1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Callicarpa L.
      1. Callicarpa flavida Elmer

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Philippines (Mindanao, Dinagat).

    [KBu]

    Bramley, G.L.C. 2013. The genus Callicarpa (Lamiaceae) in the Philippines. Kew Bulletin 68: 369. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9456-y

    Type
    Type: Mindanao, Davao Distr., Todaya (Mt Apo), Sept. 1909, A. D. E. Elmer 11851 (lectotype K, selected here isolectotypes BM, E, NY).
    Habit
    A tree-like or epiphytic shrub to 10 m, diam. to 12 cm stems with a dense indumentum of densely branched hairs, obscuring the surface a ridge present between the petioles
    Leaves
    Leaves often with apparently alternate leaves between opposite pairs blades elliptic to narrowly elliptic to narrowly or very narrowly ovate, 9 – 18 × 2 – 6 cm, margins ± entire, apex acuminate to caudate, 1.5 – 4 cm long, base attenuate to cuneate, sometimes markedly asymmetric, with one side up to 4 mm longer, upper surface ± glabrous but with branched hairs along the impressed veins and midrib, especially towards the base of the midrib, lower surface with an indumentum of interwoven densely branched hairs, the surface obscured, the venation raised and also covered with hairs, a yellowish-brown colour when dry petioles 1 – 2.5 mm, indumentum as stems
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence axillary, peduncles 25 – 50 mm long, indumentum as stem bracts inconspicuous, linear 3 – 5 mm long pedicels c. 1 mm long, indumentum as stems bracteoles inconspicuous, 1 – 2 mm long
    Calyx
    Calyx cupular, 2.5 – 3 mm long, with 5 to 8 lobes, either shortly triangular or almost mucronate, also marked by slight ridges on outer surface, outer surface densely covered and obscured by the same densely branched hairs found on the stems and lower leaf surface, also with yellow sessile glands, inner surface ± glabrous
    Corolla
    Corolla pale blue (Elmer 1915) c. 5 mm long, divided into 5 to 8 oblong lobes 1.5 – 2 mm long with acute tips, outer surface with branched hairs in the centre of the lobes, the lobe margins glabrous or with papillae, sometimes the hairs also present on the tube below the lobes, also with yellow sessile glands, the portion enclosed within the calyx usually glabrous, inner surface ± glabrous
    Stamens
    Stamens 5 to 8, enclosed, filaments c. 2 mm long, anthers oblong, c. 2 mm long, dehiscing through a pore-like opening at the apex which splits longitudinally towards the base as anther matures
    Stigma
    Stigma capitate
    Fruits
    Fruit maturing red, 3 – 4 mm wide (on dry specimen), slight depression near apex, sometimes the stigma persisting, outer surface glandular, about three-quarters enclosed by the calyx 5 to 8 2-seeded locules maturing into 10 to 16 1-seeded pyrenes.
    Distribution
    Philippines. Mindanao (Agusan and Davao), Dinagat Island. Map 3.
    Ecology
    Found as an epiphytic shrub or small tree within forests, near rivers 50 – 1200 m.
    Conservation
    Based on the georeferenced collections, the AOO (4236 km2) suggests Callicarpa flavida is possibly Near Threatened (NT). Because this species has been collected in the last 20 years on Dinagat Island, and part of its range includes Mount Apo National Park (type locality), I suggest it is recognised as possibly NT. Given the general threats to the Mindanao rainforest habitat discussed in the introduction (e.g. WWF 2011b), further investigation may give cause to raise the status.
    Vernacular
    Lai-au-pan [Bagobo] (Elmer 1910).
    Note
    Elmer separated Callicarpa flavida and C. epiphytica on the basis of number of corolla parts, C. epiphytica being 6-merous and C. flavida being 7-merous. However, I observed 8-merous flowers in the type of C. flavida (Elmer states as 7-merous), but 6-merous flowers in the type of C. epiphytica. This was the principal character used to separate the species by H. J. Lam (1919), who transferred the two species to Geunsia. Lam (1919) also described G. epiphytica var. apiculata, based on one specimen, Elmer 13861, which he distinguishes by its cuneate or subacute rather than acute or truncate leaf base and acuminate rather than shortly acuminate to acute apex. I consider the variation in leaf shape to be continuous more interesting is the variable number of flower parts. There is also an apparently disjunct distribution, since C. epiphytica was described from Agusan in the north of Mindanao, and C. flavida from the south. More recent collections that match this species have been made from Dinagat Island, just to the north of Mindanao. These have 5-merous flowers and very narrowly ovate leaves with acuminate to caudate tips. Indumentum and general calyx and corolla morphology, aside from the number of parts, are alike in all collections examined. I argue here that they represent one species, and treat C. epiphytica and C. epiphytica var. apiculata as new synonyms of C. flavida. Variable numbers of flower parts is also seen in C. pentandra, described as having 5-merous flowers, although it is not unusual to find a number of 4-merous or, more rarely, 6-merous flowers on the same tree. C. flavida also shares with C. pentandra a tendency for alternate leaves to be present between opposite pairs. Unusually, the stigma appears to be semi-persistent in this species.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Philippines

    Callicarpa flavida Elmer appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Elmer, A.D.E. [11851], Philippines K000194994 Unknown type material

    First published in Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 3: 863 (1910)

    Accepted by

    • Bramley, G.L.C. (2013). The genus Callicarpa (Lamiaceae) in the Philippines Kew Bulletin 68: 369-418.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

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    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0