1. Family: Orchidaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Eulophia R.Br.
      1. Eulophia alta (L.) Fawc. & Rendle

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FTEA]

    Orchidaceae, V. S. Summerhayes. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

    Habit
    A large terrestrial herb 1–2 m. tall with white roots 1.5 mm. diameter.
    Rhizomes
    Perennating organ a fleshy elongate subterranean rhizome ± 1 cm. diameter.
    Leaves
    Leaves 4, plicate, erect, lanceolate, acuminate, up to 120 cm. long, 5–7.5 cm. wide, long-petiolate, sheathing at base.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence densely many-flowered; peduncle 8–10 mm. diameter, green, bearing 3 sheaths along length; rhachis 16–35 cm. long; bracts reflexed, linear-aristate, acuminate, 10–30(–80) mm. long.
    Flowers
    Flower not opening widely; sepals olive-green or green; lip and petals red-purple (albino variants are rare); pedicel and ovary 15–23 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Dorsal sepal oblong-lanceolate, subacute, 18–20 mm. long, 4–5 mm. wide; lateral sepals oblong or ligulate, subacute to acute, 18–22 mm. long, 4–6.5 mm. wide.
    Corolla
    Petals oblong-ligulate, acute to obtuse, 15–19 mm. long, 3–5 mm. wide.
    Labellum
    Lip 3-lobed in apical half, saccate at base, 14–19 mm. long, 8–12 mm. wide; side lobes rounded; mid-lobe semicircular, 5–6 mm. long, 8 mm. wide, with an undulate margin; callus of 2 obliquely subquadrate flap-like ridges in middle of lip and with papillae on the central 5 viens of the mid-lobe.
    Column
    Column 7–10 mm. long; foot 4 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit pendent, 30 mm. long.
    Habitat
    Terrestrial in papyrus and other swamps and in wet grassland; 1150–1300 m.
    Distribution
    U4 also in tropical America
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 5 - 1550 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Orinoquia, Pacífico.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor
    [FZ]

    Orchidaceae, I. la Croix & P.J. Cribb. Flora Zambesiaca 11:2. 1998

    Habit
    Terrestrial herb 1–2 m tall.
    Rhizomes
    Perennating organ a fleshy, subterranean rhizome c. 1 cm in diameter; roots 1.5 mm in diameter, white.
    Leaves
    Leaves 4, up to 120 × 5–10 cm, erect, lanceolate, acuminate, plicate, with a long petiole.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence densely many-flowered; scape with 3 sheaths.
    Pedicel and Ovary
    Pedicel and ovary 18–20 mm long.
    Bracts
    Bracts 10–30 mm long, reflexed, linear, aristate.
    Flowers
    Flowers not opening widely; sepals greenish-yellow, petals and lip reddish-brown or red-purple, occasionally white with a purple disk on the lip.
    Calyx
    Dorsal sepal 18–20 × 4–5 mm, oblong-lanceolate, subacute; lateral sepals slightly longer and wider.
    Corolla
    Petals 15–19 × 3–5 mm, oblong-ligulate.
    Labellum
    Lip 14–19 × 8–12 mm, with a saccate base, 3-lobed in the apical half; side lobes rounded, mid-lobe 5–6 × 8 mm, the edges undulate. Lip with a callus of 2 flap-like ridges in the middle, and with papillae on the 5 central veins of the mid-lobe.
    Column
    Column 7–10 mm long; foot 4 mm long.
    Fruits
    Fruit 3 cm long, pendent.
    [E-EM]
    Habitat

    Terrestrial in papyrus and other swamps and in wet grassland; 1150–1300 m.

    General Description

    A large terrestrial herb 1–2 m. tall with white roots 1.5 mm. diameter. Perennating organ a fleshy elongate subterranean rhizome ± 1 cm. diameter. Leaves 4, plicate, erect, lanceolate, acuminate, up to 120 cm. long, 5–7.5 cm. wide, long-petiolate, sheathing at base. Inflorescence densely many-flowered; peduncle 8–10 mm. diameter, green, bearing 3 sheaths along length; rhachis 16–35 cm. long; bracts reflexed, linear-aristate, acuminate, 10–30(–80) mm. long. Flower not opening widely; sepals olive-green or green; lip and petals red-purple (albino variants are rare); pedicel and ovary 15–23 mm. long. Dorsal sepal oblong-lanceolate, subacute, 18–20 mm. long, 4–5 mm. wide; lateral sepals oblong or ligulate, subacute to acute, 18–22 mm. long, 4–6.5 mm. wide. Petals oblong-ligulate, acute to obtuse, 15–19 mm. long, 3–5 mm. wide. Lip 3-lobed in apical half, saccate at base, 14–19 mm. long, 8–12 mm. wide; side lobes rounded; mid-lobe semicircular, 5–6 mm. long, 8 mm. wide, with an undulate margin; callus of 2 obliquely subquadrate flap-like ridges in middle of lip and with papillae on the central 5 viens of the mid-lobe. Column 7–10 mm. long; foot 4 mm. long. Fruit pendent, 30 mm. long.

