1. Family: Moraceae Gaudich.
    1. Genus: Ficus Tourn. ex L.
      1. Ficus exasperata Vahl

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, SW. Arabian Peninsula, India to Sri Lanka.

    [FWTA]

    Moraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A deciduous tree, up to 70 ft. high
    Bark
    Smooth grey bark
    Leaves
    Very rough leaves
    Exudate
    Sap viscid, not milky
    Shoots
    Coppice shoots with lobed leaves
    Ecology
    In the drier types of forest.
    [FTEA]

    Moraceae, C.C. Berg (University of Bergen). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

    Habit
    Shrub or tree up to 20(–30) m. tall.
    Twigs
    Leafy twigs 1–5 mm. thick, hispidulous.
    Leaves
    Leaves almost distichous and alternate, sometimes subopposite; lamina subcoriaceous to coriaceous, ovate to elliptic or obovate, sometimes oblong or subcircular, 2.5–16 × 1–12 cm., sometimes ± asymmetrical, apex shortly acuminate, sometimes acute, obtuse or rounded, base acute to obtuse or occasionally subcordate, margin dentate to subentire; upper surface scabrous, hispidulous, lower surface scabrous, hispidulous or partly hirtellous to subtomentose; lateral veins 3–5(–6) pairs; petiole 0.5–2.5 cm. long; stipules 0.2–0.5 cm. long, strigillose to strigose, caducous.
    Infructescences
    Figs in pairs or solitary in the leaf-axils, just below the leaves or sometimes on the olderwood; peduncle 0.5–1(–1.5) cm. long; 1–5 broadly ovate bracts scattered on the peduncle, 1–4 similar ones on the outer surface of the receptacle.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle subglobose, 1–2.5 cm. in diameter when fresh, 0.8–1.5 cm. when dry, hispidulous, yellow, orange or reddish at maturity.
    Habitat
    Forest, often at edges, in rocky places and along rivers, sometimes persisting in cleared places; 0–1200(–1850) m.
    Distribution
    extending to Senegal, Djibouti, Angola, Mozambique and E. Zimbabwe K3 K4 K5 K7 P T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U4 Z
    [FZ]

    Moraceae, C. C. Berg. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

    Habit
    Shrub or tree, up to 20(30) m. tall.
    Twigs
    Leafy twigs 1 -5 mm. thick, hispidulous.
    Leaves
    Leaves almost distichous and alternate, sometimes subopposite; lamina ovate to elliptic or obovate, sometimes to oblong or subcircular, 2–16(20) x 1–12 cm., sometimes ± asymmetrical, subcoriaceous to coriaceous, apex shortly acuminate, sometimes acute, obtuse or rounded, base cuneate or occasionally subcordate, margin dentate to subentire; superior surface scabrous, hispidulous, the inferior surface scabrous, hispidulous or partly hirtellous to subtomentose; lateral veins 3–5(6) pairs; petiole 5–22(60) mm. long; stipules 2–5 mm. long, strigillose to strigose, caducous.
    Fruits
    Figs in pairs or solitary in the leaf axils, just below the leaves or sometimes on the older wood; peduncle 5–10(15) mm. long; bracts 1–5, broadly ovate, scattered on the peduncle, 1–4 similar bracts on the receptacle outer surface; receptacle subglobose, 10–25 mm. in diam. when fresh, 8–15 mm. in diam. when dry, hispidulous, yellow, orange or reddish at maturity.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Ficus exasperata Vahl appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 2006 Cheek, M. [11172], Cameroon K000339910
    Jun 1, 2006 Etuge, M. [5244], Cameroon K000339902
    Sep 1, 2004 Rønsted, N. [217], Cameroon K000339894
    Sep 1, 2004 Rønsted, N. [200], Cameroon K000339878
    Feb 1, 2004 Zapfack, L. [2045], Cameroon K000746163
    Jun 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [9300], Cameroon K000026727
    Jun 1, 2002 Cable, S. [2793], Cameroon K000026726
    Jun 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1465], Cameroon K000026723
    Jun 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [2039], Cameroon K000026724
    Jun 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [2591], Cameroon K000026728
    Jun 1, 2002 Elad, M. [97], Cameroon K000026725
    Jan 1, 1991 Fay, J.M. [8701], Central African Republic 73290.000
    Mar 1, 1988 Thomas, D.W. [2734], Cameroon K000181677
    Jan 1, 1972 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [9742], Cameroon K000181674
    Dec 1, 1957 Wight, R. [2993], India K000880218
    Newbould, J. [2610], Tanzania 15947.000
    Hamilton, A.C. [94], Uganda 6049.385
    Dowsett-Lemaire, F. [2503], Mozambique K000614122
    Sim [5381], Mozambique K000243363 Unknown type material
    Heudelot [853], Guinea K000243182
    Harris, T. [133], Mozambique K000545114
    Brunt, M.A. [299], Cameroon K000181675
    Ujor, E.U. [30468], Cameroon K000181676
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4521] K001039225
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4521] K001039226
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4521] K001039227
    Baron, R. [1554], Madagascar Ficus politoria K000243424 Unknown type material
    Baron, R. [1646], Madagascar Ficus politoria K000243420
    Baron, R. [1074], Madagascar Ficus politoria K000243417 Unknown type material
    Baron, R. [1948], Madagascar Ficus politoria K000243425 Unknown type material
    Baron, R. [1014], Madagascar Ficus politoria K000243426 Unknown type material
    Parker, G.W. [s.n.], Madagascar Ficus politoria K000243421 Unknown type material

    First published in Enum. Pl. 2: 197 (1805)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Chaudhary, L.B., Sudhakar, J.V., Kumar, A., Bajpai, O., Tiwari, R. & Murthy, G.V.S. (2012). Synopsis of the genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in India Taiwania 57: 193-216.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Launert, E. & Cope, G.V. (eds.) (1991). Flora Zambesiaca 9(6): 1-135. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Berg, C.C. & Hijman, M.E.E. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Moraceae: 1-95.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 346
    • Lebrun & Boutique in Fl. Congo Belge 1: 126.
    • Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv. 1: 58, t. 12, 2
    • —F.T.A. 6, 2: 110
    • Engl. Pflanzenw. Afr. 3, 1: 41, fig. 22 C
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • C.C. Berg et al. in Fl. Cameroun 28: 121, t. 39 (1985).
    • Troupin, Fl. Pl. Lign. Rwanda: 444, fig. 147.6 (1982).
    • Hamilton, Ug. For. Trees: 96 (1981).
    • Aweke in Meded. Landb. Wageningen 79–3: 21, fig. 5 (1979).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 30 (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 316 (1961).
    • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 605, fig. 173 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 268, fig. 95 (1952).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 248 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 353 (1949).
    • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 262 (1949).
    • Lebrun & Boutique in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 1: 126 (1948).
    • Peter, Flora von Deutsch-Ostafrika 2: 94 (1932).
    • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(2): 110 (1916).
    • Vahl, Enum. Pl. 2: 197 (1805).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0