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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum linnaeanum Hepper & P.-M.L.Jaeger

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe, N. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    General
    Prostrate-ascending to erect perennial herb or shrub to 2.5 m (or more) high, armed; hairs stellate, sessile or stalked, with a short to long central ray, and also minute, simple, glandular hairs; prickles straw-coloured or yellowish becoming fuscous upwards, up to 15 mm long, stout, straight, subulate from a ± broad base
    Branches
    Branches sometimes purplish tinged, densely hairy at first, soon glabrescent, with scattered prickles Branches sometimes purplish tinged, densely hairy at first, soon glabrescent, with scattered prickles.
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary, the upper ones often appearing geminate; petiole 1–4.5 cm long; lamina membranous, (2)4–17 × (1. 6)3–12.5 cm, ovate or obovate, base subcordate or somewhat cuneate and ± unequal-sided, apex obtuse, deeply sinuate-pinnatifid or pinnatisect, the lobes broad to narrower and elongate, entire to deeply lobulate, often indented a quarter of the way to the midrib, rounded or obtuse, the sinuses rounded between the lobes, sparsely hairy, slightly more hairs beneath, ± prickly mainly on the midrib and secondary nerves Leaves solitary, the upper ones often appearing geminate; petiole 1–4.5 cm long; lamina membranous, (2)4–17 × (1.6)3–12.5 cm, ovate or obovate, base subcordate or somewhat cuneate and ± unequal-sided, apex obtuse, deeply sinuate-pinnatifid or pinnatisect, the lobes broad to narrower and elongate, entire to deeply lobulate, often indented a quarter of the way to the midrib, rounded or obtuse, the sinuses rounded between the lobes, sparsely hairy, slightly more hairs beneath, ± prickly mainly on the midrib and secondary nerves.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes lateral, usually leaf-remote, unbranched or rarely forked, racemiform, 2–8(10)-flowered, usually the lowest flower(s) larger and more prickly, occasionally all flowers unarmed, sometimes flowers solitary; peduncle 0–2 cm long, ± prickly; pedicels 0.5–1. 4 cm long, slender to somewhat stout in fertile flowers, ± prickly or unarmed, erect or ± curved, in fruit elongated to 4 cm, strongly thickened chiefly distally, recurved or deflexed Cymes lateral, usually leaf-remote, unbranched or rarely forked, racemiform, 2–8(10)-flowered, usually the lowest flower(s) larger and more prickly, occasionally all flowers unarmed, sometimes flowers solitary; peduncle 0–2 cm long, ± prickly; pedicels 0.5–1.4 cm long, slender to somewhat stout in fertile flowers, ± prickly or unarmed, erect or ± curved, in fruit elongated to 4 cm, strongly thickened chiefly distally, recurved or deflexed.
    Flowers
    Flowers 5-merous Flowers 5-merous.
    Calyx
    Calyx sparsely hairy, densely prickly on fertile flowers and sparingly so or ± unarmed on male flowers, in fruit somewhat enlarged, appressed to it, very prickly; tube 2–4 mm long, campanulate; lobes foliaceous, 2.5–7 mm long, elongating to 18 mm in fruit, triangular to linear-lanceolate, slightly scarious-margined, acute, hairy also inside Calyx sparsely hairy, densely prickly on fertile flowers and sparingly so or ± unarmed on male flowers, in fruit somewhat enlarged, appressed to it, very prickly; tube 2–4 mm long, campanulate; lobes foliaceous, 2.5–7 mm long, elongating to 18 mm in fruit, triangular to linear-lanceolate, slightly scarious-margined, acute, hairy also inside.
    Corolla
    Corolla violaceous, mauve or pale purple, with darker streaks towards the base of the lobes, 1. 5–2.5 cm across, rotate-stelliform or orbicular-pentagonal; lobes broadly ovate, apically cuspidate, hairy outside and with a few hairs on midrib inside Corolla violaceous, mauve or pale purple, with darker streaks towards the base of the lobes, 1.5–2.5 cm across, rotate-stelliform or orbicular-pentagonal; lobes broadly ovate, apically cuspidate, hairy outside and with a few hairs on midrib inside.
