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This species is accepted, and its native range is Old World.

[FWTA]

Zygophyllaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A trailing herb, woody below, from pubescent to tomentose
Ecology
A pest of footpaths and fields.

[FZ]

Zygophyllaceae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, extremely variable in habit, with spreading prostrate and usually decumbent branches, ± pubescent, villous or hispid, sometimes glabrescent in all vegetative parts; branches up to 2 m. long, sometimes woody at the base.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves unequal, the larger up to 6 cm. long (usually somewhat smaller) with up to 8 pairs of leaflets; the smaller up to 3·5 cm. long (usually much smaller) with up to 6 pairs of leaflets; leaflets 4–15 × 1·5–7 mm., rather oblique, oblong, oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate-ovate, acute or subobtuse, villous on both surfaces or nearly glabrous.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules up to 10 mm. long, linear or linear-lanceolate, acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncle usually shorter than, or as long as the subtending leaf.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 3–6 mm. long, linear-lanceolate, usually villous outside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals light yellow, 3–8 (12) mm. long, broadly cuneate, usually shorter than or as long as or sometimes up to 2·3 times the length of the sepals.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Filaments about 3 mm. long; anthers 0·5–1 (1·2) mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Style very short; stigma 0·8–1·2 mm. long, hemispheric, mostly asymmetric and nearly sessile on the ovary.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary with stiff bulbous-based hairs.
Morphology General Glands
Intrastaminal glands not connate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit breaking up into 5 cocci, each with 2 ± strong divergent spines in the upper and 2 smaller ones in the lower part, usually crested on the back, tuberculate and strigose.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1–4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Distribution
Tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world.
Morphology General Habit
Pubescent to villous annual-Leaves 2–6 cm long; leaflets 5–8 pairs, oblong to lanceolate, usually 4–18 x 1.5–5 mm; stipules linear to lanceolate, up to 8 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicel 5–10 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals linear-lanceolate, 3–6 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals yellow, 4–8 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8–10; filaments up to 3 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style very short or absent; stigma ± pyramidal, c. 1 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit disc-shaped; pedicel c. 10 mm long; mericarps 4–5 x 2–3 mm, with 2 pairs of spines.

[FTEA]

Zygophyllaceae, M. Nabil El Hadidi (Faculty of Science, Cairo University). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

Morphology General Habit
Annual ± pubescent, villous or hispid herb; branches prostrate, up to 90 cm. long; internodes up to 6 cm. long, 2-3 mm. in diameter.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 3-6 cm. long; leaflets 5-8 pairs, oblong to lanceolate, 4-8 × 1.5-5 mm.; stipules linear to lanceolate, up to 8 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flower medium-sized, up to 15 mm. across; pedicel 5-10 mm. long, shorter than the subtending leaf.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals linear-lanceolate, 3-6 × 1-2 mm., deciduous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals lemon-yellow to orange-yellow, 4-8 × 3-6 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8-10 in 2 whorls; filaments up to 3 mm. long; anthers 0.5-1 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary globular, 1 mm. across; style very short or absent; stigma pyramidal, 0.8-1.2 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit disc-shaped; stalk ± 1 cm. long; mericarp 4-5 × 2-3 mm., provided with 2 pairs of spines.
Habitat
Open and disturbed places, often on sandy soils, becoming a troublesome weed; 0-2300 m.
Distribution
K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 tropical and temperate regions throughout the world

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Angola, Assam, Austria, Baleares, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Gulf States, Hainan, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Qinghai, Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South China Sea, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Bolivia, British Columbia, California, Chile North, Colorado, Delaware, Ecuador, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Northwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Primorye, South Carolina, South Dakota, St.Helena, Tennessee, Texas, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming

