1. Family: Apiaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Sanicula L.
      1. Sanicula elata Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don

        This species is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa and Asia-Temperate..

    [FTEA]

    Umbelliferae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

    Habit
    Erect or occasionally ascending, glabrous perennial herb (15–)25–100 cm. tall with a thick, oblique, ± scaly rootstock with fibrous rootlets.
    Stem
    Stem green to purplish, sulcate-striate, sparingly branched or simple below the inflorescence.
    Leaves
    Basal leaves long-petiolate (petioles ± 5–20 cm.); lamina 2.5–10 cm. wide, 1.5–6 cm. deep from apex to petiole, deltoid or pentagonal in outline, usually ternate with the terminal leaflet trifid and the two laterals deeply bifid so that the lamina appears palmately almost 5-partite; margins with a narrow thickened edge, sharply or more bluntly dentate, the teeth with forwardly-directed subaristate mucros up to ± 1 mm. long; lower stem leaves similar, becoming more shortly petiolate, upper leaves mostly trisect or tripartite, becoming sessile or almost so, the uppermost small and bractlike, trifid or simple; all leaves glabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Umbels small, ± 5–10 mm. in diameter, on mostly 4–14 mm. peduncles (more in the terminal umbels of each cymose division).
    Flowers
    Flowers ± 4–10 in each umbel, of which 1–6 are ♂ and 3–4 hermaphrodite and fertile; ♂ flowers sessile or very shortly pedicellate, fruiting pedicels of hermaphrodite, flowers 1–2 mm.; involucre of ± 6–12 linear bracts 1–6 mm. long, with pale margins and midrib.
    Calyx
    Calyx-lobes acute, linear-subulate with a firm excurrent midrib, ± 0.75–1 mm.
    Corolla
    Petals obovate, emarginate above, ± 0.75–1 mm., white to pinkish, glabrous.
    Anthers
    Anthers bluish in colour.
    Fruits
    Fruit subglobose to shortly ovoid, 3–4 mm., covered with uncinate, commonly purplish prickles, calyx persistent; stylopodia flattened or concave; styles slender, ± 1.5–2.5 mm.; vittae around the dorsal surface of the mericarp several, small and obscure, commissure with 2 large and obvious vittae or rarely small and numerous here also.
    Figures
    Fig. 4.
    Habitat
    Montane forests of various kinds, both broad-leaved and Juniperus as well as bamboo, from dense shade to more open parts along paths and in glades, frequently in damp or swampy places or along streams; also on sides of ravines and by waterfalls; 1240–3160 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K3 K4 K5 K7 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 U1 U2 U3 U4 widespread in Africa from Bioko [Fernando Po] to Ethiopia, south to Zaire and through to South Africa, also in Asia from the W. Himalaya east to Japan and south to Sumatra
    [FZ]

    Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Erect glabrous herb up to 80 cm.
    Roots
    Rootstock with numerous fine wiry roots.
    Stem
    Stem dichotomously branched above, with numerous striations.
    Leaves
    Basal leaves on long petioles up to 30 cm.; lamina up to 14 cm. wide, very broadly ovate or pentagonal in outline, varying from ternate to palmate with up to 5 divisions, these sessile or distinctly petiolulate. Median segment broadly lanceolate to ovate or obovate, acuminate at the apex, 3-lobed, entire or tending towards a pinnatifid state; margins serrate with mucronate tips to the teeth; lateral lobes obliquely and irregularly lanceolate to ovate, with cuneate bases. Cauline leaves similar, becoming gradually reduced above.
    Bracts
    Bracts 2–3, 3–4 mm. long, narrowly lanceolate.
    Inflorescences
    Umbels with 2–3 rays c. 5 mm. long, sometimes with subsessile lateral umbels. Partial umbels 4–7-flowered, with 1–4 flowers male.
    Flowers
    Calyx lobes acute, linear-lanceolate; petals white to yellowish-green; styles c. twice as long as the calyx, spreading.
    Fruits
    Fruit 2 or 3 in each partial umbel, 2× 3 mm., shortly ovoid, densely covered with strongly-hooked spines, these yellowish-brown at maturity.
    Seeds
    Commissural face of seed slightly concave. Commissural vittae 2, with a number of small ones scattered around the fruit wall.
    [FWTA]

    Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A glabrous herb
    Fruits
    Spine-covered fruit
    Ecology
    In montane forest.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Comoros, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gulf of Guinea Is., Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tibet, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Sanicula elata Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13459], Cameroon K000580159
    Jul 1, 2007 Tchiengue, B. [2242], Cameroon K000436156
    Jul 1, 2007 Tchiengue, B. [2594], Cameroon K000437623
    Oct 1, 2003 Onana, J.-M. [1916], Cameroon K000197650
    Oct 1, 2003 Kongor Raphael [56], Cameroon K000197649
    May 1, 2003 Lane, P. [226], Cameroon K000008496
    May 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [7315], Cameroon K000008495
    May 1, 2003 Wheatley, J.I. [455], Cameroon K000008493
    May 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [4071], Cameroon K000008494
    May 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [1669], Cameroon K000008498
    May 1, 2003 Sidwell, K. [404], Cameroon K000008497
    May 1, 2003 Pollard, B.J. [436], Cameroon K000008501
    May 1, 2003 Ghogue, J.-P. [61], Cameroon K000008499
    Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [2350], Cameroon K000338777
    Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [2274], Cameroon K000338774
    Dec 1, 2000 Buzgo, M. [654], Cameroon K000338779
    Jan 1, 1999 Wallich [s.n.], Nepal K000697296
    Jan 1, 1999 Wallich [s.n.], Nepal K000697297
    Jan 1, 1999 Wallich [s.n.], Nepal K000697298
    Jan 1, 1999 Ecklon [2186], South Africa K000312954 Unknown type material
    Aug 1, 1998 Cable, S. [3131], Cameroon K000338776
    Aug 1, 1998 Cable, S. [2988], Cameroon K000338771
    Aug 1, 1997 Cable, S. [2991], Cameroon K000338772
    Aug 1, 1997 Cable, S. [3031], Cameroon K000338773
    May 1, 1997 Pollard, B.J. [6], Cameroon K000338778
    May 1, 1997 Zapfack, L. [836], Cameroon K000338775
    Feb 1, 1994 Naiga [241], Uganda K000449404
    Jan 1, 1972 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [9291], Cameroon K000051161
    Jan 1, 1971 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [8445], Cameroon K000051168
    Jan 1, 1960 Morton, J.K. [6914], Cameroon K000051160
    Jan 1, 1960 Boughey, A.S. [10739], Cameroon K000051159
    Jan 1, 1954 Brenan, J.P.M. [9343], Cameroon K000051162
    Jan 1, 1954 Brenan, J.P.M. [9343], Cameroon K000051165
    Jan 1, 1953 Maitland, T.D. [1018], Cameroon K000051358
    Jan 1, 1953 Maitland, T.D. [942], Cameroon K000051363
    Jan 1, 1953 Maitland, T.D. [942], Cameroon K000051364
    Jan 1, 1953 Mann, G. [2019], Cameroon K000051362
    Jan 1, 1953 Migeod, F. [370], Cameroon K000051356
    Jan 1, 1953 Migeod, F. [370], Cameroon K000051357
    Jan 1, 1948 Wallich [s.n.], India K000697295
    Keay, R.W.J. [FHI 28507], Cameroon K000051164
    Richards, P.W. [5315], Cameroon K000051167
    Hepper, F.N. [2165], Cameroon K000051158
    Sanford, W.W. [5429], Cameroon K000051354
    Mann, G. [1233], Cameroon K000051359
    Thomas, D.W. [2923], Cameroon K000051166
    Bauer, P.J. [169], Cameroon K000051366
    Breteler, F.J. [269], Cameroon K000051367
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 559], Nepal K001111272
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 559], Nepal K001111273
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 559], Nepal K001111274
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 559], Nepal K001111275
    Onana, J.-M. [551 A], Cameroon K000338780
    Tiku, D.A. [FHI 22155], Cameroon K000051157
    Christenhusz, M.J.M., Kamau, P., Mbale, M. [6645], Kenya K000696611

    First published in Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 183 (1825)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P.M. & Magee, A.R. (2013). African Apiaceae: a synopsis of the Apiaceae/Umbelliferae of Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: 1- 317. Briza Academic Books, Pretoria.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Umbelliferae: 1-127.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1981). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 3: 1-499. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Shan & Constance in Univ. California Pub. Bot. 25, No. 1: 47 (1951):
    • Prod. Fl. Nepal. 183 (1825)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Umbelliferae: 1-127.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1981). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 3: 1-499. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Cannon in Flora Zambesiaca 4: 565 (1978).
    • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 351 (1974).
    • E. Lind & A. Tallantire, Some Common Flowering Plants of Uganda p. 98 (1962).
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 638 (1959).
    • Shan & Constance in Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 25(1): 47 (1951).
    • D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 183 (1825).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0