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Ananas comosus is a seedless cultigen (a plant that has been altered by humans through a process of selective breeding). Because it has been in cultivation for thousands of years, its exact origins are unknown.

Ananas comosus (pineapple)

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 2000 m.
Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description

Ananas comosus is a seedless cultigen (a plant that has been altered by humans through a process of selective breeding). Because it has been in cultivation for thousands of years, its exact origins are unknown.

It is thought to be derived from bird-pollinated wild plants with seeds in Central and South America, perhaps from wild relative Ananas ananassoides, but further research is needed to confirm this. The Tupi-Guarani Indians of South America have been credited with its domestication, although this is in some dispute.

In the horticultural trade, many species and hybrids of Bromeliaceae are sold as indoor ornamentals, but pineapple is the only economically important plant in Bromeliaceae. The family also includes 'air plants' (epiphytes) such as Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides) and blushing bride (Tillandsia ionantha). There are nine accepted species of Ananas.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Ananas comosus is a cultigen from southeastern and southern Brazil and Paraguay, the wild relatives of which are unknown.

Description

Overview: Tropical herbaceous perennial, 1-2 m tall and wide with leaves spirally arranged.

Stem: Circular in cross-section, up to 50 cm long and 8 cm wide, club-shaped.

Leaves: Deep green to grey-green to red, pungent, 30-50 in dense rosettes. Individual leaves up to 1 m long by 4 cm wide with spiny margins.

Flowers: Borne on an inflorescence (flowering structure) 20-30 cm long, held on a scape (stalk) up to 50 cm long and subtended by bracts. Small purple or red flowers are each accompanied by a single red, yellowish or green, fleshy bract. Each flower is composed of three sepals, three petals, six stamens and a three-chambered ovary.

Fruits: A seedless, juicy syncarp (multiple fruit, produced by fusion of fruits from 100-200 flowers) up to 30 cm long, crowned with 20-30 leafy bracts. The tough, waxy rind, made up of hexagonal units, is dark-green, yellow, orange-yellow or reddish when the fruit is ripe. The flesh ranges from nearly white to yellow.

Seeds: Normally only traces of undeveloped seeds are present.

Offshoots, known as 'slips', emerge from the stem around the base of the fruit and 'stem shoots' grow in the axils of the leaves. 'Ground shoots' or 'suckers' are shoots arising from the base of the plant at ground level.

Uses Food and drink

Pineapple was (and still is) an important part of the diet of native Americans in the lowland tropics. The names nanas and ananas were used throughout South America and the Caribbean. Native Americans ate the fresh fruit and also used it to prepare alcoholic beverages such as pineapple wine, chicha and guarapo .

Today, pineapple is the world's third most important cultivated tropical fruit after bananas and citrus. It is grown in frost-free areas around the world for its fruits, which are highly regarded for their distinctive flavour and sweet flesh and juice. Pineapple is an excellent source of vitamins A and C and potassium.

About 30 cultivars are grown commercially and these are grouped into four main classes for convenience in trade: 'Smooth Cayenne', 'Red Spanish', 'Queen' and 'Pernambuco'.

Seventy per cent of the pineapples produced globally are consumed as fresh fruit in the country of origin. Some of the largest producers of pineapple are Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, China and India. Pineapple is also an important crop in Hawaii, Malaysia and Kenya.

Major pineapple products in global trade are canned slices and chunks, crush, juice and fresh fruit. Cut pineapple is eaten alone or used in desserts, salads, fruit cocktail mixes and cooked meat dishes. Pineapple juice is used in beverages - most famously the mixture of pineapple juice, rum and coconut cream known as piña colada.

Medicine

Native Americans have used pineapple medicinally against parasitic worms and amoebic parasites, to treat stomach complaints and to induce abortion and stimulate menstrual flow. Most of these uses relate to the presence of the enzyme bromelain, which breaks down protein.

Bromelain extracted from pineapple has been used as a nutraceutical (food product thought to provide heath benefits). It has been shown to interfere with the growth of malignant cells, to inhibit clotting, reduce inflammation and help remove damaged tissue from wounds.

Many people react to fresh pineapple with an outbreak of a skin rash or hives. External exposure to juice alone can also cause this reaction in some people. Those who react this way should reduce intake of uncooked fruit or eat only canned fruit.

Fibres

Native Americans used the fibres contained in pineapple leaves and domesticated a smooth-leaved form ( curagua ) with a higher yield of long, strong fibres. These were used to make fishing nets and lines, hammocks and loincloths.

Pineapple fibre is creamy-white with a silky shine and is delicate in texture. It is still used in Brazil and the Philippines, where it is known as piña cloth. It is exported from the Philippines and Taiwan to Spain where it is used for fine embroidery.

Pineapple fibre easily takes and retains dyes and is strong and soft and has been used to make smooth, thin, pliable paper. It is used by cottage industries rather than on a commercial scale, partly because the fibre is difficult to extract and also because the cultivars grown for food do not have leaves suitable for fibre extraction.