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments 1–1. 5 mm long; anthers 5–7 mm long, oblong in outline or ellipsoid-lanceolate, sub-cordate basally Stamen filaments 1–1.5 mm long; anthers 5–7 mm long, oblong in outline or ellipsoid-lanceolate, sub-cordate basally.
    Ovary
    Ovary 1. 5–2.5 mm in diameter or 3 × 2 mm, globose or ovoid-ellipsoid, glabrous or with few sub-stellate, pauciradiate, and also minute, glandular hairs, near the top.
    Style
    Style 6–9 mm long, very much shorter in male flowers, nearly straight, sparsely stellate hairy and also with a few minute, glandular hairs in the lower half
    Fruits
    Fruit glossy, at first marbled green and variegated with white, later yellow and finally brownish to blackish, 2.5–4.5(5) cm in diameter, globose, glabrous, dry when mature, bitter and poisonous Fruit glossy, at first marbled green and variegated with white, later yellow and finally brownish to blackish, 2.5–4.5(5) cm in diameter, globose, glabrous, dry when mature, bitter and poisonous.
    Seeds
    Seeds light brown or mustard-coloured, 3–3.5 × 2–3 mm, flattened, lenticular, rounded or obovate in outline, conspicuously reticulate all over Seeds light brown or mustard-coloured, 3–3.5 × 2–3 mm, flattened, lenticular, rounded or obovate in outline, conspicuously reticulate all over.
    Ecology
    Forest and woodland, maritime dune vegetation, riverbanks, waste and cultivated grounds, roadsides, in ± dry or a occasionally moist sites; low altitudes.
    Note
    Common name: “Sodom Apple”. Chromosome number: 2n=24
    Distribution
    Of North African/Mediterranean origin, now widespread, often as a weed of disturbed habitats; recorded also from the Azores and Madeira Is., western Mediterranean region, Canary Is., Angola and South Africa (old records from Eritrea are doubtful), Madagas Zimbabwe ZIM W, MOZ M, MOZ GI Mozambique
    Habit
    Prostrate-ascending to erect perennial herb or shrub to 2.5 m (or more) high, armed; hairs stellate, sessile or stalked, with a short to long central ray, and also minute, simple, glandular hairs; prickles straw-coloured or yellowish becoming fuscous upwards, up to 15 mm long, stout, straight, subulate from a ± broad base.
    Pistil
    Ovary 1.5–2.5 mm in diameter or 3 × 2 mm, globose or ovoid-ellipsoid, glabrous or with few sub-stellate, pauciradiate, and also minute, glandular hairs, near the top; style 6–9 mm long, very much shorter in male flowers, nearly straight, sparsely stellate hairy and also with a few minute, glandular hairs in the lower half.