    [FWTA]

    Orchidaceae, V. S. Summerhayes. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

    Leaves
    Leaves lanceolate, up to 4 ft. long and 4 in. broad
    Scape
    Scape up to 4 ft. high
    Flowers
    Flowers numerous, green and purple.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Argentina Northeast, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Liberia, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Eulophia alta (L.) Fawc. & Rendle appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1971 Irwin, H.S. [26413], Goiás K000886399
    Sep 28, 1970 Philcox, D. [4244], Mato Grosso K000886402
    Sep 16, 1970 Philcox, D. [4434], Mato Grosso K000886401
    Brazil 26332.022
    Holmes, W.D. [0111], Zambia 10801.000
    Holmes, W.D. [111] 77414.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [3444], Zambia 10800.000
    Sandwith, N.Y. [1223], Guyana 10799.000
    Robinson, E.A. [6092], Zambia 36529.000
    Jaeger, P. [177], Sierra Leone 10798.000
    Watmough, R.H. [161], Zambia 12738.000
    Philcox, D. [4179], Brazil 26332.025
    Philcox, D. [4244], Brazil 32932.000
    Philcox, D. [4243], Brazil 32934.000
    Philcox, D. [8187], Trinidad & Tobago 41142.000
    Philcox, D. [4243], Mato Grosso K000886400
    Williamson, G. [399], Zambia 32586.000
    Thomas, D.W. [2316], Cameroon K000106952
    Pabst, G. [8756], Brazil K000886403
    Adams, B.R. [222], Belize 41262.000
    Irwin, H.S. [13075], Brazil K000886404
    Gardner, G. [5204], Minas Gerais K000886407
    Gardner, G. [5204], Minas Gerais K000886408
    Dusén, P.K.H. [525], Paraná K000886405
    Ule, E.H.G. [8830], Amazonas K000886406
    Maxillaria longifolia 13241.000
    Sandwith, N.Y. [1221], Guyana Maxillaria longifolia 12423.000

    First published in Fl. Jamaica 1: 112 (1910)

    Accepted by

    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Noguera-Savelli, E. & Cetzal-Ix, W. (2014). Revisión e integración del conocimiento de las Orchidaceae de Tabasco, México Botanical Sciences 92: 519-540.
    • Chiron, G.R. & Bolsanello, R.X. (2013). Orchidées du Brésil. As orquídeas da Serra do Castelo (Espírito Santo, Brasil) 3: 1-389. Chiron.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Ferreira, A.W.C., Lima, M.I.S. & Pansarin, E.R. (2010). Orchidaceae na região central de São Paulo, Brasil Rodriguésia; Revista do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal, Jardim Botânico e Estaçao Biologica do Itatiaya 61: 243-259.
    • Schinini, A. (2010). Orquídeas nativas del Paraguay Rojasiana 9: 1-316.
    • Pansarin, E.R. & Pansarin, L.M. (2008). A família Orchidaceae na Serra do Japi, São Paulo, Brasil Rodriguésia; Revista do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal, Jardim Botânico e Estaçao Biologica do Itatiaya 59: 87-98.
    • Szlachetko, D.L. (2008). Orchidaceae of Ivory Coast Ruizia 20: 1-396.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • da Rocha Fiuza de Melo, M.M. & al. (eds.) (2007). Flora Fanerogâmica da Ilha do Cardoso 12: 1-289. Instituto de Botânica, São Paulo, Brasil.
    • Szlachetko, D. & Kowalkoska, A. (2007). Contributions to the orchid flora of Guinea, West Africa Polish Botanical Studies 25: 1-259.
    • Toscano de Brito, A.L.V. & Cribb, P. (2006). Orquídeas da Chapada Diamantina: 1-400. Nova Fronteira, Brazil.
    • Demissew, S., Cribb, P. & Rasmussen, F. (2004). Field Guide to Ethiopian Orchids: 1-300. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 3: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Fl. Jam. 1: 112 (1910).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Williamson, Orch. SC. Afr.: 169 (1977).
    • Summerh. in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 249 (1968).
    • Fawcett & Rendle, Fl. Jam. 1: 112(1910).
    Eulophiinae: e-monocot.org
    • Linnaeus, C. Original description of Eulophia alta. 1, (1910).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Eulophiinae: e-monocot.org
    All Rights Reserved

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0