1. Family: Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Stachytarpheta Vahl
      1. Stachytarpheta indica (L.) Vahl

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America.

    [FWTA]

    Verbenaceae, H. Huber, F. N. Hepper & R. D. Meikle. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A well-branched herb 2-3 ft. high
    Inflorescences
    Very long narrow spikes
    Flowers
    Flowers deep blue with white centre
    Note
    A weed.
    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Annual sometimes somewhat subsucculent herb 9–60(–120) cm. tall, with glabrous unbranched or branched stems.
    Leaves
    Leaves oblanceolate to narrowly oblong in outline, 2–9(–13) cm. long, 0.3–3.5(–6) cm. wide, subacute at the apex, attenuate at the base into a 1 cm. long petiole with a few hairs at base and on junction across stems, ± remotely coarsely serrate.
    Inflorescences
    Spikes 4–35 cm. long; bracts elliptic to lanceolate, 5–5.5 mm. long, 1–1.5 mm. wide, sometimes obscurely ridged, acuminate, often ± spreading in older inflorescences.
    Calyx
    Calyx 4–4.5 mm. long, the apex appearing bifid from outside.
    Corolla
    Corolla deep to light blue, mauve or lavender, the tube and throat often white; tube 5 mm. long; limb 7.5 mm. wide, the lobes rounded, 2.5–3 mm. long and wide.
    Pistil
    Style 5 mm. long, just exserted; stigma green.
    Fruits
    Fruit pale brown turning black, oblong, 3.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, reticulately ridged towards apex, longitudinally ribbed beneath, slightly beaked at apex.
    Habitat
    Bare earth, grassland, weed in heavy cultivated soils, also in rice-fields; 10–1050 m.
    Distribution
    widespread in tropical Africa and in tropical America K1 T6 T8 U1
    [FWTA]

    Verbenaceae, H. Huber, F. N. Hepper & R. D. Meikle. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A herb about 1 ft. (sometimes up to 4 ft.) high, simple or slightly branched, often rather succulent
    Flowers
    Flowers pale blue with or without a white centre
    Ecology
    In moist places.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Suriname, Venezuela

    Introduced into:

    Burkina, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Nigeria, Phoenix Is., Sudan, Togo, Zaïre

    Stachytarpheta indica (L.) Vahl appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [9533], Cameroon K000107551
    Deighton, F.C. [4173], Sierra Leone 18954.000
    Meikle, R.D. [612], Nigeria 16937.000
    Jan 1, 2004 Damasceno, G.A. [2956], Brazil Stachytarpheta angustifolia K000944071
    Jan 1, 1987 Ule, E. [7866], Brazil Stachytarpheta angustifolia K000944069
    Jan 1, 1987 Jenman [5542], Guyana Stachytarpheta angustifolia K000470978 Unknown type material
    Deighton, F.C. [4172], Sierra Leone Stachytarpheta angustifolia 22050.000
    Chancellor, R.J. [289], Uganda Stachytarpheta angustifolia 24173.000
    Meikle, R.D. [702], Nigeria Stachytarpheta angustifolia 11720.000
    Meikle, R.D. [835], Nigeria Stachytarpheta angustifolia 18105.000
    Meikle, R.D. [1245], Nigeria Stachytarpheta angustifolia 18106.000
    Ule, E. [5411], Brazil Stachytarpheta angustifolia K000944070
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2656], India Verbena indica K001116748
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2656], India Verbena indica K001116749

    First published in Enum. Pl. Obs. 1: 206 (1804)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Hammel, B.E. & Grayum, M.H. (2011). Lectotypification and reinstatement of Stachytarpheta friedrichsthalii (Verbenaceae), with notes on the Lectotypification of S. indica Novon 21: 437-439.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Atkins, S. (2005). The genus Stachytarpheta (Verbenaceae) in Brazil Kew Bulletin 60: 161-272.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Brenan in Kew Bull. 5: 225 (1950)
    • Danser in Ann. Jard. Bot. Bultenz. 40: 5 (1929)
    • Chev. Bot. 503
    • F.T.A. 5: 284, mostly
    • Enum. Pl. 1: 206 (1805)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Atkins, S. (2005). The genus Stachytarpheta (Verbenaceae) in Brazil Kew Bulletin 60: 161-272.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • R. Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 57: 88, 95 (1984);.
    • Moldenke, Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4: 265 (1983).
    • Vahl, Enum. Pl. 1: 206 (1804).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0