Ornamental

Pineapple is cultivated as an ornamental, serving as a stately foliage plant or as a curiosity (with the tempting promise of edible produce). The variegated form is popular as an ornamental.

It was considered fashionable to grow pineapple in Great Britain in the early 1700s, and it served as the model for much garden statuary. An impressive example of pineapple-inspired architecture can be seen at Dunmore Park in Scotland. Built in 1761 by John Murray, the 4th Earl of Dunmore, this folly with its pineapple-shaped cupola originally contained a hothouse but is now maintained as holiday accommodation by The Landmark Trust.

In temperate regions pineapple should be grown in a glasshouse or conservatory, with a minimum temperature of 13-15°C, high humidity and strong sunlight. Plants will not normally produce fruit until they are three years old.

Other uses

Bromelain (an enzyme that breaks down protein) extracted from pineapple has been used as a meat-tenderiser.

By-products of pineapple processing (leaves, bracts, fruit trimmings) have been used in animal feeds, although they are often of low nutritional value.

Pineapple history

Pineapple originated in the lowlands of South America. It was widely used by Native Americans for food, alcoholic beverages and medicinal purposes. By the 15th century, it was distributed throughout most of tropical America, and all forms in cultivation were nearly or completely seedless.

Pineapples were first seen by Europeans when the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus landed on the island of Guadeloupe during his second voyage in 1493. Columbus is alleged to have named the fruit, calling it the 'pine of the Indies' due to its resemblance to a pine cone. The name  Ananas  derives from  nana , a Tupi Indian term for the fruit.

The value of this fruit was soon recognised, and before the end of the 16th century pineapple cultivation had spread across much of the tropical world, including Africa, India, China, Java and the Philippines. In the late 18th century, pineapple was introduced to Hawaii, where it has become the state's most important fruit crop.

Pineapple is now considered to be a weed in some countries.

Cultivation

Pineapple is propagated vegetatively by rooting the coma (crown of bracts at the top of the fruit) or from side shoots produced at the base of the growth.

Some important cultivars are:

• 'Hawaiian King ' - large, smooth-leaved• 'Honey Gold' - large fruit up to 7 kg• 'Smooth Cayenne' - spineless, grown in Hawaii• 'Queen' - spiny, used in Malaysia and Kenya• 'Red Spanish' - used in the West Indies• 'Porteanus' - leaves with central yellow stripe• 'Variegatus' - leaves variegated with longitudinal yellow stripes, sometimes marked red

This species at Kew

Pineapple can be seen growing at the northern end of Kew's Princess of Wales Conservatory, in the moist tropics zone.

Pineapple fibre, thread and cloth and an evening bag and a shirt made from it are held in Kew's Economic Botany Collection. Specimens of pineapple fruit, leaves and oil are also held in the collection and are available to researchers by appointment.

Distribution
Brazil
Ecology
Unknown.
Conservation
Widespread in cultivation.
Hazards

Consumption of unripe fruit can cause irritation to the throat and act as a strong purgative; some people have a strong skin reaction (hives) after consumption of fresh pineapple.

[UNAL]
Vernacular
Co?ijibo (Cubeo), Piña, Piña, Piña banqueña, Piña de agua, Piña de águila, Piña de borugo, Piña de charapa, Piña de chucha, Piña de cumare

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2000 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[UPB]
Use Food
Food (Pérez Arbeláez 1996).
Use Gene Sources
Crop wild relatives which may possess beneficial traits of value in breeding programmes (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Fibres
Leaves - Used to make cord (Linares et al. 2008).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).

[KSP]
Use
Food and drink, medicine, textiles.

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Angola, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Galápagos, Gambia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Malaya, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Samoa, Senegal, Society Is., Taiwan, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Zaïre

English
Pineapple
Spanish
Piña.

Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jun 22, 2007 Hunt, D.R. [5971], Brazil K000976763
Jun 22, 2006 Tillett, S.S. [45546] K000976760
Jun 22, 2006 Tillett, S.S. [45546] K000976760
Jun 22, 2006 Tillett, S.S. [45546] K000976760
Jun 22, 2006 Tillett, S.S. [45546] K000976760
Jun 22, 2006 Eiten, G. [5728], Brazil K000731704
Jun 22, 2006 Hunt, D.R. [5971], Brazil K000976762
Jun 22, 2006 Eiten, G. [5728], Brazil K000731703
Jun 22, 2006 Philcox, D. [3049], Brazil K000976764
Jun 22, 2006 Glaziou, A. [22188], Brazil K000976766
Jun 22, 2006 Glaziou [22188], Brazil K000976767
Jun 22, 2006 Burchell [5500], Brazil K000976768
Jun 22, 2006 Martinelli, G. [11974], Brazil K000976770
Jun 22, 2006 Ratter, J.A. [4894], Brazil K000976771
Jun 22, 2006 Krapovickas, A. [42135], Brazil K000976772
Jun 22, 2006 Occhioni [78263], Brazil K000976761
Jun 22, 2006 Irwin, H.S. [21144], Brazil K000731684
Jun 22, 2006 Eiten, G. [5553], Brazil K000731685
Jun 22, 2006 Harley, R.M. [10411], Brazil K000731686
Jun 22, 2006 Ratter, J.A. [R6933], Brazil K000731688
Jun 22, 2006 Harley, R.M. [24820], Brazil K000731690
Jun 22, 2006 Ratter, J.A. [1406], Brazil K000976758
Jun 22, 2006 Krapovickas, A. [29916], Brazil K000731692
Jun 22, 2006 Castellanos, A. [24249], Brazil K000976765
Jun 22, 2006 Ratter, J.A. [4418], Brazil K000731694
Jun 22, 2006 Thomas, W. [4421], Brazil K000731698
Jun 22, 2006 Irwin, H.S. [557788], Suriname K000731701
Jun 22, 2006 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [6091], Brazil K000731702
Jun 22, 2006 Glaziou [13264], Brazil K000976774
Jan 1, 1993 Prance, G.T. [p26487], Brazil K000731687
Jan 1, 1991 Harley, R.M. [24820], Brazil K000731689
Jan 1, 1990 Nee, M. [1886], Suriname K000731700
Nov 27, 1986 Martinelli, G. [11974], Brazil K000976769
Apr 1, 1984 Krapovickas, A. [33739], Brazil K000731691
Jan 1, 1977 Irwin, H.S. [27500], Brazil K000731696
Jan 1, 1977 Irwin, H.S. [27500], Brazil K000731696
Jan 1, 1976 Campbell, D.G. [P22478], Brazil K000731697
Jan 1, 1969 Argent, G.C.G. [6752], Brazil K000976759
Jan 1, 1968 Irwin, H.S. [21144], Brazil K000731683
Jan 1, 1967 Prance, G.T. [34077], Brazil K000731693
Jan 1, 1967 Prance, G.T. [4111], Brazil K000976775
Jan 1, 1967 Prance, G.T. [4111], Brazil K000976775
Jan 1, 1967 Prance, G.T. [4111], Brazil K000976775
Jan 1, 1967 Prance, G.T. [4111], Brazil K000976775
Krapovickas, A. [42135], Brazil K000976773

First published in Interpr. Herb. Amboin.: 133 (1917)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Smith, A.C. (1979). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 1: 1-495. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
  • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(2): 1-83. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Velayos, M., Aedo, C., Cabezas, F., de la Estrella, M., Barberá, P. & Fero, M. (eds.) (2014). Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial 11: 1-416. Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, Real jardín botánico, Madrid.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Versieux, L.M. & Wendt, T. (2006). Checklist of Bromeliaceae of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with notes on taxonomy and endemism Selbyana 27: 107-146.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Species Profiles

  • Bartholomew, D. P., Paull, R. E. & Rohrbach, K. G. (eds) (2003). The Pineapple: Botany, Production and Uses. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.
  • Huxley, A., Griffiths, M. & Levy, M. (eds) (1999). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. Volume 1 (A to C). Macmillan Reference, London
  • Kiple, K. F. & Ornelas, K. C. (eds) (2000). The Cambridge World History of Food, Volume 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
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  • d’Eeckenbrugge, G. C., Sanewski, G. M., Smith, M. K., Duval, M. & Leal, F. (2011). Chapter 2: Ananas. In: Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources, Tropical and Subtropical Fruits, ed. C. Kole, pp. 21–41, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Crop wild relative Inventory https://www.cwrdiversity.org/checklist/ in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Linares, E.L., Galeano, G., García, N. & Figueroa, Y. (2008). Fibras vegetales utilizadas en artesanías en Colombia. Artesanías de Colombia S.A. , Instituto de Ciencias Naturales-Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berhaut, J. (1988). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 9: 1-522. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Hallé, N. (1983). Végétation de l'île Rurutu et additions au catalogue de la flore des îles Australes Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 5(2): 141-150.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
  • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(2): 1-83. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Velayos, M., Aedo, C., Cabezas, F., de la Estrella, M., Barberá, P. & Fero, M. (eds.) (2014). Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial 11: 1-416. Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, Real jardín botánico, Madrid.
  • Wendt, T., do Santos Coser, T., Fernandes, H.B. & Martinelli, G. (2010). Bromaliaceae do município de Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo: lista de espécies, distribuição, Conservação e comentérios taxonômicos Boletim do Museu de Biologia Mello Leitão 27: 21-53.
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Universidad Nacional de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., S.R. Gradstein & M. Celis (eds.). 2019. Nombres comunes de las plantas de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/es/
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Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000976770
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000731686
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000976772
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000976760
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000731701
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000976774
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000976762
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000731703
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000976764
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000976766
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000976758
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000976768
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000731692
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000731694
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000731684
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000731687
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000976761
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000976771
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000976763
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000976773
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000976765
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000731704
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000976775
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000976767
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000976769
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000731691
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000731693
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000731683
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000976759
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000731685

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Species Profiles
Kew Species Profiles
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/