1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Callicarpa L.
      1. Callicarpa pentandra Roxb.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Peninsula Thailand to Papuasia.

    [KBu]

    Bramley, G.L.C. 2013. The genus Callicarpa (Lamiaceae) in the Philippines. Kew Bulletin 68: 369. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9456-y

    Type
    Type: Indonesia, Moluccas, collector uncertain (lectotype G-DC, selected here (G00312486)).Geunsia pentandra (Roxb.) Merr. (Merrill 1916: 309).
    Habit
    Shrub or tree to 20 m, diam. 2 – 35 cm outer bark light brown ± smooth, inner bark yellowish, fibrous
    Branches
    Young branches/twigs with a dense indumentum of brown plumose or short-branched hairs, often farinose, or longer, patent hairs that appear simple but have numerous short branches at the base, also with yellow sessile glands
    Leaves
    Leaves often with apparently alternate leaves between opposite pairs blades narrowly elliptic to elliptic to narrowly ovate to almost ovate, 11 – 29 × 4 – 15 cm, margins ± entire to shallowly dentate, apex markedly to shortly acuminate, base acute to attenuate, rarely almost rounded, truncate or cordate, upper surface variable, either ± glabrous, or with hairs present along the midvein only, or with simple hairs and hairs that are branched near the base, or farinose, with scattered branched hairs, these present especially when young, lower surface variable, either with an indumentum of short-branched hairs on the venation only (including tertiary), or on the lamina and the venation, forming a raised layer but not obscuring the lamina surface, or with a dense pale coloured indumentum of matted plumose hairs on the lamina, often the individual hairs not visible to the naked eye, in this case the leaves discolorous, in all cases also with yellow sessile glands, occasionally peltate glands present either side of the midrib towards the leaf base petioles 15 – 35 mm, indumentum as twigs
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence axillary, sometimes appearing terminal, peduncles 40 – 90 mm long, indumentum as stem pedicels 2 – 2.5 mm long, indumentum as stems bracts and bracteoles inconspicuous, linear, 0.2 – 10 mm long
    Calyx
    Calyx cupular, 1 – 2 (2.5 – 3) mm long, ± truncate or with (4) 5 (6) shallow triangular lobes, outer surface densely covered with short-branched or ± plumose hairs, in the latter case the surface obscured, also with yellow sessile glands and occasional peltate scales, inner surface ± glabrous
    Corolla
    Corolla purple, sweetly scented, 4 – 6 mm long, divided into (4) 5 (6) lobes 1 – 2 mm long, often reflexed, outer surface with short hairs or papillae and yellow sessile glands, sometimes also with longer branched hairs, inner surface ± glabrous or papillose, especially on the lobes
    Stamens
    Stamens (4) 5 (6) exserted for 4 – 5 mm, filaments purple, 5.5 – 8.5 mm, anthers oblong, pink or purple 1.5 – 3 mm long, dehiscing through a pore-like opening at the apex which splits longitudinally towards the base as anther matures
    Stigma
    Stigma capitate, divided into (4) 5 (6) small lobes, surface glandular
    Fruits
    Fruit green, maturing red, 2 – 5 mm wide (on dry specimen), slight depression near apex, outer surface glandular, subtended by the calyx, most of which has broken away, sometimes the calyx remaining more intact (4) 5 (6) 2-seeded locules breaking up into (8) 10 (12) 1-seeded pyrenes.
    Distribution
    Southern Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, the Philippines, Sulawesi, the Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Islands. Map 6.
    Ecology
    Collected mainly in disturbed areas such as roadsides, occasionally found in secondary forest or along margins of primary forest 15 – 1500 m.
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC) across its distribution.
    Vernacular
    Layaupan [Bagubo] (Merrill 1923).
    Note
    Callicarpa pentandra has traditionally been distinguished by its 5-merous flowers, but, as noted previously (Bramley 2009), it is not uncommon to find both 4-merous, 5-merous and 6-merous flowers on the same tree. In the Philippines, 4-merous flowers are more common than 5-merous flowers in the southern islands the same is true for the island of New Guinea. Callicarpa pentandra is a variable species, especially in the leaf shape and indumentum. In order to make sense of this variation, Bakhuizen, in Lam & Bakhuizen (1921), recognised three varieties in C. pentandra, each consisting of various forms, all based on differences in indumentum. According to Bakhuizen, C. pentandra var. typica has glabrous upper leaf surfaces, with lower leaf surfaces with a farinose indumentum that can be rubbed off. C. pentandra var. cumingiana has hairs on both upper and lower leaf surfaces C. pentandra var. paloensis has glabrous upper leaf surfaces and lower leaf surfaces with stellate hairs which can easily be rubbed off and appressed hairs that cannot easily be removed. These differences in leaf indumentum are evident across the broad distribution of C. pentandra, and can be often linked to leaf shape. Leaves that are elliptic or narrowly elliptic have more of a tendency to bear a shorter, matted, less conspicuous indumentum. Leaves that are narrowly ovate to almost ovate tend to be markedly acuminate and bear a conspicuous indumentum of longer hairs: this form represents what Schauer described as C. cumingiana from the southern Philippine islands, and is more common in the eastern parts of the species range. Merrill’s C. longivillosa also matches this form, having particularly long hairs. On first examination of the extreme forms it is tempting to conclude that more than one taxon is represented. However, intermediates displaying various combinations of these characters exist, linking the extremes, diminishing the possibility of applying intraspecific ranks that are easy to distinguish. I therefore do not consider Bakhuizen’s division of C. pentandra to be useful and do not recognise it here. Close examination of Callicarpa paloensis, considered by Bakhuizen as C. pentandra var. paloensis, has led me to recognise it as a separate species: for explanation see notes under C. paloensis. I am also recognising C. ramiflora (synon. nov. C. cauliflora), C. apoensis, C. flavida, C. basilanensis and C. surigaensis, all of which are names considered by Bakhuizen as synonyms or forms of his three varieties of C. pentandra. Further names are synonyms of other species: C. subglandulosa is C. megalantha C. epiphytica is C. flavida.The ‘cumingiana’ form of Callicarpa pentandra originates in the south of the Philippines, and becomes the dominant form in the eastern part of the species range, continuing to Sulawesi and New Guinea, especially. Roxburgh published Callicarpa pentandra as a nomen nudum in the Hortus Bengalensis (Roxburgh 1814: 83), noting it to be of Moluccan origin, and listing it as a plant not yet brought into cultivation in the garden. The protologue of C. pentandra is in Flora Indica (Roxburgh 1820: 409), where only a simple description is given, as well as the comment ‘native of the Moluccas’ there is no illustration. From this, one would deduce that Roxburgh saw material in his herbarium from the Moluccas, on which he based his description a specimen from this material would be the obvious choice for lectotypification. Forman (1997) writes of the difficulty in locating original Roxburgh material. Roxburgh specimens were distributed amongst many different herbaria, the major collections being at BM, BR, E, G-DC, K, K-W, LIV and OXF. With the help of the information given by Forman (1997) and the curators of BM, E, LIV and G-DC I have managed to locate one specimen from the Moluccas at G-DC this is cited in De Candolle’s Prodomus by Schauer (1847: 646) as ‘in Moluccis Roxb. (herb DC. a Lamb. comm.)’. Roxburgh material at G-DC was acquired by Rich as part of the Lambert herbarium (Miller 1970). The specimen of C. pentrandra located is labelled ‘M. Lambert 1816’: according to Forman (1997: 518) Lambert discarded the original labels in Roxburgh’s handwriting and prepared new ones, so the date 1816 does not relate to the collection date of the specimen. Millar (1970: 538) states that Lambert received material from Roxburgh from 1796 until c. 1810: this suggests that Roxburgh would have seen the material before first mention of the name C. pentandra, and that this specimen is Roxburgh material, and the most appropriate choice for a lectotype. When I wrote of C. pentandra in my Bornean revision of Callicarpa (Bramley 2009: 443) I was unaware of this Roxburgh material, and designated Robinson 1860, one of the Robinson collections listed by Merrill when he made the new combination Geunsia pentandra (Roxb.) Merr. (Merrill 1916: 309), as the type of C. pentandra. The lectotypification here serves to correct that mistake.
    [KBu]
    Use
    Notes of wood being used for parang handles and in construction across its distribution. Some collectors record the fruit as being edible. Birds have been observed eating the fruits.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Borneo, Jawa, Malaya, Maluku, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand

    Callicarpa pentandra Roxb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 2015 Takeuchi, W. et al. [17141], Papua New Guinea K000938638
    Jun 19, 2015 Schmid, C. [5], Papua New Guinea K000938618
    Feb 1, 2009 Gregson [128], Malaysia K000610283
    Jan 1, 2009 Ramos, M. [34538], Philippines K000194992 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2009 Bramley, G. [GB 60], Sumatera K000576248
    Elmer, A.D.E. [11102], Philippines K000194930 Unknown type material
    Elmer, A.D.E. [10856], Philippines K000194931 Unknown type material
    Pulle, A. [261], New Guinea K000194977 Unknown type material
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1836], Singapore K001114363
    Cuming, H. [1773], Philippines K000248661
    Cuming, H. [1773], Philippines K000248662
    Robinson, C. B. [1860], Maluku K000249402
    de Kok, R. et al. [S 100414], Sarawak K000938700

    First published in Fl. Ind. 1: 409 (1820)

    Accepted by

    • Bramley, G.L.C. (2013). The genus Callicarpa (Lamiaceae) in the Philippines Kew Bulletin 68: 369-418.
    • Bramley, G.L. (2009). The genus Callicarpa (Lamiaceae) on Borneo Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 159: 416-455.
    • Leeratiwong, C., Chantaranothai, P. & Paton, A.J. (2009). A synopsis of the genus Callicarpa L. (Lamiaceae) in Thailand Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany) 37: 36-58.
    • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.

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    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0