1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Tragia Plum. ex L.
      1. Tragia stipularis Radcl.-Sm.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A perennial, monoecious, moderately branched, sparingly or evenly pubescent, weakly urticating procumbent or ascending herb up to 7.5 cm. tall.
    Leaves
    Petiole (1–)2–4.5 cm. long; blade ovate or triangular-ovate and hastate, 3–6 cm. long, 2–5 cm. wide, acute or subacute, widely shallowly or moderately cordate, shallowly crenate-serrate, firmly membranaceous to thinly chartaceous, 5-nerved from the base, lateral nerves 2–4 pairs, not prominent above, prominent beneath, subglabrous above, sparingly setose along the midrib and main nerves beneath.
    Stipules
    Stipules falcate-ovate to falcate-lanceolate, 5–10 mm. long, 4–5(–6) mm. wide, acute, rounded on one side at the base, multinerved from the base, glabrous on both surfaces, ciliate on the margins, erect.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences leaf-opposed, 2–9 cm. long, the peduncles 1–7 cm. long, ♂ at the tips with 2–3 basal ♀ flowers; axis at first densely later sparingly or evenly puberulous and pubescent, with a few urticating hairs, and minutely glandular; ♂ bracts lanceolate, 2–2.5 mm. long, acute, sparingly ciliate, 1(–3)-flowered, pale green; bracteoles linear-lanceolate, 1–1.5 mm. long, ciliate and minutely and obscurely glandular; ♀ bracts elliptic-lanceolate, sometimes bifid at the apex, 3–4 mm. long, 1.5–2.5 mm.  wide; bracteoles lanceolate, 2.5–3 mm. long, otherwise as ♂.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels 1–1.5 mm. long, pubescent, articulate at the base; buds turbinate; calyx-lobes elliptic, 1.3–1.5 mm. long, apiculate and cucullate, subglabrous, green; stamens 1 mm. long, filaments slender, anthers minute; pistillode very small, trifid, the segments bifid.
    Flowers
    Female flowers:pedicels 2 mm. long, thicker than in ♂, densely pubescent; calyx-lobes 3, 2–3 mm. long and wide, extending to 8–10 mm. long and wide in fruit, broadly ovate in outline, laciniate into 13 linear or filiform segments, 6 on each side, the terminal one resembling the others, all segments shorter than the rhachis, pubescent, green, the rhachis pubescent or subglabrous without, glabrous within, creamy, becoming woody at the base, and straw-coloured or tawny when dried, except at the base, which is greenish; ovary trilobate, 2 mm. diameter, densely setose on the keels, otherwise glabrous or subglabrous; styles 3, 3 mm. long, united for half their length, glabrous, the stigmas tightly recurved, smooth. Male flowers:pedicels 1–1.5 mm. long, pubescent, articulate at the base; buds turbinate; calyx-lobes elliptic, 1.3–1.5 mm. long, apiculate and cucullate, subglabrous, green; stamens 1 mm. long, filaments slender, anthers minute; pistillode very small, trifid, the segments bifid.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels 2 mm. long, thicker than in ♂, densely pubescent; calyx-lobes 3, 2–3 mm. long and wide, extending to 8–10 mm. long and wide in fruit, broadly ovate in outline, laciniate into 13 linear or filiform segments, 6 on each side, the terminal one resembling the others, all segments shorter than the rhachis, pubescent, green, the rhachis pubescent or subglabrous without, glabrous within, creamy, becoming woody at the base, and straw-coloured or tawny when dried, except at the base, which is greenish; ovary trilobate, 2 mm. diameter, densely setose on the keels, otherwise glabrous or subglabrous; styles 3, 3 mm. long, united for half their length, glabrous, the stigmas tightly recurved, smooth.
    Fruits
    Fruits trilobate, 4 mm. long, 6 mm. diameter, smooth, evenly setose on the keels, otherwise glabrous, pale green.
