1. Family: Moraceae Gaudich.
    1. Genus: Ficus Tourn. ex L.
      1. Ficus thonningii Blume

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Cape Verde, Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Moraceae, C.C. Berg (University of Bergen). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

    Habit
    Tree up to 15(–30) m. tall or a shrub, terrestrial or hemi-epiphytic.
    Twigs
    Leafy twigs 1.5–7 mm. thick, minutely puberulous to hirtellous or white to brown pubescent, at least on the scars of the stipules or sometimes entirely glabrous, periderm usually not flaking off.
    Leaves
    Leaves in spirals, occasionally subopposite; lamina ± coriaceous, elliptic to lanceolate, oblanceolate, obovate or subovate, (1.5–)3–12(–18) × (1–)1.5–6(–7) cm., apex acuminate to obtuse or rounded, base subacute to rounded or subcordate, margin entire; upper surface glabrous or sparsely (on the midrib to rather densely) puberulous to pubescent, lower surface glabrous or sparsely to densely white (to brownish) puberulous to pubescent on the whole surface, the main veins or only the midrib; lateral veins (5–)7–12(–16) pairs, midrib often reaching the apex of the lamina (even in leaves with a rounded apex); tertiary venation reticulate or parallel to the lateral veins; petiole (0.5–)1–4(–6) cm. long, 1–2 mm. thick, often (not depending on the size of the lamina or the position of the leaf on the twig) variable in length on the same twig, glabrous or puberulous, hirtellous or pubescent; stipules 0.3–1(–1.5) cm. long, white to brown pubescent, puberulous or only ciliolate, caducous or subpersistent.
    Infructescences
    Figs in pairs in the leaf-axils or sometimes also below the leaves, sessile or on peduncles up to 1 cm. long; basal bracts 2–4 mm. long, persistent.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle globose to ellipsoid, 0.5–1.5(–2) cm. in diameter when fresh, 0.4–1.2(–1.7) cm. when dry, glabrous or sparsely to densely white to brown puberulous or pubescent, reddish, yellowish or brownish at maturity; wall thin, mostly smooth or slightly wrinkled when dry; apex plane to strongly protruding when dry.
    Figures
    Fig. 21, p.74.
    Habitat
    Forest, woodland, bushland and woodedd grassland, sometimes along rivers and lakes or among rocks, planted for ornament and bark-cloth; 350–2500 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 extending to Cape Verde Is., Angola, Ethiopia and South Africa
    [FZ]

    Moraceae, C. C. Berg. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

    Habit
    Tree up to 15(30) m. tall, or a shrub, terrestrial or hemi-epiphytic.
    Twigs
    Leafy twigs 1.5–8 mm. thick, minutely puberulous to hirtellous or white- to brown-pubescent, or glabrous on the stipule scars, sometimes entirely glabrous, periderm usually not flaking off.
    Leaves
    Leaves spirally arranged, occasionally subopposite; lamina elliptic to oblanceolate or subobovate to subovate, (1.5)3–12(18) x (1)1.5–6(9) cm., subcoriaceous; apex acuminate to obtuse or rounded; base cuneate to rounded or subcordate, often slightly inaequilateral; margin entire; superior surface glabrous or sparsely puberulous to pubescent, the midrib more densely so, the inferior surface glabrous or sparsely to densely white- to brownish-puberulous or pubescent on the whole surface, the main veins or only the midrib; lateral veins (5)7–12(16) pairs, midrib often reaching the apex of the lamina (even in leaves with a rounded apex), tertiary venation reticulate or parallel to the lateral veins; petiole (0.5)1–4(6) cm. long, 1–2 mm. thick, often (not depending on the size of the lamina or the position of the leaf on the twig) variable in length on the same twig, glabrous or puberulous, hirtellous or pubescent; stipules 3–10(20) mm. long, white to brown pubescent, puberulous or only ciliolate, caducous or subpersistent.
    Fruits
    Figs in pairs in the leaf axils, sometimes also below the leaves, sessile or on peduncles up to 1 cm. long; basal bracts 2–4 mm. long, persistent.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle globose to ellipsoid, c. 5–10(12) mm. in diam. when fresh, 4–12(17) mm. in diam. when dry, glabrous or sparsely to densely white to brown puberulous or pubescent, reddish, yellowish or brownish at maturity; wall thin, mostly smooth or slightly wrinkled when dry; apex plane to strongly protruding when dry.
    [FWTA]

    Moraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A tree, to 60 ft. high
    Leaves
    Dark green foliage
    Roots
    Numerous aerial roots
    Note
    Often planted as a shade tree.
    [FWTA]

    Moraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A tree or epiphyte
    Branches
    Nearly glabrous branchlets
    Fruits
    Figs pale in colour, generally in pairs, and numerous on the young shoots.
    [FWTA]

    Moraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A tree up to 40 ft. high with a girth of 15 ft.
    Bark
    Smooth pale bark
    Note
    Often epiphytic at first
    Fruits
    Figs crowded on the branchlets.
    [FWTA]

    Moraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    An epiphyte or tree up to 45 ft.
    Branches
    Rather slender pubescent branchlets.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Bark cloth fig, Burkis fig, Common wild fig, Peters fig, Strangler fig

