1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus acanthochlamys J.Dransf.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Borneo (Brunei, Sarawak).

    [PW]
    General Description
    Solitary stout rattan climbing to 7 m tall; stem without sheaths to 25 mm diam., with sheaths to 50 mm diam., internodes short, c. 50 mm long. Sheath bright green, armed with robust brown spines to 25 × 4 mm, scattered or arranged in partial whorls, pale brown hairs abundant between the spines, spines around the sheath mouth large, crowded, ± horizontal, 20-50 × 4 mm; knee absent; ocrea soon tattering. Flagellum absent. Leaf ecirrate, to 3 m including petiole; petiole to 1.5 m, armed laterally with regular horizontal spines, 20-50 × 4 mm; leaflets regularly arranged, 40-75 on each side of the rachis, stiff, narrow, linear, the longest in mid leaf, c. 50 × 2.5 cm, the apical divaricate, c. 12 × 1 cm, drying dull reddish or dirty brown, the lower surface with short regular bristles on 3 nerves. Inflorescences 1-1.5 m long or more, arching; prophyll very robust, armed with lateral groups of spines and abundant tomentum, expanded apically to form a tattered limb at least 15 × 4 cm, bearing abundant long brown spines 10-40 × 3 mm; primary bracts tubular at the base, splitting and expanded to form spiny limbs, the whole bract frequently longer than the inflorescence; male rachillae distichous, rather crowded, ± reflexed, to 12 ×2 mm; female rachillae distichous, stiff, ± reflexed, 20-50 × 4 mm; rachilla bracts very hairy. Mature fruit ± broad ellipsoid, 10 × 8 mm, beaked, covered in 18 vertical rows of chestnut brown scales.
    [PW]
    General Description
    Solitary or densely clustering acaulescent rattan; stem subterranean or decumbent, scarcely exceeding 40 cm long, c. 15-20 mm diam without sheaths, with sheaths to 30 mm diam.; internodes very short, scarcely more than 3 cm long. Leaves ecirrate, 1.8 - 3 m long; sheaths green with pale green spines when fresh, drying pale reddish brown throughout, rather densely armed with scattered and grouped flattened, narrow triangular spines, 5-23 × 1-3 mm, held horizontally or upward-pointing, spines around the leaf sheath mouth more crowded but scarcely differing from the rest, pale brown indumentum abundant between the spines; petiole 70 - 150 cm long, c. 7 mm wide near the base, armed basally with two rows of evenly spaced, conspicuous flattened, pale brown spines 25-45 mm long, c. 2-3 mm wide at the base, c. 2 - 4 cm distant, and scattered much shorter spines, distally the petiole only very sparsely armed; rachis somewhat arcuate, ± unarmed, bearing 21-28 somewhat divaricate regularly spaced leaflets on each side, the longest to 45 × 2.5 cm in mid leaf, the apical leaflets to 20 × 1.3 cm, leaflets conspicuously 3-veined on upper surface, sparsely armed with short bristles along the main vein on the under surface only, transverse veinlets sinuous. Inflorescences staminate and pistillate superficially similar, the staminate branching to 3 orders (and known only in mummified state), the pistillate branching to two orders and with 2 partial inflorescences only; peduncle arcuate, c. 80 cm long; prophyll c. 60 × 0.4-0.5 cm, with short narrow lanceolate flattened limb 11-20 × 1.8-2.2 cm, unarmed throughout; peduncular bracts much shorter, split down much of their length, the flattened limb to 13 × 1.5 cm; staminate partial inflorescence to 12 cm, staminate rachillae very poorly preserved; pistillate partial inflorescence to 23 cm, with up to 6 or 7 distichous rachillae on each side of the first order branch; bracts on first order branch 7×3 mm tubular, truncate, unarmed, bearing thin brown indumentum; rachillae reflexed, the longest at the base of the partial inflorescence, usually not exceeding 1.5 cm but sometimes to 5 cm, 2 mm diam., bearing strictly distichous dyads; rachilla bracts strictly distichous, crowded, triangular, striate to 2.5 × 2.5 mm, drying with slightly undulate margins, the abaxial surface with scattered brown scales; involucrophore and involucre similar to rachilla bract, scarcely explanate. Sterile staminate flower bud c. 3 × 2 mm; calyx to 3 × 2 mm, striate, glabrous, tubular in the basal 2.5 mm; petals smooth, c. 2 × 1 mm; staminodes 1× 0.2 mm. Pistillate flower just post anthesis to 5 × 3 mm; calyx to 3 × 3 mm, tubular in the basal 1.5 mm, with three triangular lobes, striate, glabrous; petals smooth, glabrous, to 4×1.5 mm; staminodal ring to 1 mm; ovary cylindrical to 2.5 × 2, stylar region 2 × 2 mm, stigmas reflexed to 2 × 0.5 mm. Immature fruit rounded, c. 5 mm diam., with a conspicuous cylindrical beak to 2 × 1 mm, tipped with the stigmatic remains; pericarp covered in c. 17 vertical rows of shiny chestnut brown scales. Seed very immature, with homogeneous endosperm.
    Vernacular
    Wi Tulang (Ib.)
    Diagnostic
    bracteis inflorescentiae Sectionem Platyspatham Furtado pertinens, C. baculari et C. sabalensi affinis, sed habitu decumbenti, spinis vaginae foliorum, dispositione foliolorum et rachillis pistillatis brevibus crassis differt.
    Distribution
    Known only from Temburong where it is a common rattan of the forest undergrowth at Kuala Belalong. Endemic to Brunei.

    Images

    Distribution

    Calamus acanthochlamys J.Dransf. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 16, 1992 Wong, K.M. [1364], Brunei K000112821
    Dec 17, 1991 Awa [S46858], Malaysia K000112826
    Jul 2, 1990 Wong, K.M. [538], Brunei K000112822
    Sep 3, 1982 Ashton, P. [S16587], Malaysia K000112824
    Sep 3, 1982 Richards [2333], Malaysia K000112827
    Sep 3, 1982 Dransfield, J. [4701], Malaysia K000112820
    Coode, M. [7090], Brunei K000112823
    Coode, M. [7056], Brunei K000112825
    Dransfield, J. [6542], Brunei K000112819
    Dransfield, J. [6539], Brunei K000112828
    Dransfield, J. [6932], Brunei K000112829
    Dransfield, J. [7459], Brunei K000112831
    Cultivated [1989-2701] K000462243
    Paie, I. bin [S.39160], Sarawak K000112830 holotype
    Dransfield, J. [7066], Brunei Calamus temburongii K000114122
    Dransfield, J. [JD6669], Brunei Calamus temburongii K000114127 holotype
    Dransfield, J. [6671], Brunei Calamus temburongii K000114128
    Said [BRUN15623], Brunei Calamus temburongii K000113126
    Stockdale, M.C. [60], Brunei Calamus temburongii K000114129

    First published in Kew Bull. 45: 85 (1990)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Brunei Darussalam. 1997

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0