Genus:
Casuarina L.

Casuarina equisetifolia L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is India to W. Pacific. It is has environmental uses and social uses, as animal food and a medicine and for fuel and food.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Caribbean. Elevation range: 5–2650 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bogotá DC, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, San Andrés y Providencia.
Habit
Tree.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, artificial - terrestrial.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Tree, up to 25 m or more tall, monoecious, with ± drooping branchlets
Morphology Branches
Internodes of deciduous branchlets with 6–8 pubescent furrows
Morphology Leaves
Scale-leaves pale green, in whorls of (6–)7–8, those on deciduous branchlets free for (0.4–)0.5–0.7 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male spikes 10–40 mm long and up to c. 2 mm thick, with appressed bracts Female inflorescences 3–5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Infructescences
Infructescences shortly cylindric to subglobose, 8–20(–25) x 11–16 mm, the valves pubescent and with 2 longitudinal ridges
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits pale yellowish-brown, c. 5–7 mm long.
Distribution
S2, 3 native of Australia and probably also SE Asia and the islands of the Pacific, widely planted elsewhere in the tropics and often naturalized.
Ecology
Altitude range c. 5–50 m.
Vernacular
Shawro, showri (Somali).

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
casuarina, falso pino, pino, pino australiano, pino de Australia, pino extranjero, pino falso australiano

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 5 - 2650 m.; Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe.
Morphology General Habit
Árbol

[FTEA]

Casuarinaceae, C.M. Wilmot-Dear. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

Morphology General Habit
Tree 7–25 m. high, monoecious, often pyramidal and much branched; trunks stout (diameter 30 cm., girth up to 1.5 m.), sometimes several from same rootstock.
Morphology General Bark
Bark dark grey or deep brownish, rough or smooth, lenticels usually visible or prominent on younger twigs on which are usually also present white remains of leaf-whorls splitting into longitudinal strips often with quite sharp recurved apices and peeling off with age to leave a ring of transverse scars and cracks at each node.
Morphology Stem
Youngest persistent stems with internodes usually 1.5–2.5 mm., rarely 8 mm. long, and whorls of (6–)7–8 scale-leaves, these straw-coloured and thickly chartaceous, extremely reflexed, free part 2–3 mm. long, 0.4 mm. wide, narrowly triangular with thick excurrent midrib, margin with numerous white or pale cilia often nearly 0.2 mm. long, similar hairs dense or sparse on adaxial surface especially midrib and more sparse on abaxial surface, midrib glabrous.
Morphology Branches
Lower branches stout, spreading, uppermost whippy and ± pendent. Deciduous branchlets arising in abundance from persistent stems especially towards apices, 0.5–0.7 mm. in diameter, bright green with 7–8 slightly paler prominent ribs; scale-leaves in whorls of (6–)7–8, small, adpressed, thinly chartaceous, pale green or straw-coloured, united at base into short tube up to 1 mm. long, free part (0.4–)0.5–0.7 mm. long, (0.2–)0.3 mm. wide, glabrous, margin with cilia similar to but shorter than those on persistent stem-leaves and continuing as a rather inconspicuous fringe of hairs along centre of grooves between stem-ribs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Male inflorescences abundant on deciduous branches (rare on persistent branches), 10–30(–40) mm. long, 1.2–2 