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This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. Eurasia.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Glabrous biennial or perennial herb with a short incrassate-fusiform rootstock, branched considerably from base and also above, (10–)25–80 cm; stem and branches ± striate with pale, raised lines
Morphology Leaves
Leaf outline deltoid-lanceolate to linear-oblong, all lower leaves petiolate with a long, narrowly oblong, membranous-margined sheath, uppermost leaves sessile and rapidly reducing with fewer and narrower segments Leaves bipinnate with pinnatisect pinnae, ultimate segments linearlanceolate, mucronate, 1–1.5 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Partial umbels of 8–15 white or pink tinged flowers, involucel absent or of 1–3 small bracteoles much shorter than the longest of the very unequal 1–10 mm pedicels Umbels numerous, terminal and leaf-opposed, with 5(–15) very unequal (2–)5–40 mm rays; bracts of involucre none or up to ± 5, small and membranous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles (15–)3–9 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit narrowly oblong to ovoid, dark brown with paler ribs, 3–5 × 2–3 mm, stylopodia conical, small, ovoid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles short, divaricate or incurved, slightly exceeding stylopodia.
Ecology
Perhaps sometimes cultivated and occasionally naturalized; alt. ± 230 m
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: Apr.
Distribution
Apparently very rare in Iraq; only found once in the moist-steppe zone. Most of N & C Europe to N Spain, N Italy, W Russia, Cyprus (probably a naturalized escape from gardens), N Africa, Palestine (cult.), Egypt (cult.), Turkey (widely cultivated and often naturalized), Caucasus, N Iran, Afghanistan, C Asia (Turkmenistan to Tian Shan), Siberia, Himalaya, China; introduced into New Zealand, N America.
Note
Caraway, Common Caraway; KARĀWIYĀ (as spelled by Ibn al-Baitar), or KARAUYĀ (as more usually spelled in Arabic).

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[FIQ]
Use
The dry aromatic fruits of this species, known as caraway seeds, have been widely used as a spice in many countries from time immemorial. Caraway oil is obtained by steam distillation of the crushed fruits; it is used in medicine as a carminative and stimulant and also as a perfume for soap.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Altay, Amur, Austria, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, Chita, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Irkutsk, Italy, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Kuril Is., Manchuria, Mongolia, Nepal, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Primorye, Qinghai, Romania, Sakhalin, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Algeria, Colorado, Cyprus, Føroyar, Great Britain, Iceland, Illinois, Ireland, Kentucky, Libya, Morocco, New Mexico, New York, Nunavut, South Georgia, Svalbard, Tunisia, Vermont

Carum carvi L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 1977 Parsa, A. [703], Iran K000685674
Royle [s.n.], India K000685658
Walton, H.J. [s.n.], Tibet K000685656
Walton, H.J. [4], Tibet K000685657

First published in Sp. Pl.: 263 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Kryukova, M.V. & Kostomarova, I.V. (2014). New and rar species of vascular plants in the state natural reserve "Botchinsky" Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 99: 1129-1133.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Pimenov, M.G., Kljuykov, E.V. & Ukrainskaja, U.A. (2014). Cephalopodum badachshanicum, Semenovia vachanica and other Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) novelties of Afghan flora from Badakhshan province, with notes on some species of the Pamirs Skvortsovia 1: 149-168.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P.M. & Magee, A.R. (2013). African Apiaceae: a synopsis of the Apiaceae/Umbelliferae of Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: 1- 317. Briza Academic Books, Pretoria.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hedge, I.C., Lamond, J.M. & Rechinger, K.H. (1987). Flora Iranica 162: 1-555. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1987). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 2: 1-448. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Nasir, E. (1972). Flora of West Pakistan 20: 1-169.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • She Menglan & Watson in Fl. China 14: 81 (2005).
  • Rech.f., Fl. Iranica 162: 263 (1987);
  • Meikle, Fl. Cyprus 1: 743 (1977);
  • E. Nasir in Fl. Pak. 20: 87 (1972);
  • Hedge & Lamond in Fl. Turk. 4: 347 (1972);
  • Husain & Kasim, in Cult. Pl. Iraq 105 (1972);
  • Rawi & Chakr. in Dep. Agr. Iraq Tech. Bull. 15: 23 (1964);
  • Schischkin in Fl. SSSR 16: 386 (1950);
  • Guest in Dep. Agr. Iraq Bull. 27: 19 (1933);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palest. ed. 2, 2: 522 (1933);
  • Wolff, l.c. 145 (1927);
  • Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2: 879 (1872);
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 263 (1753);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Liu, B. (2020-2021). Personal communication on the Flora of China. 1 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Hedge, I.C., Lamond, J.M. & Rechinger, K.H. (1987). Flora Iranica 162: 1-555. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1987). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 2: 1-448. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

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Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

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