1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Agrostis L.
      1. Agrostis trachychlaena C.E.Hubb.

        Agrostis trachychlaena is a rare species of grass that grows in loose clumps on rocky slopes on two islands in the South Atlantic Ocean. Specimens of A. trachychlaena were first brought back from Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands by botanist Erling Christophersen, as part of the Norwegian Scientific Expedition in 1938. Specimens from Nightingale Island were collected by scientist Nigel M. Wace on his visits in 1968 and 1976. The most recent collections were made by Peter Ryan in 2007.

    [KSP]
    General Description
    A rare grass species, Agrostis trachychlaena occurs within an area of only 16 km² on two islands in the South Atlantic Ocean. Fewer than 250 mature individuals are thought to survive.

    Agrostis trachychlaena is a rare species of grass that grows in loose clumps on rocky slopes on two islands in the South Atlantic Ocean. Specimens of A. trachychlaena were first brought back from Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands by botanist Erling Christophersen, as part of the Norwegian Scientific Expedition in 1938. Specimens from Nightingale Island were collected by scientist Nigel M. Wace on his visits in 1968 and 1976. The most recent collections were made by Peter Ryan in 2007.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Agrostis trachychlaenais restricted to Inaccessible Island and Nightingale Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. These islands are part of the Tristan da Cunha group, which is located 2,400 km south of St Helena (the UK Overseas Territory of which Tristan da Cunha is a dependency).

    Description

    Overview: A short, perennial herb growing in loose clumps, with culms (stems) of 20-55 cm long.

    Leaves:The ligule (appendage between the leaf sheaf and blade) is papery, 1-3 mm long and irregularly lobed. The leaves are 2-7 cm long and 0.5-2 mm wide. The leaf surface is ribbed and the leaves taper to an acute point at the end.

    Flowers: The inflorescence is a tight panicle, 1.5-5.5 cm long and 0.6-1.6 cm wide. The spikelets (clusters of flowers) are 3-4 mm long and are solitary, the fertile ones having pedicels (stalks) 0.3-2 mm long.

    Threats and conservation

    It is estimated that fewer than 250 mature individuals of Agrostis trachychlaena exist in the wild, and these are spread over a small area (less than 16 km²), adding to their vulnerability.

    It is not known why this species is so rare, although it is thought unlikely to be the result of human activity; erosion of these volcanic islands and subsequent loss of habitat could have played a part. Fire is a potential threat, and a Spartina arundinaceatussock can be easily lit and then burn for a long period.

    Visitors to Nightingale Island could introduce alien species, which might pose a further threat, and hence advice on biosecurity is provided to all visitors.

    Inaccessible Island is a designated Nature Reserve, out-of-bounds to tourists, as a measure to protect all of its wildlife, including A. trachychlaena.

    Conservation assessments carried out at Kew

    Agrostis trachychlaena is being monitored as part of the 'IUCN Sampled Red List Index for Plants', which aims to produce conservation assessments for a representative sample of the world’s plant species. This information will then be used to monitor trends in extinction risk and help focus conservation efforts where they are needed most.

    Partnerships for conservation

    Kew’s UK Overseas Territories (UKOTs) Programme works in collaboration with the Government of Tristan da Cunha Department of Conservation, together with international colleagues from the Netherlands and South Africa. 

    Fieldwork supported by funds from the European Union and the Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP) enables new herbarium specimens to be collected, including those of Agrostis trachychlaena.

    Kew’s UKOTs programme is working with partners to produce a Tristan online herbarium. A seed-collecting programme has been started and the species collected are stored in Kew’s Millennium Seed Bank. A new annotated checklist for the Tristan group is being produced, which includes both native and introduced species.

    This species at Kew

    The only known dried specimen of Agrostis trachychlaena from Inaccessible Island, was collected by botanist Erling Christophersen, and is housed in the Herbarium at Kew. This is also the type specimen for the species.

    Kew also holds specimens of A. trachychlaena collected on Nightingale Island by scientists Nigel M. Wace in the 1970s and Peter Ryan in 2007.

    Distribution
    St Helena, UK Overseas Territories (general)
    Ecology
    Rocky slopes, open patches in Spartina arundinacea tussock, and around albatross nesting sites.
    Conservation
    Endangered (EN) according to IUCN Red List criteria.
    Hazards

    None known.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Tristan da Cunha

    Common Names

    English
    Bentgrass

    Agrostis trachychlaena C.E.Hubb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    May 1, 1977 Christophersen, E. [2578], Tristan da Cunha K000482708 holotype
    May 1, 1977 Wace, N.M. [33], Tristan da Cunha K000482710
    May 1, 1977 Christophersen, E. [2213], St. Helena K000482711
    May 1, 1977 Wace, N.M. [6], St. Helena K000482712
    Wace, N.M. [51], Tristan da Cunha K000482709

    First published in Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 8: 383 (1981)

    Accepted in:

    • [2] Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006) World Grass Species - Synonymy database . The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    • [1] Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. (Accessed 10 August 2010).
    • [3] Jakubowsky, G. (2003). Agrostis trachychlaena. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 August 2010.

    • [4] (1992) Bothalia 22: 93-109
    • [5] Groves, E.W. (1981). Vascular plant collections from the Tristan da Cunha group of islands. Bull. Brit. Mus. (Na. Hist.) 8: 333-420.

    Sources

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [A] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [C]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [D] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [E] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0