, hairs brown. Fruits with undehisced follicles scarlet, 6.5–8 cm long, 2.5 cm wide; when dehisced becoming wider than long, wall 4–5 mm thick, rostrum 6–9 mm long, stipe 0.8–1.2 cm long
    Seeds
    Seeds not known, but without a peg-like stalk persisting on the fruit
    Ecology
    Gallery and swamp forest; 900–1500 m
    Conservation
    This species is here assessed as “Least Concern” in view of its large geographic range and because its habitat is ± undisturbed through most of its range, so far as is known.
    Note
    The white lower leaf surface and purplish, woolly hairy inflorescence are each highly characteristic for S. subviolacea amongst the species in East Africa with entire leaf-blades. Only seven specimens have been seen from East Africa. Fruiting collections with seeds are needed.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: T1 T4 Range: Cameroon, Congo-Kinshasa, Angola, Zambia
    [FZ]

    Sterculiaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Massive tree up to 30 m. tall, with a buttressed bole.
    Leaves
    Leaves similar in shape and size to those of 5. tragacantha but deep green and glabrous above and very densely and closely appressed-whitish-stellate-tomentellous below.
    Flowers
    Flowers in axillary or terminal panicles c. 14 cm. long; branches of inflorescence violet-tomentose. Female flower: ovary ovoid, tomentose, with a ring of rudimentary stamens at its base, on a glabrous gynophore c. 0·5 mm. long; style c. 1 mm. long, tomentose; stigmas recurved. Male flower: stamens 8–10, in a capitate globose cluster on a glabrous androphore c. 1·5 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx up to 8 mm. long, campanulate, divided to half-way or a little more into 5 oblong lobes somewhat coherent at their tips, stellate-tomentose outside with some larger purple hairs among the paler ones, pubescent inside with some longer purple simple hairs and some subsessile simple glandular hairs.
    Male
    Male flower: stamens 8–10, in a capitate globose cluster on a glabrous androphore c. 1·5 mm. long.
    Female
    Female flower: ovary ovoid, tomentose, with a ring of rudimentary stamens at its base, on a glabrous gynophore c. 0·5 mm. long; style c. 1 mm. long, tomentose; stigmas recurved.
    Fruits
    Follicles similar in size and shape to those of S.tragacantha.
    Seeds
    Seeds c. 1–4 cm. long, oblong-ellipsoid; testa black.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Gabon, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre

    Sterculia subviolacea K.Schum. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Welw. [4695] K000240945 Unknown type material
    Carmichael, W. [473] K000240951

    First published in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 271 (1895)

    Accepted by

    • Kimpouni, V., Apani, E. & Motom, M. (2013). Analyse phytoécologique de la flore ligneuse de la Haute Sangha (République du Congo) Adansonia, sér. 3, 35: 107-134.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lejoly, J. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo): Familles des Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae Taxonomania 29: 1-41.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cheek, M. & Dorr, L. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Sterculiaceae: 1-134.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Kimpouni, V., Apani, E. & Motom, M. (2013). Analyse phytoécologique de la flore ligneuse de la Haute Sangha (République du Congo) Adansonia, sér. 3, 35: 107-134.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lejoly, J. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo): Familles des Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae Taxonomania 29: 1-41.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • F.C.B. 10: 272, t. 24 (1963).
    • F.Z. 1: 556 (1961)
    • T.T.C.L.: 601 (1949)
    • P.O.A. C: 271 (1895)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0