1. Family: Nymphaeaceae Salisb.
    1. Genus: Nymphaea L.
      1. Nymphaea thermarum Eb.Fisch.

        This ‘thermal’ waterlily, which grew around freshwater hot springs, was discovered in 1987 by German botanist Professor Eberhard Fischer of Koblenz-Landau University. It is known from just one location in Mashyuza, in southwest Rwanda. However, it disappeared from there about two years ago due to over-exploitation of the hot spring that fed this fragile habitat. Water was prevented from reaching the surface, resulting in the desiccation of the few square metres where this species grew, and no plant is known to have survived in the wild.

    [KSP]
    General Description
    Nymphaea thermarum is the smallest waterlily in the world, and the only Nymphaea to grow in damp mud rather than water.

    This ‘thermal’ waterlily, which grew around freshwater hot springs, was discovered in 1987 by German botanist Professor Eberhard Fischer of Koblenz-Landau University. It is known from just one location in Mashyuza, in southwest Rwanda. However, it disappeared from there about two years ago due to over-exploitation of the hot spring that fed this fragile habitat. Water was prevented from reaching the surface, resulting in the desiccation of the few square metres where this species grew, and no plant is known to have survived in the wild.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Before becoming extinct in the wild, Nymphaea thermarum occurred in Mashyuza, southwest Rwanda (Africa). At present all the extant plants are in cultivation at Kew and in Germany.

    Description

    A tiny waterlily, forming rosettes 10-20 cm wide and comprising bright green lily pads (laminas) with short petioles. The lily pads can be as little as 1 cm in diameter. The central growing tip sinks in the wet mud, preventing the developing pads from drying out before unfurling.

    The flowers are white with yellow stamens, and can be self-pollinating. Blooms open early in the morning and close in early afternoon. The flowers are held vertically, a few centimetres above the plant, but once they have finished their flowering cycle the petiole bends so that the fruit is in contact with the damp mud. Once it is mature, the fruit dissolves releasing the seeds. Reproduction is by seed only.

    Threats and conservation

    The only population of this species has died out as a consequence of over-exploitation of the aquifer that fed the hot spring that kept the plants moist and at a constant temperature.

    However, since this species is now easily propagated and cultivated at Kew, and the spring water is still flowing (but sequestered before it reaches the surface), there could be an opportunity to restore the site and reintroduce Nymphaea thermarum to Rwanda.

    Uses

    This species has always been so rare that no uses have ever been known. However, Nymphaea thermarum could have potential as a parent for ornamental hybrids, with the benefit of producing tiny plants that do not need a pond to grow and bloom. Some other species of waterlily are used locally as a source of food, such as Euryale feroxseeds in Asia and some Australian species that are commonly consumed by Aboriginal populations. However, some of the approximately 50 species of waterlily are toxic if large quantities are eaten.

    Cultivation

    This is an unusual waterlily species, as it does not grow in deep water. A small plant pot should be filled to the top with fine loam, and then placed in a water-tight container which is wider and slightly higher than the pot. The container should then be filled with water to exactly the level of the top of the pot and soil. Once the soil is damp and has settled, it should be removed from the water-tight containers and then seeds can be thinly sprinkled on to the surface. The water level is crucial (it must not go down more than 2 mm or up more than 0.5 mm), and the seeds must remain wet but very close to the surface so that when they germinate they are exposed to the air. The seedlings should be kept at 22-26 ˚C and the first leaves will then soon be produced. Seedlings should be exposed to full sunlight. Seedlings should be pricked out into individual pots when they are large enough to handle (usually when there are five leaves of 5 mm in diameter). A few months later the flowers should appear.

    This species at Kew

    There are over 50 Nymphaea thermarum plants in the Living Collection at Kew, which is the only place in the world where it is being propagated regularly and in large quantities.

    Back from the brink of extinction

    In 2010, Kew’s top propagation ‘code-breaker’, horticulturist Carlos Magdalena, cracked the enigma of growing a rare species of African waterlily – believed to be the smallest waterlily in the world with pads as little as 1 cm in diameter.

    Nymphaea thermarum, was discovered in 1987 by German botanist Professor Eberhard Fischer. It was restricted to just one known location in Mashyuza, Rwanda. However, it disappeared from this location about two years ago due to over-exploitation of the hot spring that fed this fragile habitat, and no plant is known to have survived in the wild.

    Soon after its discovery, Professor Fischer realised that the species was in jeopardy and he transported a few plants to Bonn Botanic Gardens. At Bonn, horticulturists were very successful at growing these valuable specimens, and they lasted for more than a decade. However, the species proved extremely difficult to propagate.

    As a result of a conservation plant exchange between Bonn and Kew, a handful of seeds and pre-germinated seedlings reached Kew in July 2009. The N. thermarum seedlings were initially grown submerged under water like any other waterlily. But, at both botanic gardens, this method was unsatisfactory; seedlings were barely clinging on to life and did not develop to adult stages.

    Carlos, who has a track record of bringing the rarest and most difficult plants back from the brink, took on the challenge of propagating N. thermarum. He ran a series of trials involving a range of temperatures, water hardness, pH and depth. Plants grown in harder water at shallower depths seemed to develop further; however no plant reached maturity.

    Carlos then decided to investigate ways to alter the concentration of gases in the water, and to gather information on the natural habitat. Returning to the original German description of the species supplied the final clue: 'it grows in damp mud caused by the overflow of a hot spring. Water reaches the surface at 50 °C but the plant colonizes an area where the water has cooled to a temperature of 25 °C'. This meant that, unlike all other known waterlily species, N. thermarum did not grow submerged in the deep waters of lakes, rivers or marshes. The revelation was that this small, extremely rare and unusual species, grows in the damp conditions at the edge of a thermal hot spring – and this was the vital clue needed to crack the code.

    With this knowledge Carlos did one final trial. He placed seeds and seedlings in pots of loam within small containers filled with water, thus keeping the water at the same level as the surface of the compost, at a temperature of 25 °C. In this way, the last remaining individuals of the species could be exposed to the higher concentrations of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the air. And to his surprise and joy, soon the plants started to improve and after a few weeks, eight plants began to flourish, growing to maturity with thicker, greener and wider leaves. In November 2009, Kew’s collection of N. thermarumflowered for the first time.

    Distribution
    Rwanda
    Ecology
    Damp mud created by the overflow of a freshwater hot spring, where the water has cooled to 25˚C.
    Conservation
    Extinct in the wild.
    Hazards

    None known.

    [KSP]
    Use
    This species has always been so rare that no uses have ever been known.

    Images

    Distribution

    Nymphaea thermarum Eb.Fisch. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Feddes Repert. 99: 388 (1988)

    Literature

    • [1] Magdalena, C. (2009). Nymphaea thermarum - The world's tiniest waterlily doesn't grow in water! Water Gardeners International 4: 4.

    Sources

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [A] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [C]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [D] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [E] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0