Genus:
Lolium L.

Lolium pratense (Huds.) Darbysh.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Azores, Europe to Siberia and W. Himalaya.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Caespitose; clumped moderately. Cataphylls inconspicuous. Rhizomes short; fleshy; not obviously scaly. Basal innovations extravaginal, or intravaginal. Culms of moderate stature; straight; without nodal roots. Culm-internodes terete. Culm-nodes without exudate; glabrous. Lateral branches lacking. Leaves basal and cauline; 3-5 per branch. Leaf-sheaths tight; unthickened at base; open for most of their length; without keel; striately veined. Ligule an eciliate membrane; membranous; white; erose; truncate. Leaf-blade base symmetrical. Leaf-blades straight, or flexuous; linear in section; firm, or flaccid; light green, or mid-green. Leaf-blade midrib evident. Leaf-blade venation distinct; with subepidermal sclerenchyma strands similar in size; with subepidermal sclerenchyma attached to veins above and below; without layer of subepidermal sclerenchyma masking vein striation. Leaf-blade surface glabrous. Leaf-blade margins smooth; glabrous. Leaf-blade apex attenuate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle; with 1 peduncles per sheath. Peduncle straight, or flexuous; terete; eglandular; glabrous. Panicle contracted; lanceolate; continuous; loose; straight; 15-20 cm long; 3-5 cm wide. Primary panicle branches ascending; moderately divided; bearing spikelets almost to the base. Panicle branches straight, or arcuate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 5-6 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 9-11 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus glabrous. Rhachilla internodes scaberulous. Floret callus glabrous.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 5-6 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 9-11 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus glabrous. Rhachilla internodes scaberulous. Floret callus glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; similar; subequal in width; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 2.7-3 mm long; 0.8-0.9 length of upper glume; membranous; mid-green; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 3.7-4 mm long; 0.6 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous, or chartaceous; mid-green; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex obtuse, or acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma elliptic; symmetrical; 6-6.5 mm long; chartaceous, or herbaceous; mid-green.
Distribution
Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: Macaronesia. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, and China. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: north-central. North America: Subarctic. South America: southern South America.
Reference
Poeae. Stancik 2005.

Doubtfully present in:

Hungary, Romania

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Altay, Austria, Azores, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Central European Rus, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East European Russia, Finland, France, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Iceland, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Svalbard, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Algeria, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, British Columbia, California, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Falkland Is., Florida, Georgia, Greenland, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Japan, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., Labrador, Louisiana, Magadan, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Sakhalin, Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yukon

Lolium pratense (Huds.) Darbysh. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Novon 3: 242 (1993)

Not accepted by

  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Festuca pratensis.]

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

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  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
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  • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 13 Taxon 61: 889-902.
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  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
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  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0