1. Family: Moraceae Gaudich.
    1. Genus: Ficus Tourn. ex L.
      1. Ficus maxima Mill.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America. It is used to treat digestive system disorders and unspecified medicinal disorders, as animal food and for firewood.

    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Ecology
    Alt. 0 - 2100 m.
    Distribution
    Native from Colombia.
    Conservation
    Not Evaluated.
    Habit
    Tree.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2100 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Arbolito, árbol
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [UPB]
    Animal Food
    Eaten by wild animals (Carvajal et al. 2014).
    Fuelwood
    Used as fuelwood (Carvajal et al. 2014).
    Fibres
    Bark - Used to make hats, belts, purses, toys and for crafts (Linares et al. 2008).
    Unspecified Materials Chemicals
    Used for construction (Carvajal et al. 2014). Bark - Used to make canvases (Linares 1994).
    Wood
    Used for planks (Carvajal et al. 2014).
    Digestive System Disorders
    Exudates - The latex is used in liquid medicines as a laxative (Carvajal et al. 2014).
    Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
    Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Common Names

    Spanish
    Yanchama, acedero, caucho, higuerón, caucho higuerón, yanchama blanca, breva, higuerón yanchama, caucho lechero, bujurki, palo leche, palo blanco.

    Ficus maxima Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 19, 2013 Prance, G.T. [14695], Brazil K000964108
    Jul 18, 2013 Miguel Bang, A. [1665], Bolivia K000512016
    Jul 15, 2013 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [6574], Brazil K000964140
    Jul 8, 2013 s.coll. [638], Panama K000950326 isotype
    Jul 1, 2013 s.coll. [3838] K000964133
    Nov 1, 2007 Sasaki, D. [1704], Mato Grosso K000447611
    Apr 1, 1989 Combs, R. [146], Cuba K000912975 syntype
    Jun 20, 1986 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [7368], Brazil K000964106
    Sep 26, 1980 Rusby, H.H. [591], Bolivia K000512015
    Jan 1, 1977 Prance, G.T. [1631], Brazil K000964136
    Jan 1, 1970 Silva, M. [2318], Brazil K000964137
    Jan 1, 1970 Prance, G.T. [3575], Brazil K000964129
    Mar 1, 1967 Krukoff, B.A. [6094], Brazil K000964139
    Mar 1, 1961 Spruce, R. [2345], Brazil K000964110
    Mar 1, 1961 Spruce, R. [1704], Brazil K000964127
    Mar 1, 1961 Spruce, R. [1704], Brazil K000964128
    Mar 1, 1961 Spruce, R. [2345], Brazil K000964109
    Mar 1, 1961 Ule, E. [5716], Brazil K000442909 Unknown type material
    Mar 1, 1961 Ule, E. [5716], Brazil K000442910 Unknown type material
    Mar 1, 1961 Parker [s.n.], Guyana K000442908 Unknown type material
    Mar 1, 1961 Krukoff, B.A. [6413], Brazil K000442911 isotype
    Mar 1, 1961 Krukoff, B.A. [4602], Brazil K000964134
    Mar 1, 1961 Krukoff, B.A. [8477], Brazil K000964132
    Mar 1, 1961 Krukoff, B.A. [4602], Brazil K000964135
    Mar 1, 1961 Burchell, W.J. [8261], Brazil K000964130
    Mar 1, 1961 Burchell [9814], Brazil K000964107
    Mar 1, 1961 Burchell [9762-2], Brazil K000964131
    Apr 1, 1959 Wright, C. [543], Cuba K000912976 isolectotype
    Apr 1, 1959 Wright, C. [543], Cuba K000912977 isolectotype
    Apr 1, 1959 Ramage, G.A. [s.n.], Dominica K000912973 syntype
    Apr 1, 1959 Alexander Prior, R.C. [297], Jamaica K000912974 syntype
    Apr 1, 1959 Fuertes, M. [1114], Cuba K000442872
    Milliken, W. [M.795], Brazil 54104.000
    Milliken, W. [795], Brazil K000964142
    Ratter, J.A. [1129], Brazil K000964138
    Campbell, D.G. [P22516], Brazil K000964141
    Wright, C. [543], Cuba Ficus subscabrida K000442875
    Wright, C. [543], Cuba Ficus subscabrida K000442876
    Jamaica Ficus suffocans K000442873
    Wilson, N. [s.n.], Jamaica Ficus suffocans K000442874
    Veracruz Ficus glaucescens K000442815
    Liebmann [s.n.], Mexico Ficus glaucescens K000442813
    Liebmann [s.n.], Veracruz Ficus glaucescens K000442814

    First published in Gard. Dict. ed. 8: n.º 6 (1768)

    Accepted by

    • Pederneiras, L.C. & Romaniuc-Neto, S. (2019). Taxonomic revision of Ficus sect. Pharmacosycea (Moraceae) Systematic Botany Monographs 107: 1-148.
    • Pederneiras, L.C. & al. (2017). Taxonomic synopsis of the Ficus sect. Pharmacosycea (Moraceae) from Colombia Phytotaxa 313: 1-22.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Ibarra-Manríques, G. & al. (2012). El género Ficus L. (Moraceae) en México Botanical Sciences 90: 389-452.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta Englera 29-2: 1-300.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Berg, C.C. & Villavicencio, X. (2004). Taxonomic studies on Ficus (Moraceae) in the West Indies, extra-Amazonian Brazil, and Bolivia Ilicifolia 5: 1-130.
    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.

    Literature

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.or
    • Carvajal, L., Ariza, W., Caro, L., Valero, N. (2014). Especies forestales representativas del Sur Oriente de Boyacá. Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Colombia
    • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
    • Linares, E.L., Galeano, G., García, N. & Figueroa, Y. (2008). Fibras vegetales utilizadas en artesanías en Colombia. Artesanías de Colombia S.A. , Instituto de Ciencias Naturales-Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
    • Linares, E. (1994). Inventario preliminar de las plantas utilizadas para elaborar artesanías en Colombia. Vniversitas Scientarium. Vol 2: 1-38
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Ibarra-Manríques, G. & al. (2012). El género Ficus L. (Moraceae) en México Botanical Sciences 90: 389-452.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta Englera 29-2: 1-300.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/