1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Swainsona Salisb.
      1. Swainsona formosa (G.Don) Joy Thomps.

        Sturt's desert pea was found in 1699 by the English explorer William Dampier (1652-1715) in the dry sandy islands of Dampier’s Archipelago, north-west Australia. The English botanist Allan Cunningham collected it in the same locality in 1818. Specimens from around that area were also collected by Benjamin Bynoe, the surgeon on the voyage of HMS Beagle.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    Sturt's desert pea has striking, blood-red flowers with bulbous black centres, and is the South Australian floral emblem.

    Sturt's desert pea was found in 1699 by the English explorer William Dampier (1652-1715) in the dry sandy islands of Dampier’s Archipelago, north-west Australia. The English botanist Allan Cunningham collected it in the same locality in 1818. Specimens from around that area were also collected by Benjamin Bynoe, the surgeon on the voyage of HMS Beagle.

    The striking and unusual flowers have uniform crimson petals, broken up by a glossy purple-black disc on the standard petals. The common name honours the English explorer Charles Sturt, who recorded seeing large quantities of the flowers whilst exploring central Australia in 1844. The name Swainsona formosa was published by Joy Thompson in 1990, after studies showed that its similarity with Clianthus puniceus (lobster claw from New Zealand) was superficial, the flowers of both species being adapted for pollination by birds. The generic name Swainsona honours the English botanist Isaac Swainson (1746-1812), who was famous for his botanic garden at Twickenham.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Widespread in dry parts of Western Australia, South Australia, New South Wales and the southern part of the Northern Territory, it has also been recorded in Queensland.

    Description

    Overview: A horizontally-lying or ascending, herbaceous plant that is glaucous (bearing a waxy bloom), and covered with long, whitish, silky hairs. The stems are slightly angular and tinged with red.

    Leaves:The leaves have petioles (leaf stalks), are borne alternately on the stem and are divided into about 16 leaflets. There is a pair of large stipules (leaf-like appendages) at the base of each petiole.

    Flowers:The peduncles (inflorescence stalks) are erect, and each bears a racemose umbel of four to six very large flowers (about 90 mm long), each on a drooping pedicel (flower stalk). The calyx is hairy and comprises a tube and five angular teeth or lobes. The corolla is bright red. The standard is very large, reflexed backwards from the base presenting its inner surface forwards, and exhibiting a prominent two-lobed projection at the base of the glossy disc-like lower portion of the petal. This is purplish-black, by contrast with the red colour of the rest of the petal blade. The wing petals are much shorter than the standard, whereas the keel petals are longer. There are nine united stamens (the male organs of the flower) and one free stamen. The hairy ovary (containing ovules which develop into seeds after fertilisation) gradually tapers into the long slender style.

    In the wild, the flowers can be red through to pink or yellow, and albino forms have been recorded.

    Threats and conservation

    Sturt's desert pea is not considered to be at risk in the wild, but it is protected in South Australia, where collection of the flowers or plants on Crown Land is illegal without a permit.

    Samples of seed of Swainsona formosa have been stored in Kew’ s Millennium Seed Bank as an ex situ conservation measure.

    Uses

    Australian Aborigines eat the roasted seeds, or make cakes by grinding the seeds and then baking them. However, the seeds contain trypsin inhibitors. Because trypsin is an essential enzyme which breaks down proteins during digestion, these seeds may not be an ideal source of nourishment.

    Swainsona formosa was adopted as the South Australian floral emblem in 1961, and is an iconic flower in Australia. Its flowers are used for decoration by Australian Aborigines, and it appears in both traditional and more modern artwork. It is often photographed and has featured in prose and verse, and appears in some Aboriginal legends.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

    A collection of Swainsona formosa seeds is held in Kew’s Millennium Seed Bank based at Wakehurst in West Sussex.

    See Kew's Seed Information Database for further information on Swainsona formosa seeds

    Cultivation

    On the first exhibition of Swainsona formosa at the Horticultural Society in 1858, a silver medal was awarded to Messrs. Veitch and Son.

    Sturt's desert pea has a reputation for being difficult to cultivate in the damp summers of northern Europe, because the roots are killed by various fungal diseases, such as Pythiumroot rot. Success has been achieved by grafting the seedlings onto young plants of Colutea arborescens or Clianthus puniceus at the cotyledon stage, and then growing them in a hanging basket. An alternative method is to plant the seeds in deep pots or tall drainpipes containing a very sandy soil, with a 3 cm covering of pure sand, and to water them carefully with soluble fertiliser.

    Illustration from Curtis's Botanical Magazine

    This illustration was drawn by W. Fitch from a specimen from the greenhouse of Messrs. Veitch and Sons, Exeter, and King’s Road, Chelsea, where its splendid blossoms were produced in March 1858.

    This species at Kew

    Sturt's desert pea is grown in the Tropical Nursery at Kew. Pressed and dried specimens are held in the Herbarium and made available to researchers by appointment. 

    View details and images of specimens in the Herbarium Catalogue

    Australia Landscape - Kew at the British Museum

    In 2011, Kew and the British Museum brought to the heart of London a landscape showcasing the rich biodiversity of Australia, and how these fragile systems are under threat from land usage and climate change.

    Swainsona formosa(Sturt's desert pea) was one of 12 star plants featured in the Landscape, which took you on a journey across a whole continent, from eastern Australia’s coastal habitat, through the arid red centre, to the western Australian granite outcrop featuring unique and highly endangered plants.

    Australia Landscape was part of the Australian season at the British Museum. Supported by Rio Tinto.

    Distribution
    Australia
    Ecology
    Arid woodland, open plains.
    Conservation
    Not evaluated according to IUCN Red List criteria. Not considered to be at risk in the wild.
    Hazards

    Although several species of Swainsona are toxic to livestock, S. formosa is reported to be grazed sparingly with no ill-effects.

    [KSP]
    Use
    Floral emblem of South Australia, cultivated as an ornamental, seeds eaten by Australian Aborigines.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia

    Introduced Into:

    Sri Lanka

    Common Names

    English
    Sturt's desert pea

    Swainsona formosa (G.Don) Joy Thomps. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Telopea 4: 4 (1990)

    Accepted in:

    • [2] (2014) Australian Plant Census (APC) . Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • [5] Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003) Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist . Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    • [1] (2014) Australian Plant Census (APC) . Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • [3] Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2008) Seed Information Database (SID). Version 7.1.
    • [4] Symon, D. & Jusaitis, M. (2007). Sturt Pea - A Most Splendid Plant. The Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium, and Department for Environment & Heritage, Government of South Australia, Adelaide.
    • [6] Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003) Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist . Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [7] Elliot, W. R. & Jones, D. L. (1984). Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants Suitable for Cultivation. Volume 3. (Ce – Er). Lothian Publishing Company Ltd, Melbourne, Sydney, Auckland.
    • [8] Everist, S. L. (1974). Poisonous Plants of Australia. Angus & Robertson, London.
    • [9] Irvine, F. R. (1957). Wild and emergency foods of Australian and Tasmanian Aborigines. Oceania 28: 113-142.
    • [10] Hooker, W. J. (1858). Clianthus dampieri. Curtis’s Bot. Mag. 84: t. 5051.

    Sources

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [A] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [C]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [D] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [E] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0