1. Family: Apiaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Torilis Adans.
      1. Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link

        This species is accepted, and is native to Europe, Africa and Asia-Temperate..

    [FTEA]

    Umbelliferae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

    Habit
    Annual herb with a slender taproot, 0.1–1.25 m. tall, branched from the base and densely bushy with many short, branched stems to tall and simple or with rather few long, ascending branches.
    Stem
    Stems slender, wiry, terete, finely striate, glabrous or with downwardly-appressed strigulose hairs.
    Leaves
    Basal leaves generally withered by the time of fruiting, bi- to subtripinnate with pinnatifid segments, deltoid and ± 3–15 × 2–12 cm. in outline, ultimate divisions ± 2–8 × 1–3 mm., ± furnished with upwardly directed, whitish strigulose hairs especially on the lower surface; sheaths ± 2–5 mm., pale-margined, indistinctly demarcated from the channelled ventral surface of the petiole; petiole ± 1.5–4.5 cm.; median leaves similar or the segments becoming narrower and more elongate, more shortly petiolate, sheaths long and narrow with involute margins; upper leaves similar but reduced, to trisect with elongate segments (the upper especially long and up to ± 50 × 5 mm., subentire to regularly acutely serrate), sessile on the narrow sheaths.
    Inflorescences
    Umbels very numerous to rather few, on slender, ± 1.5–13 cm. peduncles; rays 2–12, terete, appressed-strigulose, ± 7–30 mm.; involucre usually absent, rarely one narrowly linear bract present; partial umbels ± 2–18-flowered; pedicels very unequal, 0–4 mm., indumentum similar to that of the rays; involucel of ± 4–8 bracteoles 1.5–5 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx-teeth very small to obsolete.
    Flowers
    Flowers white to pink or purple, the outermost petals of outer partial umbels not to decidedly radiant (to ± 2 mm.), the inner or all petals ± 0.75–1 mm., ± strigose-hairy dorsally.
    Fruits
    Fruit ellipsoid, ± 3–5 × 2–3 mm., both mericarps densely covered with long, tuberculate, glochidiate-tipped, white to purple spines along the obscure secondary ribs, or one with shorter spines or verrucae; stylopodia conical, short; styles short to slender, ± 0.25–1.25 mm., subequalling or much longer than the stylopodia.
    [FWTA]

    Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A wiry herb
    Ecology
    In montane vegetation.
    [FZ]

    Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Stem
    Stem terete, glabrous, with fine grooves, sometimes purplish-tinged especially towards the base, little branched in African specimens.
    Leaves
    Leaves very variable, from 2-pinnate to 3-foliate; margins coarsely serrate to subentire, with numerous appressed white bristly hairs on the lamina, rhachis and petiole.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of terminal and lateral compound umbels; bracts 0 (1), rays 2–5 (-10), with appressed white bristles; bracteoles linear, acute, almost equalling the pedicels of the few-flowered partial umbels.
    Corolla
    Petals white, the outer ones sometimes slightly radiate.
    Fruits
    Fruit 3–5 mm. long, ovoid, densely covered with spreading, spiny glochidiate hairs, usually blackish-green when mature; sometimes 1, or rarely both, mericarps lacking spines and then covered with warty tubercles.
    Flowers
    Calyx teeth minute; stylopodium depressed; styles very variable in length, in African material usually c. twice as long as the stylopodium.
    Seeds
    Seed curved in section, with the ends facing towards the commissure, but not recurved.
    Vittae
    Vittae 5, large and well developed.
    Habit
    An erect annual herb up to 1 m., usually much smaller.
    Roots
    Root system a well-developed primary taproot, with limited secondary branches.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Austria, Azores, Belgium, Bulgaria, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Madeira, Morocco, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Yemen, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Brazil South, Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Kentucky, Mexico Northeast, New Mexico, New Zealand North, St.Helena, Tanzania, Tennessee, Uruguay

    Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 1, 2000 Pollard, B.J. [56], Cameroon K000338827
    May 1, 1999 Buzgo, M. [687], Cameroon K000338826
    May 1, 1999 Kamundi, D. [689], Cameroon K000338828
    Jan 1, 1989 Webster, M.M. [5932], United Kingdom K000811265
    Jan 1, 1989 Webster, M.M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811266
    Jan 1, 1989 s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811268
    Summerhayes, V.S. [270], United Kingdom K000811221
    Summerhayes, V.S. [2984], United Kingdom K000811227
    Summerhayes, V.S. [2932], United Kingdom K000811239
    Summerhayes, V.S. [1428], United Kingdom K000811240
    Summerhayes, V.S. [988], United Kingdom K000811243
    Summerhayes, V.S. [956], United Kingdom K000811250
    Sandwith, N.Y. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811215
    Sandwith, N.Y. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811216
    Keay, R.W.J. [FHI 28471], Cameroon K000051419
    Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], Great Britain K000811269
    Lousley, J.E. [12], Great Britain K000811230
    Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811241
    Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811251
    Britton, C.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811237
    Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811253
    Webster, M.M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811267
    Townsend, C.C. [s.n.], Great Britain K000811228
    Townsend, C.C. [s.n.], Great Britain K000811229
    Taylor, P.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811219
    Taylor, P.G. [0593], United Kingdom K000811246
    Gilbert, J.L. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811236
    Schimper [1874], Ethiopia K000272608
    Schimper [1874], Ethiopia K000272609
    Brown, R. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811257
    Joad, G.C. [1882], United Kingdom K000811255
    Riddelsdell, H.J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811238
    A.M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811233
    Fraser, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811247
    Fraser, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811248
    Riley, L.A.M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811218
    Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [247], United Kingdom K000811254
    Thwaites, G.H.K. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811242
    Clarke, C.B. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811225
    Clarke, C.B. [2544], United Kingdom K000811226
    Wallroth, F.W. [219] K000695532
    Wallroth, F.W. [s.n.], Europe K000695533
    Crosfield, A.J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811245
    Makins, F.K. [162], Great Britain K000811223
    Gregor, A.G. [s.n.], Great Britain K000811259
    s.coll. [s.n.], Great Britain K000811260
    Bromfield, W.A. [s.n.], Great Britain K000811217
    Last, G.V.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811249
    Goddard, H.J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811220
    Hosking, A. [s.n.], Great Britain K000811256
    Summerhayes, R.S. [2708], Great Britain K000811235
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811222
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811231
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811252
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811258
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811261
    Stevens, W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811244
    Tatum, E.J. [676], United Kingdom K000811224
    Baker, F. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811232
    Parsons, M. [H1356], United Kingdom K000811234
    Welch, M.M. [7320], United Kingdom K000811264
    Day, C.D. [616], Turkey Caucalis arvensis K000341674

    First published in Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 1: 265 (1821)

    Accepted by

    • Longbottom, W.D., Naczi, R.F.C. & Knapp, W.M. (2016). Flowering plant species new to Delaware and Maryland Bartonia 69: 1-19.
    • Hand, R. (ed.) (2015). Supplementary notes to the flora of Cyprus VIII Willdenowia 45: 245-259.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P.M. & Magee, A.R. (2013). African Apiaceae: a synopsis of the Apiaceae/Umbelliferae of Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: 1- 317. Briza Academic Books, Pretoria.
    • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Williams, J.K. (2010). Additions to the Alien vascular flora of Mexico, with comments on the shared species of Texas, Mexico and Belize Phytoneuron 2010-3: 1-7.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Umbelliferae: 1-127.
    • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Enum. Pl. Berol. 1: 265 (1821).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Longbottom, W.D., Naczi, R.F.C. & Knapp, W.M. (2016). Flowering plant species new to Delaware and Maryland Bartonia 69: 1-19.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • Bergmeier, E. (2011). New floristic records, confirmations and other phytogeographical notes from Crete (Greece) Willdenowia 41: 167-177.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Williams, J.K. (2010). Additions to the Alien vascular flora of Mexico, with comments on the shared species of Texas, Mexico and Belize Phytoneuron 2010-3: 1-7.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Umbelliferae: 1-127.
    • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Cannon in Flora Zambesiaca 4: 572 (1978).
    • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 351 (1974).
    • Cannon in Consp. Fl. Angol. 4: 340 (1970).
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 639 (1959).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 366 (1952).
    • Link, Enum. Pl. Hort. Berol. 1: 265 (1821).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0