1. Family: Apiaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Foeniculum Mill.
      1. Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Medit. to Ethiopia and W. Nepal. It is used as a medicine and a food additive.

    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Distribution
    Cultivated in Colombia.
    Habit
    Herb.
    Ecology
    Alt. 1350 - 2850 m.
    [FZ]

    Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Robust, glabrous, somewhat glaucous perennial herb up to 2 m.
    Stem
    Stems rigid when mature and with many fine distinct ribs.
    Leaves
    Leaves with well-developed sheathing bases, up to 5 cm. long but frequently much shorter, 3–4-pinnate with finely-divided ultimate segments which are narrowly linear to capillary, becoming reduced upwards towards the inflorescence and finally occurring only as sheathing bases with 0–few linear lobes.
    Inflorescences
    Umbels terminal and lateral, rays (4)9–30, 1–11 cm. long, relatively robust and somewhat glaucous. Partial umbels with up to 12 flowers on pedicels 5–10 mm. long; bracts and bracteoles 0 (rarely few).
    Flowers
    Calyx teeth obsolete; petals bright yellow.
    Fruits
    Fruit 4–8 mm. long, narrowly ovoid at maturity, very distinctly glaucous-grey especially when immature; stylopodium rather low. Mericarps with ribs that are obvious at maturity, but inconspicuous in young fruit.
    [FTEA]

    Umbelliferae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

    Habit
    Erect, glabrous, biennial or perennial herb 0.6–2(–2.4) m. tall, glaucous particularly above with a strong but pleasant aromatic odour resembling aniseed; root usually slender.
    Stem
    Stem sparingly to considerably branched, wiry, terete, finely striate.
    Leaves
    Lower leaves 3–4-pinnate, with mostly 4–7 pairs of pinnae dissected into capillary segments very variable in length, ± 0.4–12 cm. × 0.5–0.75 mm., each terminating in a sharp generally brownish mucro; largest leaves up to 0.5 m. long, broadly deltoid; petiole ± 2–5 cm.; sheaths narrowly oblong, finely striate, 3.5–12(–20) cm., narrowly membranous-margined, auriculate at the top with blunt to acute, membranous auricles; upper leaves rapidly reducing, sessile on the sheaths, the uppermost often ± reduced to sheaths alone or with a short “brush” of leaflets.
    Inflorescences
    Umbels numerous, on mostly 2.5–14 cm. peduncles; rays (3–)10–25(–30), glabrous, usually unequal, 2–6(–10) cm; partial umbels ± 6–23-flowered, on glabrous, 0.5–7(–10) mm. pedicels.
    Corolla
    Petals ± 1 mm., yellow.
    Fruits
    Fruit oblong-ellipsoid, slightly laterally compressed, ± 4–6 × 1.75–2.5 mm., the ribs pale and prominent, calyx obsolete; stylopodia at first short, in ripe fruit shortly cylindrical-subconical, margins crenulate; styles short, strongly deflexed on and shorter than the stylopodia.
    Figures
    Fig. 30.
    Habitat
    An introduction, naturalised in disturbed places; 1650 m.
    Distribution
    K4 external distribution as for genus
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1350 - 2850 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Hierba
    [UPB]
    Food Additives
    Stems and leaves - Used as a condiment (Cadena-González 2010, Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
    Digestive System Disorders
    Leaves - Used in liquid medicines (Lagos-López 2007).
    Muscular-Skeletal System Disorders
    Used to alleviate muscle spasms (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
    Pregnancy, Birth or Puerpuerium Disorders
    Used for increasing breast milk production (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010). Stems and leaves - Used in liquid medicines combined with agua de panela (sugar cane drink) (Cadena-González 2010).
    Respiratory System Disorders
    Leaves and flowers - Used in liquid medicines (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
    Skin or Subcutaneous Cellular Tissue Disorders
    Used in liquid medicines (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
    Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
    Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Azores, Baleares, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Gulf States, Iran, Italy, Kriti, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Nepal, North Caucasus, Pakistan, Portugal, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Spain, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Yemen, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Austria, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bermuda, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, California, Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Germany, Great Britain, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Hungary, Illinois, India, Inner Mongolia, Ireland, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Manchuria, Mauritius, Mexico Northwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Netherlands, New Mexico, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Rodrigues, Romania, Réunion, Society Is., Somalia, South European Russi, St.Helena, Sudan, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Thailand, Tibet, Ukraine, Uruguay, Vietnam, Windward Is., Xinjiang, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    Spanish
    Hinojo, eneldo, anís.

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Lindeman, J.C. [432], Brazil K001130806
    Lindeman, J.C. [432], Brazil K001130807
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 7211] Anethum panmorium K001126921
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 7211], India Anethum panmorium K001126922
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 7211], India Anethum panmorium K001126923

    First published in Gard. Dict. ed. 8: n.º 1 (1768)

    Accepted by

    • Hohla, M., Diewald, W. & Király, G. (2015). Limonium gmelinii - eine Steppenpflanze an österreichischen Autobahnen sowie weitere Neuigkeiten zur Flora Österreichs Stapfia 103: 127-150.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P.M. & Magee, A.R. (2013). African Apiaceae: a synopsis of the Apiaceae/Umbelliferae of Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: 1- 317. Briza Academic Books, Pretoria.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Zervous, S., Raus, T. & Yannitsaros, A. (2009). Additons to the flora of the island of Kalimnos (SE Aegean, Greece) Willdenowia 39: 165-177.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Umbelliferae: 1-127.
    • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1977). Flora of Cyprus 1: 1-832. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.

    Literature

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    • Kew's Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
    • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
    • Cadena-González, A.L. (2010). Study of knowledge on medicinal plants in Zetaquira and Campo Hermoso municipalities (Departamento de Boyacá, Colombia) using quantitative approaches. Faculty of Life Sciences. University of Copenhagen.
    • Florez-Cárdenas, G., Núñez-Izquierdo, O. L., Núñez-Izquierdo, M. M., Ramírez-Mesa, M., & Zusunaga-Quintana, J. A. (2010). 100 Plantas útiles del páramo del Rabanal: Guía para comunidades rurales. Bogotá: Instituto Alexander von Humboldt - CAR - Corpoboyac
    • Granados-Tochoy, J. C., Lastra-Romero, C. A., Correa-Casas, M., & Monsalve, D. (2007). Estudio florístico de la agrobiodiversidad del municipio de Garagoa (Valle de Tenza, Boyacá, Colombia). Instituto Alexander von Humboldt, Bogotá.
    • Lagos-López, M. (2007). Estudio etnobotánico de especies vegetales con propiedades medicinales en seis municipios de Boyacá, Colombia. Actualidades Biológicas, 29(86), 87-96.
    • Toscano-González, J. Y. (2006). Uso tradicional de plantas medicinales en la vereda San Isidro, municipio de San Jose de Pare-Boyacá: Un estudio preliminar usando técnicas cuantitativas. Acta Biologica Colombiana, 11(2), 137-146.
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1977). Flora of Cyprus 1: 1-832. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Cannon in Flora Zambesiaca 4: 607 (1978).
    • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 357 (1974).
    • Cannon in Consp. Fl. Angol. 4: 353 (1970).
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 647 (1959).
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    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/