1. Family: Thymelaeaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Thymelaea Mill.
      1. Thymelaea hirsuta (L.) Endl.

        A desert shrub, used to make strong rope and paper, Thymelaea hirsuta is known locally by the Arabic name of mitnan. It belongs to the plant family Thymelaeaceae, which also includes ramin ( Gonystylus spp.), which are grown for their white wood, and Daphne spp., which is grown for its scented flowers. The roots of mitnan can extend to a depth of 3.5 m, helping the plant obtain water in harsh desert environments.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    Mitnan is a yellow-flowered desert shrub, the leaves of which are used in traditional medicine and the branches and bark are woven to make strong rope.

    A desert shrub, used to make strong rope and paper, Thymelaea hirsuta is known locally by the Arabic name of mitnan. It belongs to the plant family Thymelaeaceae, which also includes ramin ( Gonystylus spp.), which are grown for their white wood, and Daphne spp., which is grown for its scented flowers. The roots of mitnan can extend to a depth of 3.5 m, helping the plant obtain water in harsh desert environments.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Thymelaea hirsuta grows in the Mediterranean coastal plains, the Sinai Peninsula and other Saharo-Arabian deserts.

    Description

    A perennial, evergreen, shrub, growing to 2 m tall. The stems are densely-branched and covered with small (2-6 mm long) overlapping leaves, which are pressed against the stem. The leaves are scale-like, ovate to oblong and leathery.

    Mitnan is dioecious (male and female flowers are borne on separate plants) and sometimes monoecious, and both sexes of plants produce clusters of yellow flowers at the end of young twigs from March to July.

    Uses 

    Fibres

    The primary use of mitnan is for making rope, a craft that is practised by local inhabitants in the eastern Mediterranean, especially older people who still retain this skill. The most direct method is simply to braid branches into a kind of cable. This 'cable' has been used to anchor tents during sandstorms. There are many other forms of rope-making, which can result in a very flexible and elegant product.

    Finished mitnan rope is strong enough to haul a man out of a well, secure a tent, hobble an animal, saddle a donkey, yoke a camel, and carry water buckets or jugs on a camel’s back. The camel yoke represents an uncommon use of mitnan rope. Row upon row of twisted and braided white, inner bark is sewn on to a padded pillow. This rests on a mitnan support made of an entire young shrub whose branches have been parted and bound into a wishbone shape by strips of rag.

    Mitnan serves Bedouins in a variety of ways, such as making a partridge trap, using the moist roots for parts of the trap that must be both flexible and strong. When sowing summer crops they would affix a branch of Thymelaeato the back of a plough, where it sweeps sand over the furrow to shield freshly-sown seeds from the sun's direct rays. Women too, when watering their flock, often utilise Thymelaeafibres to make a bucket-rope with which they can draw water from the well.

    Uses: Medicinal

    Ibn-al Bitar (12th century C.E.) attributed medicinal properties to the leaves as an antidote to pinworms as well as a 'powerful hydragogue, cathartic and expectorant'.

    Dried and powdered leaves were also used to treat inflammation of the skin; the bark for healing wounds.

    It was also reported that in order to remove flies from their tents, the Arabs dipped the mitnan plant in sugared water and then hung it in the tent. The formation of the numerous and crowded small leaves and flowers on the branch provided a large landing area for an enormous number of flies which were attracted to the sweet sugar. At night, Bedouin covered the plant with a dress or cloak and removed both the mitnan and flies from the tent.

    Mitnan is still used for medicinal purposes, for example in the removal of rotten teeth. The leaves are boiled in water and the resulting brew swished around the mouth and spat out along with the dead tooth. It is also used as an eye curative and a treatment for paralysis.

    For animals, it is used to prevent abortion in camels. Mitnan leaves are pounded and mixed with a little salt; this poultice is then applied to the camel's cervix after impregnation in the hope that the cervix will contract, preventing the camel from aborting its foetus. Researchers have isolated stigmasterol from Thymelaea hirsuta. Stigmasterol is a steroid used to synthesize progesterone, a hormone used in the treatment of recurrent abortion in humans.

    Uses: Contemporary use for handmade paper

    The technique of matting fibres together to create a sheet of paper is over 2,000 years old. Mitnan has been used for longer than that for other purposes, but only recently has its value as a fibre source for handmade paper been appreciated.

    Mitnan paper is made from bast fibre, the inner bark of the plant. Upon harvesting, the bark is immediately stripped from the wood, just as the Bedouin do when making rope. If, for any reason, the stripping must be delayed, it is necessary to soak the branches in water before stripping, sometimes for as long as a week.

    The dark, outer bark is scraped away with a sharp knife and discarded. Any dark specks of outer bark will contrast strongly with the light, inner fibres of the paper and are considered flaws. Unmottled, evenly formed sheets are thought to be more beautiful and of higher quality and strength - the papermaker's goal.

    Ornamental

    Thymelaea hirsuta is suitable for cultivation in the rock garden or alpine house. It requires full sun, well-drained soil and protection from winter rain.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank:One

    Mitnan at Kew

    This species is not currently grown at Kew; however, specimens of wood and string made from Thymelaea hirsuta are held in the Economic Botany Collection, one of the behind-the-scenes areas of Kew.

    Ecology
    Coastal plains and loessial wadi beds of deserts.
    Conservation
    Not yet evaluated by IUCN.
    Hazards

    Poisonous to fish and mammals.

    [KSP]
    Use
    Fibre, medicine, paper.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Albania, Algeria, Baleares, Corse, East Aegean Is., Egypt, France, Greece, Italy, Kriti, Libya, Morocco, Portugal, Sardegna, Sicilia, Sinai, Spain, Tunisia, Yugoslavia

    Common Names

    English
    Mitnan

    Thymelaea hirsuta (L.) Endl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Jan 1, 1935 Dinsmore, J.E. [11335], Jordan K000286335
    McDonald [s.n.], Jordan K000286336
    Boulos, L. [5475], Jordan K000286337
    Gillett, J.B. [15871], Jordan K000286338
    Hepper, F.N. [3120], Jordan K000286339

    First published in Gen. Pl., Suppl. 4(2): 65 (1848)

    Accepted in:

    • [2] (2011) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170
    • [9] Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968) Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    • [1] (2013) Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • [3] (2011) Willdenowia 41: 329-339
    • [4] (2011) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170
    • [5] Boulos, L. (2000) Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • [6] Huxley, A., Griffiths, M. & Levy, M. (eds) (1992). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. Vol. 4 (R to Z): 462. Macmillan Press, London.
    • [7] Schmidt, J. & Stavisky, N. (1983). Uses of Thymelaea hirsuta (Mitnan) with emphasis on hand papermaking. Economic Botany 37: 310-321.

    • [8] Bailey, C. & Danin, A. (1981). Bedouin plant utilization in Sinai and the Negev. Economic Botany 35: 145-162.
    • [10] Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968) Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.

    Sources

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [A] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
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    [C]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [D] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [E] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0