mm. in diameter (excluding exserted anthers), tapering gradually into short sterile basal region; whorls of bracts 15–22; bracts usually 7 per whorl or less near base, ± adpressed, mucronate, straw-coloured and chartaceous, up to 1.1–1.8 mm. long, 0.4–0.5 mm. wide, glabrous inside, margin and outer surface with hairs as on scale-leaves; bracteoles membranous-scarious, ovate, 0.7–1 × 0.3 mm., apex acute and apical third of margin erose-dentate-ciliate. Perianth of 2 segments up to 0.7 mm. long, 0.4 mm. wide, membranous, rounded. Filaments exserted up to 1.5 mm. from bracts; anthers 0.8–1 mm. long, brownish, mostly maturing and exserted at same time. Female inflorescence axillary towards apices of younger persistent branches, scattered or densely clustered, often on same branches as ♂ and/or mature fruits; heads ± well-defined, ovoid or subglobose, 3–5 mm. long, stalk 3–10 mm.; bracts similar in shape, size, colour and pubescence to those of ♂. Stigmas exserted up to 3–4 mm., red.
sex Male
Male inflorescences abundant on deciduous branches (rare on persistent branches), 10–30(–40) mm. long, 1.2–2 mm. in diameter (excluding exserted anthers), tapering gradually into short sterile basal region; whorls of bracts 15–22; bracts usually 7 per whorl or less near base, ± adpressed, mucronate, straw-coloured and chartaceous, up to 1.1–1.8 mm. long, 0.4–0.5 mm. wide, glabrous inside, margin and outer surface with hairs as on scale-leaves; bracteoles membranous-scarious, ovate, 0.7–1 × 0.3 mm., apex acute and apical third of margin erose-dentate-ciliate. Perianth of 2 segments up to 0.7 mm. long, 0.4 mm. wide, membranous, rounded. Filaments exserted up to 1.5 mm. from bracts; anthers 0.8–1 mm. long, brownish, mostly maturing and exserted at same time.
sex Female
Female inflorescence axillary towards apices of younger persistent branches, scattered or densely clustered, often on same branches as ♂ and/or mature fruits; heads ± well-defined, ovoid or subglobose, 3–5 mm. long, stalk 3–10 mm.; bracts similar in shape, size, colour and pubescence to those of ♂. Stigmas exserted up to 3–4 mm., red.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Infructescences
Infructescences shortly cylindrical or subglobose with flattened apex, sparse, scattered or densely clustered, 8–17(–25) mm. long, 10–16 mm. in diameter; whorls of paired infructescence-valves (6–)8–9(–12), alternating; valves usually 7–8 per whorl, up to 1.5–3.2 mm. wide, but size and number usually less towards apex; valve-backs with 2 longitudinal ridges and densely red-brown pubescent especially at margins and towards tip, inner surfaces glabrous or pubescent at tip; valves not much thickened, ± obovate, apices acute often mucronate, projecting 1.5–3 mm. above rest of surface, valve-pairs separated from adjacent pairs by gap of 0.5–1 mm.; bracts between valves with free ± acute apex up to 1 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Samaras varying in size, 5–7 mm. long but those from smaller valves rather smaller; wing usually 3.5–4.5 mm. long, 2–3 mm. wide, whitish or pale brown translucent, longitudinal nerve excurrent into mucronate curved apex; seed-bearing basal part flattened-ovoid, 1.5–2.5 mm. long and wide, up to 1 mm. thick, pale straw-coloured or rarely light brown, glossy but surface not shiny since roughened by minute ± longitudinal patterning of wavy raised lines.
Figures
Figs. 1/3 and 2.
Habitat
Sandy areas above or even on seashore above high tide mark, coastal bushland; also widely planted in similar areas and up to 1500 m.
Distribution
east coast of tropical AfricaMadagascar, Malaysia, Australasia, Polynesiacultivated only: U 2T 5tropical Africa, Mascarene Is., Europe, India, Sri Lanka, N. and S. America K7 P T3 T6 T8 Z

