1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Grewia L.
      1. Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Sahara to Tanzania and S. Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Indian Subcontinent.

    [FWTA]

    Tiliaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    Shrub, to 10 ft. high
    Ecology
    In the driest savannahs
    Flowers
    Flowers white
    Fruits
    Fruits reddish.
    [FZ]

    Tiliaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

    Habit
    Small shrub up to 2 m. tall; branches glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina up to 3 × 2 cm., orbicular to obovate, rounded at the apex, margin rather coarsely dentate, rounded or abruptly cuneate at the base, slightly scabrous-pubescent especially below, or glabrescent, greyish-green, coriaceous; petiole up to 1 cm. long, but usually much less, pubescent; stipules up to 4 mm. long, filiform, pubescent.
    Flowers
    Flowers always borne singly, leaf-opposed; peduncles c. 10 mm. long, almost glabrous, slender; pedicels similar, up to 10 mm. long, the whole giving the appearance of an articulated pedicel; bracts minute, glabrescent, c. 1·5 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Sepals 10–18 mm. long, greenish and shortly pubescent outside, white and glabrous inside, linear-oblong.
    Corolla
    Petals white, with a linear and often 2-dentate lamina almost as long as the sepals and narrower than the basal nectariferous claw which is circumvillous within ledged above and up to 1·5 mm. long.
    Androgynophore
    Androgynophore with a basal glabrous portion up to 1·5 mm. long and a densely pubescent upper portion up to 1·5 mm. long.
    Pistil
    Ovary 4-lobed, glabrous or glabrescent; style c. 10 mm. long, glabrous; stigma-lobes broad.
    Fruits
    Fruit c. 10 mm. in diam., 4-lobed, shining, glabrous.
    [FTEA]

    Tiliaceae, C. Whitehouse, M. Cheek, S. Andrews & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2001

    Habit
    Shrub to 5 m tall, rarely scandent; young branches densely stellate-pubescent to ± glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves ovate to broadly ovate or almost orbicular, sometimes reniform, 0.5–4.5(–6) cm long, 0.3–4(–6.2) cm wide, acute to rounded at the apex, cordate or rounded at the base, margin irregularly dentate, stellate-pubescent to glabrous, sometimes ± glaucous; petiole 2–20 mm long, sometimes long and slender compared to the lamina, stellate-pubescent to glabrous; stipules linear, up to 2 mm long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a solitary flower; peduncle and pedicel together appearing like a jointed pedicel, 5–35 mm long, pubescent to glabrous, sometimes slender; bracts linear, up to 2 mm long.
    Flowers
    Flowers white, rarely cream to yellow (due to fading?), sometimes fading pink or brown, sometimes sweetly scented; sepals 8–16 mm long, greenish on the outside; petals oblong to narrowly lanceolate, 5–12 mm long, 2–2.5 mm wide, acute to truncate or slightly bifid at the apex.
    Androgynophore
    Androgynophore short, glabrous for ± 1 mm at the base, pubescent and produced for 1–1.5 mm above the node.
    Stamens
    Stamens 6–10 mm long; filaments white; anthers yellow.
    Pistil
    Ovary ± 1.5 mm long, glabrous; style 7–10 mm long.
    Fruits
    Fruit (1–)4-lobed, 8–12 mm wide, the lobes 6–8 mm long, 5–6 mm wide, orange, yellow or red, glabrous.
    Figures
    Fig. 3/2 (leaf, p. 9).
    Habitat
    Dry wooded grassland, thornbush or bushland, sometimes a dominant part of the vegetation in drier parts of the region; 0–1550 m
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K6 K7 T2 T3 U1 possibly also Angola, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia and South Africa (Northern Province, Mpumalanga) (see note)from Arabia to India and Sri Lanka

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burkina, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gulf States, India, Iran, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 16, 2008 Crawford, F. [22], Namibia K000450345
    Schimper [2202], Ethiopia K000241772
    Schimper [2202], Ethiopia K000241771
    Headley, P.M. [180], Ethiopia 6049.056
    Guidotti, R. [22], Ethiopia K000241775 isotype
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1088] Grewia betulifolia K001112001
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1088], Bangladesh Grewia betulifolia K001112002
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1088] Grewia betulifolia K001112003

    First published in Agric. Colon. 5(Suppl.): 23 (1911 publ. 1912)

    Accepted by

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.
    • Whitehouse, C., Cheek, M., Andrews, S. & Verdcourt, B. (2001). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Tiliaceae & Muntingiaceae: 1-120.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Browicz, K. (1981). Flora Iranica 148: 1-15. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1963). Flora Zambesiaca 2(1): 1-351. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Aubrév. Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 151, t. 25, 1–2.
    • Burret in Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berl. 9: 689
    • in Agric. Colon. 5, Suppl. 23 (1912)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Whitehouse, C., Cheek, M., Andrews, S. & Verdcourt, B. (2001). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Tiliaceae & Muntingiaceae: 1-120.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Browicz, K. (1981). Flora Iranica 148: 1-15. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Guinea, E. (1948). Catálogo razonado de las plantas del Sáhara Español Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 8: 357-429.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Sebsebe in Fl. Eth. 2(2): 152 (1995).
    • Audru et al., Pl. Vasc. Rép. Djibouti 2: 223, t. on 227 (1994).
    • Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas p. 158, fig. c2 on 152, map (1994).
    • Hepper & Friis, Pl. Pehr Forssk. Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 236 (1994).
    • Blundell, Wild Flow. E. Afr.: 69, fig. 50 (1987).
    • Wild in Flora of Southern Africa 21(1): 15 (1984).
    • Wild in Flora Zambesiaca 2: 59 (1963)
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 569, fig. 103/c2 (1961).
    • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 305 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1: 222, fig. 121 (1950).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 615 (1949).
    • Fiori, Agric. Colon. 5, suppl.: 23 (1912).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
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