    Ficus thonningii Blume appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2008 Pollard, B.J. [1392], Cameroon K000580268
    Jun 1, 2002 Cable, S. [699], Cameroon K000026754
    Jun 1, 2002 Cable, S. [2889], Cameroon K000026753
    Jun 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1542], Cameroon K000026744
    Jan 1, 1993 Thomas, D.W. [9493], Cameroon K000011737
    Jan 1, 1993 Tekwe, C. [332], Cameroon K000011738
    Mar 21, 1988 Toutain, B. [972], Burkina Faso K000385926
    Dec 4, 1983 Biegel, H.M. [3244], Botswana K000315246
    Nov 30, 1983 Stigand, A.G. [s.n.], Botswana K000315245
    Jan 1, 1983 Goetze [1348], Tanzania K000243351
    Jul 1, 1975 Letouzey, R. [13936], Cameroon K000181701
    Keay, R.W.J. [25665], Nigeria 2707.000
    Dalziel, J.M. [1344], Nigeria 16918.000
    Polhill, R. [1492], Tanzania 22931.000
    Polhill, R. [12089], Kenya 23417.000
    Polhill, R. [1804], Tanzania 23738.000
    Polhill, R. [12089], Kenya 27338.000
    Gossweiler, J. [667], Angola K000243395 syntype
    Struhsaker, T.T. [14], Cameroon K000181709
    Maitland, T.D. [1267], Cameroon K000181704
    Glover [2659], Kenya 24452.000
    Anglade, L. [397], Nigeria 22112.000
    Hutchinson, J. [40], Cameroon K000181707
    Hutchinson, J. [40], Cameroon K000181708
    Miller, A.K. [379], Uganda 22759.000
    Plhill, R. [1259], Tanzania 25098.000
    Schweinfurth, G. [1509] K000243321
    Fay, J.M. [7324], Central African Republic 63315.000
    Fay, J.M. [7237], Central African Republic 63380.000
    Strahsaker, T.T. [14], Cameroon 31329.000
    Schimper [709], Ethiopia K000243324
    Schimper [709], Ethiopia K000243325
    Schimper [11.627], Ethiopia K000243326 Unknown type material
    Schimper [627], Ethiopia K000243327 Unknown type material
    Schimper [220], Ethiopia K000243328 Unknown type material
    Schimper [373], Ethiopia K000243330 isotype
    Schimper [373], Ethiopia K000243331
    Ward, C.J. [10341], Namibia K000315288
    Breteler, F.J. [296], Cameroon K000181702
    Breteler, F.J. [193], Cameroon K000181703
    Mildbraed [6639] K000243400
    Petit [335], Ethiopia K000243329
    Kotschy [473] K000243322 Unknown type material
    Kotschy [473] K000243323 Unknown type material
    Fries, R.E. [913], Kenya K000243346
    illegible [30], Zimbabwe K000243398
    Rogers [26167], Zaire K000243258 Unknown type material
    Kersting [533], Togo K000243210
    Welw. [6412], Angola K000243393 syntype
    Welw. [6386], Angola K000243394
    Welw. [6337], Angola K000243396 Unknown type material
    Welw. [6417], Angola K000243397 syntype
    Lebrum, J. [9446], Zaïre K000243307
    Lebrum, J. [9446], Zaïre K000243259
    Poisson [s.n.], Togo K000243209
    Elliot, W.R. [133], Nigeria K000243204
    Lepriuer [s.n.] K000243212 Unknown type material
    Engler [3060], Zimbabwe K000243399 Unknown type material
    Harris, T. [555], Malawi K000614630
    Edwards, D. [3321], South Africa K000315289
    Williamson, D.T. [95], Botswana K000315244
    Steele, M. [2], Cameroon K000181706
    Mozambique Ficus dekdekena 23400.000
    Ash [382], Ethiopia Ficus dekdekena 33257.000
    Ash [382], Ethiopia Ficus dekdekena 6049.378
    Polhill, R. [1603], Tanzania Ficus dekdekena 24391.000
    Brenan, J.P.M. [7776], Zambia Ficus burkei 2688.000
    Wild, H. [1267], Zimbabwe Ficus burkei 11062.000
    Polhill, R. [1348], Tanzania Ficus burkei 23363.000
    Dawkins, H.C. [607], Uganda Ficus persicifolia 11083.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [8881], Tanzania Ficus petersii 11082.000
    Greenway, P.J. [11643], Tanzania Ficus petersii 28124.000
    Polhill, R. [1200], Tanzania Ficus petersii 22922.000
    Polhill, R. [1196], Tanzania Ficus petersii 23740.000

    First published in Rumphia 2: 18 (1838)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Launert, E. & Cope, G.V. (eds.) (1991). Flora Zambesiaca 9(6): 1-135. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Berg, C.C. & Hijman, M.E.E. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Moraceae: 1-95.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Aubrév. Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 347, t. 71, 6–7.
    • Lebrun & Boutique in Fl. Congo Belge 1: 148, t. 16
    • Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv. 1: 72, t. 19 B
    • Chev. Bot. 604
    • —F.T.A. 6, 2: 187
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • C.C. Berg in Fl. Cameroun 28: 175, t. 59 (1985).
    • Hamilton, Ug. For. Trees: 104(1981).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 321 (1961).
    • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa ed. 2, 1: 610 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 270 (1952).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 260 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 360 (1949).
    • Lebrun & Boutique in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 1: 148, t. 16 (1948).
    • Peter, Flora von Deutsch-Ostafrika 2: 109 (1932).
    • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(2): 187 (1916).
    • Bl. in Rumphia 2: 17 (1836).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/