    Seeds
    Seeds 3.5 mm. diameter, dark purple, marbled pale grey, and beset with whitish spots, the spots with elevated margins.
    Figures
    Fig. 59.
    Habitat
    Valley grassland with impeded drainage; 975–1310 m.
    Distribution
    T1 T5 U1
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A weakly urticating perennial herb up to 90 cm tall, suberect at first, later twining at the top, monoecious.
    Stem
    Stems puberulous and weakly hirsute.
    Stipules
    Stipules erect, 5–10 × 4–7 mm, falcate-ovate to falcate-lanceolate, acute, entire, rounded on one side at the base, many-nerved from the base, glabrous but for the ciliate margins.
    Petiole
    Petiole 1–3 cm long.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blade 3–6 × 2–3.5 cm, triangular-ovate to triangular-lanceolate, acute at the apex, crenate-serrate on the margins, shallowly wide-cordate at the base, chartaceous, 5-nerved from the base, sparingly pubescent on upper surface, sparingly weakly hirsute along the midrib and main nerves beneath; lateral nerves in 2–4 pairs, not prominent above, prominent beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences up to 4 cm long on a peduncle up to 2 cm long, leaf-opposed, or terminal on short axillary shoots, consisting mostly of male flowers with 1–2 female flowers at the base; male bracts 1.5–2 mm long, lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate; male bracteoles 1 mm long, linear-lanceolate; female bracts c. 3 × 2 mm, ovate-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, sometimes bifid at the apex; female bracteoles resembling the male bracts.
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels 1 mm long; buds turbinate; calyx lobes 1.3 mm long, elliptic, apiculate, cucullate, subglabrous; stamens 3, 1 mm long; pistillode trifid, the segments bifid.
    Flowers
    Female flowers subsessile, but developing a pedicel c. 2 mm long in fruit; calyx lobes 3, 1.5 × 1.5 mm, accrescent to 7 × 7 mm, each lobe palmately 13–15-lobulate, the lobules linear, shorter than the width of the calyx-lobe rhachis, hirsute and setose, green, the calyx-lobe rhachis broadly ovate-suborbicular, sparingly puberulous without, glabrous within, yellowish, becoming hardened and whitish within; ovary 1 mm in diameter, 3-lobed, densely setose on the keels, otherwise puberulous; styles 3, 2–3 mm long, connate for half their length, puberulous, stigmas ± smooth, spreading. Male flowers: pedicels 1 mm long; buds turbinate; calyx lobes 1.3 mm long, elliptic, apiculate, cucullate, subglabrous; stamens 3, 1 mm long; pistillode trifid, the segments bifid.
    Female
    Female flowers subsessile, but developing a pedicel c. 2 mm long in fruit; calyx lobes 3, 1.5 × 1.5 mm, accrescent to 7 × 7 mm, each lobe palmately 13–15-lobulate, the lobules linear, shorter than the width of the calyx-lobe rhachis, hirsute and setose, green, the calyx-lobe rhachis broadly ovate-suborbicular, sparingly puberulous without, glabrous within, yellowish, becoming hardened and whitish within; ovary 1 mm in diameter, 3-lobed, densely setose on the keels, otherwise puberulous; styles 3, 2–3 mm long, connate for half their length, puberulous, stigmas ± smooth, spreading.
    Fruits
    Fruit 4 × 7 mm, 3-lobed, smooth, setose on the keels, otherwise sparingly puberulous.
    Seeds
    Seeds 3.5 mm in diameter, subglobose, grey, streaked and flecked with dark purplish-brown, with scattered tawny spots and with a mass of white papillae near the hilum.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia

    Tragia stipularis Radcl.-Sm. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 16, 1981 Tanner, R. [1539], Tanzania K000425706 Unknown type material
    Bidgood, S. [6284], Tanzania K000468141

    First published in Kew Bull. 37: 688 (1983)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • A. R.-Sm. in Kew Bulletin 37: 688 (1983).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0