1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Tragia Plum. ex L.
      1. Tragia plukenetii Radcl.-Sm.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Nigeria to Somalia and Zimbabwe, Central & S. India, Sri Lanka.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    An erect or suberect sparingly to evenly setose urticating annual or subperennial herb commmonly up to 1.5 m., rarely up to 4.5 m. in height, with the stems sometimes twining at their apices.
    Leaves
    Petiole (0.2–)0.5–2(–3.5) cm. long, sparingly setose; blade commonly deeply trilobate or tripartite, occasionally with some leaves elobate, rarely quinquelobate, the median lobe linear to linear-oblong, 3–11 cm. long, 0.3–2 cm. wide, the lateral lobes linear-lanceolate to elliptic-oblong, (0.5–)1–5 cm. long, 0.15–1 cm. wide, all lobes acute, subacute or obtuse and generally very coarsely serrate with large triangular teeth up to 5 mm. long, the blades commonly cuneate, rarely rounded-cuneate, firmly membranaceous, 3(–5)-nerved from the base, lateral nerves 8–14 pairs (in the median lobe), usually glabrous above, sparingly hispid or setose along the midrib and main nerves beneath, dark green above, paler beneath, the midrib and main nerves often reddish.
    Stipules
    Stipules lanceolate, suberect at first, soon reflexed, 3–5 mm. long, acutely acuminate, subglabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences leaf-opposed, (4–)6–8(–11) cm. long, the sparingly to evenly setose peduncle 2–7 cm. long; ♂ and ♀ bracts lanceolate, 2–2.5 mm. long, acuminate, subglabrous, 1-flowered, persistent; bracteoles linear-subulate, 1 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Male flowers:pedicels 1 mm. long, glabrous; calyx-lobes 3, ovate, 1 mm. long, ± glabrous, greenish white; stamens 0.5 mm. long, filaments slender, anthers minute; pistillode minute or 0. Female flowers:pedicels 2–3 mm. long, pubescent and setose, stouter than in ♂; calyx-lobes 6, elliptic-ovate in outline, 2–3 mm. long, accrescent to 6–7 mm. long in fruit, the rhachis membranaceous at first, later becoming indurated, lanceolate, pinnately lobulate, with 3–5 linear lobules on each side, and terminating in a linear segment, sparingly pubescent without, glabrous within, but densely white-setose along the margins of the lobules with urticating bristles; ovary trilobate, 1 mm. diameter, densely setose; styles 3, 2 mm. long, united to halfway, incurved, ± glabrous, stigmatic surfaces ± smooth.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels 1 mm. long, glabrous; calyx-lobes 3, ovate, 1 mm. long, ± glabrous, greenish white; stamens 0.5 mm. long, filaments slender, anthers minute; pistillode minute or 0.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels 2–3 mm. long, pubescent and setose, stouter than in ♂; calyx-lobes 6, elliptic-ovate in outline, 2–3 mm. long, accrescent to 6–7 mm. long in fruit, the rhachis membranaceous at first, later becoming indurated, lanceolate, pinnately lobulate, with 3–5 linear lobules on each side, and terminating in a linear segment, sparingly pubescent without, glabrous within, but densely white-setose along the margins of the lobules with urticating bristles; ovary trilobate, 1 mm. diameter, densely setose; styles 3, 2 mm. long, united to halfway, incurved, ± glabrous, stigmatic surfaces ± smooth.
    Fruits
    Fruits trilobate, 4–5 mm. long, 7–8 mm. diameter, smooth, sparingly to evenly adpressed-setose.
    Seeds
    Seeds 2.5–3 mm. diameter, orange- to reddish-brown, mottled buff or greyish.
    Habitat
    Riverine, flood-plains, valley grassland, often on black-cotton or other clay soils, sometimes in disturbed places; 0–1330 m.
    Distribution
    from Nigeria eastwards to Somalia and S. to Zimbabwe K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T3 T4 U1 U2 U3
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    Very like T. hildebrandtii, but differing chiefly in having all the leaves deeply 3-lobed or 3-partite, or occasionally at least some of the leaves with 1–2 lateral lobes.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Tragia plukenetii Radcl.-Sm. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Kew Bull. 37: 688 (1983)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Chakrabarty, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2006). The genera Megistostigma Hook. f. and Tragia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India Rheedea 16: 15-28.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • A. R.-Sm. in Kew Bulletin 37: 688 (1983).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0