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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, SW. Arabian Peninsula, E. Cape Prov. to KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar.


Urticaceae, I. Friis University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herb or subshrub with prostrate and erect stems, up to 1 m. high or probably more.
Morphology General Indumentum
Branches and petioles with a very variable indumentum, ranging from subglabrous or with scattered stiff hairs or appressed hairs to an almost woolly tomentum of straight or curly, erect hairs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, very rarely alternate on an occasional side branch; stipules brown, translucent, with dark brown midnerve, lanceolate, with elongated tip, up to 3 mm. long; petiole l–2.5(–4) cm. long, pubescent to pilose; lamina ovate, 1.5–4.5(–6.5) cm. long, 0.8–2.5(–3) cm. wide, base cuneate, margin serrate, with 6–22 teeth on each side, apex acute or acuminate, with long apical tooth; lateral nerves 2–3(–4) pairs, basal pair reaching 2nd–6th tooth from apex; upper surface with scattered hairs, lower surface with scattered stiff hairs on the nerves and sometimes also between the nerves.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary, either bisexual, globular and up to 6 mm. in diameter, or entirely ♀, smaller, ovoid, with 1–2 flowers; in the upper leaf-axils often arranged in clusters, either all bisexual or some bisexual, many-flowered and some ♀, or all ♀, few-flowered; in the lower axils often only ♀ ones present.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achene persistent in the involucre, glabrous or lanate.
The species as a whole occurs from West Africa (in the highlands of Cameroon) and N. Ethiopia through the highlands of eastern Africa to South Africa (Cape Province)


Urticaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Height
To 5 ft. high
In montane forest.


Urticaceae, I. Friis. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs with erect branched stems to c. 1.5 m. tall, and creeping or scrambling stems, rooting at the nodes.
Morphology Stem
Younger stems pubescent or slightly hispid, later glabrescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, 3–7 x 2–4 cm., ovate; apex long acuminate; base cuneate or rounded; margin serrate; upper surface of lamina slightly hispid, lower surface with soft hairs on the nerves.
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petiole pubescent, 0.4–3 cm. long.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules up to 0.5 cm. long, lanceolate, mostly persisting.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences variable, typically consisting of two bisexual involucres (containing male and female flowers) and a reduced branch with few-many female involucres (each containing 1(2) female flowers) in each leaf axil, but any of these elements maybe missing. Both types of inflorescence maybe found on different plants or on the same plant.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Bisexual involucres 4–6 mm. in diam., mostly with many male flowers and a few naked female flowers; male flowers up to c. 2 mm. long. Female involucres often many together, perianth-like, each usually with 1(2) female flowers, up to 1.5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary erect, 1–1.5 mm. long; stigma up to c. 3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achene compressed, brownish, c. 1.5 mm. long, enclosed in the slightly enlarged, persistent involucre.

Native to:

Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Ethiopia, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Droguetia iners (Forssk.) Schweinf. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2009 Cheek, M. [13451], Cameroon K000580391
Tweedie, E.M. [3330], Kenya 30361.000
Dawkins, H.C. [580], Uganda 2672.000
Schimper [682], Ethiopia K000242997 isotype

First published in Bull. Herb. Boissier 4(App. 2): 146 (1896)

Accepted by

  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Launert, E. & Cope, G.V. (eds.) (1991). Flora Zambesiaca 9(6): 1-135. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Friis, I. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Urticaceae: 1-64.


Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Hauman in Fl. Congo Belge 1: 217.
  • —F.T.A. 6, 2: 303

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Friis & Wilmot-Dear in Nordic Journ. Bot 8: 38 (1988).
  • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 1: 161,Fig. 33/1A–D (1978).
  • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 325 (1974).
  • Letouzey in Fl. Cameroun 8: 213 (1968).
  • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2,1: 622 (1958).
  • Hauman in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 1: 217 (1948).
  • Rendle in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(2): 303 (1917).
  • Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4, Appendix 2: 146 (1896).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa

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