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=24.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Baleares, Bulgaria, Corse, Egypt, Greece, Italy, Libya, Morocco, Portugal, Sardegna, Sicilia, Spain, Tunisia, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Angola, Azores, Cape Provinces, Eritrea, Fiji, Hawaii, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Madeira, Mozambique, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Norfolk Is., Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum linnaeanum Hepper & P.-M.L.Jaeger appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 30, 1905 Mogg, A.O.D. [30894], Mozambique K000441878
    Jun 30, 1905 Rodin, R.J. [4148], Mozambique K000441877
    Jun 30, 1905 Gardner, T.S. [49], Zimbabwe K000441879
    Hepper, F.N. [7322], South Africa K001159306
    Long, F.R. [1490], South Africa K001159315
    Whiting, M.M. [127], Morocco K001152281
    Hutchinson, J. [2739], South Africa K001159331
    Mogg, A.O.D. [9729], South Africa K001159330
    Marsh, J.A. [1374], South Africa K001159322
    McKee, H.S. [40432], New Caledonia K001155379
    McKee, H.S. [4050], New Caledonia K001155380
    Worsdell, W.C. [s.n.], South Africa K001159308
    Arnold, M.H.M. [s.n.], South Africa K001159318
    Arnold, M.H.M. [s.n.], South Africa K001159325
    Stirton, C.H. [6162], South Africa K001159311
    Stirton, C.H. [6215], South Africa K001159313
    Stirton, C.H. [6347], South Africa K001159316
    Stirton, C.H. [6221], South Africa K001159317
    Stirton, C.H. [6197], South Africa K001159321
    Gandoger, M. [74], Tunisia K001152268
    Cooper, T. [483], South Africa K001159323
    Phillipson, P.B. [949], South Africa K001159320
    Seemann [1721], USA K001155584
    Forester [1], South Africa K001159326
    Shantz, H.L. [80], South Africa K001159307
    Hanekom, W.J. [1140], South Africa K001159310
    Franc, I. [842], New Caledonia K001155378
    Greenwood, W. [793], Fiji K001155462
    Wells, M.J. [3204], South Africa K001159324
    Balsinhas, A.A. [597], Mozambique K001158633
    Prendergast, H.D.V. [217], Morocco K001152271
    Prendergast, H.D.V. [217], Morocco K001152272
    Prendergast, H.D.V. [217], Morocco K001152274
    Slageren, M. van [117], Morocco K001152276
    Trethewy, A.W. [15], Morocco K001152273
    Hillebrand [s.n.], USA K001155585
    Clarke, C.B. [127], Portugal K001152289
    Cuming [2448] K001152287
    Cowell, C. [1730], South Africa K001159314
    s.coll [s.n.], Egypt K001152164
    s.coll [s.n.], Morocco K001152270
    s.coll [s.n.], Portugal K001152288
    s.coll [s.n.] K000214905
    s.coll [s.n.] K000650388
    s.coll [s.n.], South Africa K001159305
    s.coll [3176], South Africa K001159309
    s.coll [2954], South Africa K001159319
    s.coll [A201], South Africa K001159328
    Pedro, J.G. [45], Mozambique K001158634
    Duffey, E.A.G. [139], Ascension K000214903
    Codd, L.E.W. [3458], South Africa K001159329
    Müller [s.n.] K000650387
    Burchell [s.n.], St. Helena K001158871
    Mabatha, F.W. [2310], South Africa K001159304
    El Assi, A. [531], Tunisia K001152269
    Heath, I.B. [340], Morocco K001152275
    Herb. Mill, J.S. [s.n.] K001152286
    Packer, J.E. [32], Ascension K000214902
    Clark, T.S. [s.n.], Ascension K000214904
    Merwe, P. van de [26-10], South Africa K001159312
    Crawford, R. [330], South Africa K001159327
    Rodway, F.A. [1571], Australia Solanum hermannii K001155044
    Symon, D.E. [3181], Australia Solanum hermannii K001155042
    Coveny, R. [6730], Australia Solanum hermannii K001155054
    Coveny, R. [2070], Australia Solanum hermannii K001155056
    Henderson, R. [H105], Australia Solanum hermannii K001155055
    Tilden, J.E. [554], Australia Solanum hermannii K001155043
    Tilden, J.E. [689], Australia Solanum hermannii K001155050
    Merville, R. [1676], Australia Solanum hermannii K001155048
    s.coll [s.n.], Australia Solanum hermannii K001155052
    Copley, B. [1810], Australia Solanum hermannii K001155051
    Hind, P. [4746], Australia Solanum hermannii K001155047
    Herb Morrison, A. [7179], Australia Solanum hermannii K001155046
    Herb Morrison, A. [2030], Australia Solanum hermannii K001155049
    Herb Longman, H.A. [s.n.], Australia Solanum hermannii K001155053
    Knight, K.J. [230], Australia Solanum hermannii K001155045

    Bibliography

    First published in Kew Bull. 41(2): 435 (1986)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Kew Bull. 41: 435 (1986).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/