1. Family: Thymelaeaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Edgeworthia Meisn.
      1. Edgeworthia tomentosa (Thunb.) Nakai

        This is the commonest of the four species of Edgeworthia and the one most widely cultivated. The scented flowers are borne in tight nodding heads on leafless branches in late winter and early spring. The flowers are usually creamy yellow, but there are also deep yellow and reddish forms.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    Oriental paper bush is a beautiful, winter-flowering scented shrub, which has bark valued for making high-quality paper in Japan.

    This is the commonest of the four species of Edgeworthia and the one most widely cultivated. The scented flowers are borne in tight nodding heads on leafless branches in late winter and early spring. The flowers are usually creamy yellow, but there are also deep yellow and reddish forms.

    The stems are remarkably flexible and can be tied in a simple knot without apparent damage. The bark is papery, cinnamon-coloured and used for making high-quality paper - hence the English name, paper bush. The Japanese name, mitsumata, means 'triple-branching' (referring to the unusual branching pattern of this shrub).

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    This species is native to southern and eastern China and was probably introduced to Korea and Japan where it has been cultivated since the late 16th century.

    Description

    Overview:  Edgeworthia chrysantha is a deciduous shrub up to 1.5 m, with numerous, upright stems exhibiting trichotomous branching (branching in threes), which is unusual in angiosperms (flowering plants).

    Flowers:Flowers appear in late winter or early spring in dense, nodding heads that may be pale yellow, deep yellow or reddish-orange. They are sweetly scented, tubular, 13–20 mm long, with silky hairs on the outside and four recurved lobes. There are 8 stamens, in two groups inside the tube, and the style is slender.

    Fruits:Fruits are purplish and mostly covered by remains of the flower.

    Leaves: Leaves appear after the flowers and are narrowly oblanceolate (lance-shaped with a rounded apex and tapering base), 8–20 cm long, 2.5–5.5 cm wide, with soft silky hairs.

    The history behind the name

    Edgeworthia is named after Michael Pakenham Edgeworth (1812–1881), who was born in County Longford, Ireland and educated mainly by his half-sister Maria Edgeworth, famous for her novel Castle Rackrent published in 1800. She also wrote Dialogues on Botany for the Use of Young Persons (1819). Michael Edgeworth joined the Bengal Civil Service and collected plants in Aden (Yemen), India and Sri Lanka. He contributed accounts for several families to Joseph Hooker’s Flora of British India. In addition to Edgeworthia, he is remembered by many other species including Primula edgeworthiiPax. Edgeworth’s herbarium collections are held at the Kew and Oxford herbaria.

    Uses

    The bark of Edgeworthia chrysantha is used for making high-quality, hand-made paper, including ornamental Japanese wallpaper and calligraphy paper. The use of mitsumata in paper making dates back to the late 16th century. Historically, Japanese bank notes were made from mitsumata and renowned for being the finest quality notes in the world and the most difficult to forge! Mitsumata is still grown in Japan for paper making, but today most Japanese bank notes are made from Manila hemp ( Musa textilis – a relative of banana).

    In China, the flowers, bark and roots are used in folk medicine. The bark and roots have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, and the flower buds are used to treat eye diseases.

    Edgeworthia chrysantha is widely cultivated in temperate climates as an ornamental shrub.

    Cultivation

    Edgeworthia chrysantha enjoys moist, well-drained soil in a sheltered, partially shaded position. It can also be grown to good effect against a west- or south-facing wall (as at the Savill Garden, Windsor Great Park, Berkshire) or in a cool greenhouse to produce a delightful fragrance when flowering. It grows best in acid soils, although it will tolerate near-neutral conditions.

    This species at Kew

    Edgeworthia chrysantha is growing in the borders behind Museum No. 1 at Kew and in the Winter Garden and Specimen Beds at Wakehurst.

    Distribution
    China
    Ecology
    Forests, shrubby slopes, dry sandy soil; from coastal areas to stream sides in mountain valleys.
    Conservation
    Not Evaluated according to IUCN Red List criteria.
    Hazards

    None known.

    [KSP]
    Use
    Ornamental, high-quality paper, medicinal.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    China South-Central, China Southeast

    Introduced Into:

    Georgia, Japan, Korea

    Common Names

    English
    Oriental paperbush

    Edgeworthia tomentosa (Thunb.) Nakai appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 33: 206 (1919)

    Literature

    • [1] The Plant List (2010). Edgeworthia chrysantha.
    • [2] Hu Xiao-Jia, Jin Hui-Zi, Xu Wen-Zheng et al. (2008). Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Edgeworthia chrysantha and its effective chemical constituents. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 31: 1761-1765.
    • [3] Iwamoto, A., Matsumara, Y., et al. (2005). Development and structure of trichotomous branching in Edgeworthia chrysantha (Thymelaeaceae). American Journal of Botany 92: 1350-1358.
    • [4] Clennett, C., Harvey, Y. & Pearman, G. (2002). Edgeworthia chrysantha. Curtis’s Botanical Magazine 19: 19-27.
    • [5] Desmond, R. (1994). Dictionary of British and Irish Botanists and Horticulturists. Taylor & Francis, London.
    • [6] Harvey, Y. (1992). Edgeworthia chrysantha. The Plantsman 14: 128¬132.
    • [7] Ohwi, J. (1984). Edgeworthia. Flora of Japan. Pp. 644-645. Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C.

    Sources

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [A] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
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    [C]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [D] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [E] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0