English
(Land) calthrop, Burnut, Devil's thorn, Puncture vine

Tribulus terrestris L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 16, 2008 Crawford, F. [121], Namibia K000450349
South Africa K000417019
Tanner, R. [517], Tanzania 16011.000
Hatschbach, G. [61960], Brazil K001138326
Queiroz, L.P. [2605], Brazil K001138325
Headley, P.M. [196], Ethiopia 6049.067
Spruce, R. [5953], Ecuador K000201326
Spruce, R. [5306], Ecuador K000201327
Spruce, R. [5953], Ecuador K000201328
Spruce, R. [6406], Ecuador K000201330
Pickersgill, B. [72-55], Brazil K001138323
Sieber [s.n.], Senegal K000417026
Ecklon [751], South Africa K000417017
Cooper, T. [2148], South Africa K000417018
Heudelot, D., Senegal K000417028
Gillies, L. [s.n.], Senegal K000417027
Nascimento, A. [246], Brazil K001138324
s.coll. [43], South Australia K000725215
Mueller, F.J.H.von. [s.n.], Australia K000725219
Mueller, F J.H.Von. [s.n.], Australia K000725214
Mueller, F J.H.Von. [s.n.], Australia K000725216
Mueller, F J.H.Von. [s.n.], Australia K000725217
Mueller, F J.H.Von. [s.n.], Australia K000725218
Chevalier, A.J.B. [1287], Mali K001089859
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1191], India Tribulus lanuginosus K001112358
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1191], Myanmar Tribulus lanuginosus K001112360
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1191] Tribulus lanuginosus K001112359
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6854], India Tribulus lanuginosus K001124988
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6854] Tribulus lanuginosus K001124989
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6854] Tribulus lanuginosus K001124990
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6854] Tribulus lanuginosus K001124991
Kerner, A. [39], Hungary Tribulus orientalis K000725201 syntype

First published in Sp. Pl.: 387 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Prakash, L. & Balasubramanian, P. (2018). Invasive alien flora of Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Southern Eastern Ghats, India Indian Forester 144: 857-862.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Memon, R.A. & al. (2014). Illustrated weed flora of Cotton crop of Khairpur district, Sindh, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 5-12.
  • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
  • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Litvinskaya, S.A. & Murtazaliev, R.A. (2013). Flora of the Northern Caucasus: An Atlas and Identification Book: 1-688. Fiton XXI.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
  • Llewellyn, O.A., Hall, M., Miller, A.G., Al-Abbasi, T.M., Al-Wetaid, A.H., Al-Harbi, R.J. & Al-Shammari, K.F. (2011). Important plant areas in the Arabian peninsula: 4. Jabal Aja Edinburgh Journal of Botany 68: 199-224.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Zervous, S., Raus, T. & Yannitsaros, A. (2009). Additons to the flora of the island of Kalimnos (SE Aegean, Greece) Willdenowia 39: 165-177.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Malyschev, L.I., Peshkova, G.A. & Baikov, K.S. (eds.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 14: 1-210. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Probatova, N.S. & al. (2006). Flora Rossiiskogo Dal'nego Vostoka. Dopolneniya i izmeneniya k izdaniyu Sosudistye rasteniya sovetskogo Dal'nego Vostoka t. 1-8 (1985-1996): 1-454. Russian academy of sciences Far Eastern branch.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Japan IIb: 1-550. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Grubov, V.I. (2001). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-817. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Santisuk, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Thailand 7(2): 253-349. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1987). Flora of Bhutan 1(3): 466-834. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • El Hadidi, N. (1985). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Zygophyllaceae: 1-14.
  • Daoud, H.S. in Al-Rawi, A. (1985). Flora of Kuwait 1: 1-224. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
  • Smith, A.C. (1985). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 3: 1-758. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Ovchinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1981). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 6: 1-725. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1977). Flora of Cyprus 1: 1-832. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
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  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1967). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 2: 1-581. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
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  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
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Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Engl. in E. & P. Pflanzenfam. 19A: 176 (1931).
  • Chev. Bot. 96
  • —F.T.A. 1: 283

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Memon, R.A. & al. (2014). Illustrated weed flora of Cotton crop of Khairpur district, Sindh, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 5-12.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Litvinskaya, S.A. & Murtazaliev, R.A. (2013). Flora of the Northern Caucasus: An Atlas and Identification Book: 1-688. Fiton XXI.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
  • Llewellyn, O.A., Hall, M., Miller, A.G., Al-Abbasi, T.M., Al-Wetaid, A.H., Al-Harbi, R.J. & Al-Shammari, K.F. (2011). Important plant areas in the Arabian peninsula: 4. Jabal Aja Edinburgh Journal of Botany 68: 199-224.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
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  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
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  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
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  • Santisuk, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Thailand 7(2): 253-349. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
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  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
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Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Hadidi in Tackholm, Students’ Fl. Egypt, ed. 2: 313, t. 100B (1974).
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  • Letouzey in Fl. Cameroun 1: 155 (1963), pro parte
  • Letouzey in Fl. Gabon 6: 111 (1963), pro parte.
  • E. Lind & A. Tallantire, Some Common Flowering Plants of Uganda p. 63 (1962).
  • G. Gilbert in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 7: 64 (1958).
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  • H. Perrier in Fl. Madag. 103:4, fig. 1/1-3 (1952).
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  • A.J. Jex-Blake, Some Wild Flowers of Kenya p. 21 (1948).
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  • L., Sp. Pl.: 387 (1753).

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