1. Family: Podocarpaceae Endl.
    1. Genus: Lagarostrobos Quinn
      1. Lagarostrobos franklinii (Hook.f.) Quinn

        Contrary to its common name, Huon pine is not a member of the true pine family (Pinaceae) but instead belongs to the Podocarpaceae. The generic name Lagarostrobos comes from the Greek words for narrow ( lagaros) and cone ( strobilos), whilst the specific epithet franklinii commemorates Sir John Franklin, the Arctic explorer, who was Lieutenant-Governor of Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania) from 1837-1843. Huon pine takes its common name from the Huon River in Tasmania, along which it grows.

    [KSP]
    General Description
    Huon pine is a slow-growing Australian tree, some individuals of which are thought to be over 2,200 years old.

    Contrary to its common name, Huon pine is not a member of the true pine family (Pinaceae) but instead belongs to the Podocarpaceae. The generic name Lagarostrobos comes from the Greek words for narrow ( lagaros) and cone ( strobilos), whilst the specific epithet franklinii commemorates Sir John Franklin, the Arctic explorer, who was Lieutenant-Governor of Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania) from 1837-1843. Huon pine takes its common name from the Huon River in Tasmania, along which it grows.

    This slow-growing tree has lax, open seed cones and buoyant seeds, which allow it to disperse along watercourses. Some living trees have been estimated (by boring into the trunk and counting rings) to be over 2,200 years old. Huon pine reproduces not only by seed, but also vegetatively (by layering and suckering), allowing unique genetic individuals to persist for an extremely long time.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Restricted to Tasmania (Australia), where it occurs mainly in the southern and western parts. Huon pine is usually found growing along rivers, up to 750 m above sea level.

    Description

    An evergreen, predominantly dioecious tree (with male and female cones occurring on separate trees), growing up to 30 m tall. The trunk is up to 2 m in diameter at chest height and has fibrous, longitudinally grooved, grey-brown bark up to 6 cm thick, which peels off in scales and strips.

    Young trees have more or less conical or pyramidal crowns, whereas mature trees have more spreading crowns. Layering (the process by which branches develop root systems on coming into contact with the ground) can produce genetically identical individuals that cover large areas of ground.

    The slender branchlets are 1-1.2 mm in diameter, including the scale leaves. The leaves are in spirals and have conspicuous, scattered stomata (the pores through which gas exchange occurs).

    The pollen cones are 4-6 mm long, 2-2.5 mm wide and are borne on the ends of the branches. The seed cones are 4-5 mm long and consist of 5-10 fertile bracts in spirals, each bract with a single ovule. There are up to eight seeds per cone, usually fewer. The light brown seeds are enclosed in a dry, papery epimatium (swollen appendage).

    Threats and conservation

    About 85% of the area in which Huon pine occurs is now protected, and the cutting of living trees is banned. Despite the fact that nearly all the large trees were removed by previous logging, it is not now considered to be threatened. An estimated 15% of its habitat has been lost to fire and artificial flooding (for hydroelectric projects) over the past 100 years, but regrowth (often from suckers) has taken place in almost all the remaining suitable areas.

    The greatest current threat is fire, and fire management practices are now a priority. Even with the current conservation measures that are in place, it will take many centuries to restore the wealth of large trees that were cut by loggers along all of the rivers where it occurs.

    Uses

    Huon pine was once the most important timber tree in Tasmania, and almost all the large trees were felled and exported as timber in the 19th century. But the exploitation of this slow-growing tree proved unsustainable and is now banned. The hard and durable wood was used for boat-building, in particular for the decks of sailing ships. It is still permitted to make use of dead and fallen wood in some areas, and this is used for wood crafts and cabinet-making. Products made from the wood have additional appeal due to the Huon pine’s status as one of the longest-living trees in Australasia.

    The essential oil of Huon pine is used as a ‘perfuming agent’ (described as having a sweet, woody, spicy, cedar wood aroma) in products such as medicinal soaps.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

    Description of seeds:The seeds float on water and are dispersed by freshwater currents. Seeds are also dispersed by birdsNumber of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank:None

    Cultivation

    Lagarostrobos frankliniiis cultivated as an ornamental in some botanical collections and arboreta, but this slow-growing tree is not common in cultivation.

    This species at Kew

    Huon pine can be seen growing in Coates Wood at Wakehurst.

    Pressed and dried specimens of Lagarostrobos frankliniiare held in Kew’s Herbarium, where they are available to researchers by appointment. The details of some of these, including an image, can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

    View details and images of specimens

    Kew’s Economic Botany Collection contains samples of the wood of L. franklinii.

    Distribution
    Australia
    Ecology
    Usually along river systems; occasionally on wet hill sides in temperate rainforest.
    Conservation
    Not considered to be threatened; it occurs mainly within protected areas.
    Hazards

    None known.

    [KSP]
    Use
    Timber, wood crafts, essential oil.

    Images

    Distribution

    Common Names

    English
    Huon pine

    Lagarostrobos franklinii (Hook.f.) Quinn appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Jul 1, 2007 Gunn, R.C. [[1248]], Australia K000288917
    Dec 1, 2004 Hemsley, J.H. [6413], Australia K000288912
    Dec 1, 1997 Farjon, A. [478], Australia K000288913
    Dec 1, 1997 Farjon, A. [479], Australia K000288914
    Sep 24, 1991 Gunn, R. [1248], Tasmania K001067556
    Sep 24, 1991 Cunningham, A. [s.n.], Australia K000287625 lectotype
    Sep 21, 1991 Richardson, J.W. [s.n.], Australia K000288915
    Sep 21, 1991 Geeves, D. [s.n.], Australia K000288916
    Sep 21, 1991 Gee, J.N. [s.n.], Australia K000288918
    Sep 21, 1991 Gibbs, L.S. [6375], Australia K000288919
    Sep 21, 1991 Grove-White, P.D.H. [1], Australia K000288920
    Sep 21, 1991 Bernardi, L. [12157], Australia K000288921

    First published in Austral. J. Bot. 30: 316 (1982)

    Accepted in:

    • [3] Farjon, A. (2010) A handbook of the world's Conifers 1: 1-526. BRILL, Leiden, Boston.
    • [5] Farjon, A. (2001) World Checklist and Bibliography of Conifers , ed. 2: 1-309. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    • [1] World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2011). Lagarostrobos franklinii. (Accessed 08 February 2011).
    • [2] Farjon, A. (2010). A Handbook of the World’s Conifers (Volume 1). E.J. Brill, Leiden & Boston.
    • [4] Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (2008). Seed Information Database (SID). Version 7.1. (Accessed 08 February 2011).
    • [6] Molloy, B.P.J. (1995). Manoao (Podocarpaceae), a new monotypic conifer genus endemic to New Zealand. New Zealand J. Bot. 33: 183-201.

    Sources

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [A] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [C]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [D] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [E] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0