[FZ]

Casuarinaceae, C. M. Wilmot-Dear. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

Morphology General Habit
Tree 7–25 m. tall, monoecious; sterns stout, up to c. 30 cm. diam. breast height, sometimes several, bark grey-brown.
Morphology Branches
Deciduous branchlets numerous, especially toward the apices of the persistent branches, (0.4)0.5–0.7 mm. in diam., 7–8-ribbed; scale leaves (6)7–8 per whorl, greenish or straw-coloured, free part c. 0.5–0.7 mm. long, appressed, thinly chartaceous, glabrous, margin ciliate. Youngest persistent branches with internodes usually 1.5–2.5 mm. long; scale leaves (6)7–8 per whorl, greenish or straw-coloured, united at base into a short tube c. 1 mm. long, free part 2–3 mm. long, much reflexed, thickly chartaceous, pubescent.
sex Male
Male inflorescences abundant on deciduous branchlets (rare on persistent branches), 10–30(40) x 1.2–2 mm. (width excluding exserted anthers), cylindrical, tapering gradually into a short sterile basal part; whorls of bracts 15–25; bracts c. 7 per whorl, fewer near the base, appressed, 1.1–1.8 x 0.4–0.5 mm., pubescent outside; bracteoles 0.7–1 x 0.3 mm., ovate, acute, erose-dentate-ciliate in upper one-third; perianth segments 2, up to 0.7 x 0.4 mm., rounded, membranous; filaments exserted by 1.5 mm.; anthers 0.8–1 mm. long, brownish.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Female inflorescences axillary, toward the apices of younger persistent branches, scattered or densely clustered, often on same branches as male inflorescences; heads 3–5 mm. long, ovoid or subglobose; stalk 3–10 mm. long; bracts as for the male inflorescences; stigmas exserted by 3–4 mm., red. Male inflorescences abundant on deciduous branchlets (rare on persistent branches), 10–30(40) x 1.2–2 mm. (width excluding exserted anthers), cylindrical, tapering gradually into a short sterile basal part; whorls of bracts 15–25; bracts c. 7 per whorl, fewer near the base, appressed, 1.1–1.8 x 0.4–0.5 mm., pubescent outside; bracteoles 0.7–1 x 0.3 mm., ovate, acute, erose-dentate-ciliate in upper one-third; perianth segments 2, up to 0.7 x 0.4 mm., rounded, membranous; filaments exserted by 1.5 mm.; anthers 0.8–1 mm. long, brownish.
sex Female
Female inflorescences axillary, toward the apices of younger persistent branches, scattered or densely clustered, often on same branches as male inflorescences; heads 3–5 mm. long, ovoid or subglobose; stalk 3–10 mm. long; bracts as for the male inflorescences; stigmas exserted by 3–4 mm., red.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Infructescences
Infructescences 8–17(25) x 10–16 mm., shortly cylindrical or subglobose, ± flattened at the apex, (6)8–9(12) whorls of paired infructescence valves; valve pairs 7–8 per whorl, 1.5–3.2 mm. wide (but smaller and fewer towards apex), valves ± obovate, acute to mucronate, apices projecting by 1.5–3 mm., gap between adjacent pairs 0.5–1 mm. wide, valve backs with 2(3) longitudinal ridges (TAB. 35, fig. 3).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Samaras pale brown, dull, 5–7 mm. long, to 1 mm. thick; wing 3.5–4.5 x 2–3 mm. (those from small valves smaller), whitish or pale-brown translucent, longitudinal nerve excurrent into a mucronate curved apex.

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Social
Social uses.

[FSOM]
Use
Ornamental tree good for hedging, windbreaks and to stabilise coastal sand, also providing excellent fire wood.

Native to:

Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., Fiji, India, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Marianas, Marshall Is., Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Solomon Is., South China Sea, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Tonga, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Vietnam

Introduced into:

Alabama, Aldabra, Ascension, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Canary Is., Cayman Is., Chagos Archipelago, Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Florida, Gambia, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Italy, Jamaica, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Leeward Is., Line Is., Madagascar, Maldives, Marquesas, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Niue, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Senegal, Seychelles, Society Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is.

English
Coast She-oak

Casuarina equisetifolia L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2012 I Made Maduarta (Pung) [IMM 127], Lesser Sunda Is. K000733691 No
Jan 1, 2007 Berhaman [6], Sabah K000442900 No
Sep 23, 2005 Gaerlan, F.M. et al. [2926], Philippines K000351323 No
Sep 23, 2005 Gaerlan et al. [19174], Philippines K000351324 No
Jan 1, 1965 Monica M. Cole [109], Papua New Guinea K000734288 No
s.coll. [6815] K000872477 Yes
s.coll. [6815] K000872476 Yes
s.coll. [6815] K000872475 Yes

First published in Amoen. Acad. 4: 143 (1759)

Accepted by

  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Berhaut, J. (1974). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 2: 1-695. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Florence, J. (2004). Flore de la Polynésie Française 2: 1-503. ORSTOM éditions, Paris.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Japan IIa: 1-550. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Stinca, A. & al. (2017). New alien vascular species for the flora of southern Italy Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 72: 295-301.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
  • Barger, T.W. & al. (2012). New and noteworthy records for the flora of Alabama Castanea 77: 257-269.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Berhaut, J. (1974). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 2: 1-695. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997). Flora of North America North of Mexico 3: 1-590. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Stinca, A. & al. (2017). New alien vascular species for the flora of southern Italy Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 72: 295-301.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Thaman, R.R. & Tye, A. (2015). Flora of Kiritimari (Christmass) atoll, Northern Line islands, Republic of Kiribati Atoll Research Bulletin 608: 1-73.
  • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
  • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Battiscombe & Dale, Trees and Shrubs of Kenya Colony ed. 2: 83 (1936).
  • C: H. Wright in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(2): 315 (1917).
  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 2 (1953).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 130, fig. 26, photo. 26 (1961).
  • Engl. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 159 (1895).
  • Forst., Char. Gen.: 103, t. 52 (1776).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 122 (1949).
  • L., Amoen. Acad. 4: 143 (1759).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 182, photo. opp. p. 135 (1949).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Neotropikey

    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0