1. Family: Santalaceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Thesium L.
      1. Thesium magnifructum Hilliard

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Tropical Africa to NE. Namibia.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Type
    Type:Zambia, Kalabo, fl. & fr. 14.x.1963, Fanshawe 8055 (K, holotype).
    Habit
    Perennial herb drying grey- or yellowish-green, taproot woody, c. 3–8 mm diameter at crown giving rise to many erect, decumbent or ascending stems c. 150–400 mm long, c. 1.5–5 mm diameter at base, fastigiately very well branched from base, branches ascending at angle of c. 45°, shallowly ribbed by decurrent leaves, minutely scabridulous or not, leafy Perennial herb drying grey- or yellowish-green, taproot woody, c. 3–8 mm diameter at crown giving rise to many erect, decumbent or ascending stems c. 150–400 mm long, c. 1.5–5 mm diameter at base, fastigiately very well branched from base, branches ascending at angle of c. 45°, shallowly ribbed by decurrent leaves, minutely scabridulous or not, leafy.
    Leaves
    Leaves mostly c. 5–16 (or possibly longer) × 0.8–1 mm, linear, the longer ones almost acicular, apiculate, ventral surface ± flattened, slightly grooved in median line, dorsal surface rounded, uppermost leaves reduced to small linear-lanceolate scales, all glabrous Leaves mostly c. 5–16 (or possibly longer) × 0.8–1 mm, linear, the longer ones almost acicular, apiculate, ventral surface ± flattened, slightly grooved in median line, dorsal surface rounded, uppermost leaves reduced to small linear-lanceolate scales, all glabrous.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at base of perianth lobes; filaments 0.3–0.5 mm long, nearly hidden by anthers; anthers 0.4–0.7 mm long Stamens inserted at base of perianth lobes; filaments 0.3–0.5 mm long, nearly hidden by anthers; anthers 0.4–0.7 mm long.
    Style
    Style 0.8–1.5 mm long; stigma reaching tip of hood
    Fruits
    Fruit 3.2–4 × 2.8–3.25 mm, grey-green or pale buff, strongly ribbed and reticulate. Fruit 3.2–4 × 2.8–3.25 mm, grey-green or pale buff, strongly ribbed and reticulate.
    Ecology
    Woodland and grassland on sand, two records from marshes; 900–1300 m.
    Note
    Thesium magnifructum extends westwards from western Zambia and Zimbabwe at least as far as Rundu on the Okavango R. where it forms the boundary between Namibia and Angola, so that the species will certainly occur in northern Botswana and eastern Angola. The specimen from Rundu (de Winter 3728, K) is mentioned as T. spec. in Merxmüller, Prodr. Fl. S.W. Afr., fam. 21: 5 (1969); the specimen from the Caprivi Strip (cited above) probably escaped notice because it was misdetermined as T. utile A.W. Hill. In the Flora Zambesiaca area, T. magnifructum is the most distinctive of the species with an involucre of bracts because the bracts are narrowly elliptic.oblong, apiculate, glabrous and free from one another, not ± ovate, subulate or cuspidate, with ciliolate margins, and adnate to one another where they overlap at the base. Also, T. magnifructum possesses only a woody taproot, not a woody caudex crowned with many closely scaly vegetative buds.
    Distribution
    Caprivi Strip Also in the extreme NE of Namibia and almost certainly adjacent countries (see note below). Zambia Zimbabwe ZAM B, ZAM S, ZIM N, ZIM W
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary at tips of ebracteate peduncles up to c. 15 mm long, racemosely to cymosely arranged on one plant, either ± sessile and arranged laxly and racemosely on delicate branchlets, or in very lax and rather irregular monochasial cymes. Flowers solitary at tips of ebracteate peduncles up to c. 15 mm long, racemosely to cymosely arranged on one plant, either ± sessile and arranged laxly and racemosely on delicate branchlets, or in very lax and rather irregular monochasial cymes
    Bracts
    Bracts 4 or 5 forming an involucre below the flower, 1.5–2 × 0.5–0.8 mm, narrowly elliptic-oblong, shortly apiculate, glabrous. Bracts 4 or 5 forming an involucre below the flower, 1.5–2 × 0.5–0.8 mm, narrowly elliptic.oblong, shortly apiculate, glabrous
    Pedicel
    Pedicels wanting. Pedicels wanting
    Perianth
    Perianth pale creamy yellow; tube 0.6–0.8 mm long, external ellipsoid glands faintly visible; lobes 0.8–1.2 × 0.4–0.6 mm, oblong-lanceolate, ± obtuse, hood 0.25–0.3 mm long, margins inflexed. Perianth pale creamy yellow; tube 0.6–0.8 mm long, external ellipsoid glands faintly visible; lobes 0.8–1.2 × 0.4–0.6 mm, oblong-lanceolate, ± obtuse, hood 0.25–0.3 mm long, margins inflexed
    Pistil
    Style 0.8–1.5 mm long; stigma reaching tip of hood.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Caprivi Strip, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Thesium magnifructum Hilliard appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1989 Fanshawe, D.B. [8055], Zambia K000431520 holotype
    Jan 1, 1989 Fanshawe, D.B. [8055], Zambia K000431521 holotype

    First published in Edinburgh J. Bot. 48: 54 (1991)

    Accepted by

    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Edinb. J. Bot. 48: 54 (1991). TAB. 47, fig. A.
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0