Genus:
Sonchus L.

Sonchus oleraceus L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Europe to Medit., Sahara to Arabian Peninsula. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders, as animal food and a medicine and for food.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 580 - 3900 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual or biennial herb, 0.1–1.4 m high; stems (glaucous) green with reddish or purplish tinge, slightly succulent, hollow, stout and erect, glabrous or sometimes glandular-setose near the inflorescence
Morphology Leaves
Leaves dull green, often glaucous beneath, (ob)lanceolate in outline, entire to pinnatilobed, 4–30´1–9(–17) cm wide, base amplexicaul, auriculate with sagittate auricles, midrib narrowly winged and toothed, lobes few, reflexed, coarsely dentate, sometimes with spinulose teeth, the apical lobe ovate-hastate, glabrous; distal leaves becoming smaller and less lobed to subentire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Capitula few to many in lax leafy corymbs or panicles; involucre 10–13 mm long; phyllaries green with paler tips, the outer becoming swollen at base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Florets many; corolla yellow, tube cylindric, 6–7.5 mm long, ligule 5.5–6 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achenes (reddish-)brown, narrowly obovoid, slightly flattened, 2.5–4 mm long, ribbed, minutely muricate; pappus white, 7–8 mm long.
Distribution
N2; cosmopolitan
Ecology
Altitude range 1300–1750 m.
Note
First record for Somalia.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
achicoria, canayuyo, cerraja, cerraja espinosa, chicoria, diente de león, escarola, lechosa, lechuga amarilla, lechuguilla, yerba de sapo

[FTEA]

Compositae, H. Beentje, C. Jeffrey & D.J.N. Hind. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

Morphology General Habit
Annual or biennial herb, 0.1–1.4 m high; stems (glaucous) green with reddish or purplish tinge, slightly succulent, hollow, stout and erect, simple or branched, ridged, glabrous or sometimes glandular-setose near the inflorescence.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves dull green, often glaucous beneath, (ob-)lanceolate in outline, entire to pinnatilobed, 4–30 cm long, 1–9(–17) cm wide, base amplexicaul, auriculate with sagittate auricles, blade pinnatilobed to pinnatipartite, midrib narrowly winged and toothed, lobes few, reflexed, coarsely dentate, sometimes with spinulose teeth, the apical lobe ovate-hastate, apex rounded or acute, glabrous; distal leaves becoming smaller and less lobed to subentire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Capitulum
Capitula few to many in lax leafy corymbs or panicles; involucre 10–13 mm long; phyllaries green with paler tips, lanceolate, 2.5–13 mm long, obtuse, glabrous but for the ciliate apex, or rarely glandular-setose on the midrib, the outer becoming swollen at base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Florets many; corolla yellow, tube cylindric, 6–7.5 mm long, ligule 5.5–6 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achenes (reddish)brown, narrowly obovoid, slightly flattened, 2.5–4 mm long, ribbed, minutely muricate; pappus white, 7–8 mm long.
Figures
Fig. 25.
Habitat
Ruderal sites, roadsides, weed of cultivation, a pioneer at the edges of bare soil; 950–2650 m
Distribution
native to Eurasia and North Africa, now a cosmopolitan weed K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 U2

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Alt. 580 - 3900 m.
Distribution
Introduced in Colombia.

[FWTA]

Compositae, C. D. Adams. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
A coarse erect annual herb 1-3 ft. high
Morphology General Exudate
A milky sap
Morphology General Indumentum
Occasionally with glular hairs on stems peduncles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Florets yellow
Note
A weed.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 580–3900 m a.s.l. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bogotá DC, Boyacá, Cauca, Cesar, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Huila, Magdalena, Nariño, Putumayo, Quindío, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Herb.
Conservation
National Red List of Colombia (2021): Potential LC.

[FZ]

Compositae, G. V. Pope. Flora Zambesiaca 6:1. 1992

Morphology General Habit
A stout erect annual herb.
Morphology Stem
Stem up to c. 150 cm. tall, simple or sparsely branched in the upper half, leafy hollow usually reddish-tinged often glaucous, stem and branches glabrous or sometimes ± densely glandular-setose and somewhat viscid, setae up to c. 1 mm. long patent purplish; branches up to c. 45 cm. long ascending.
Morphology Leaves
All leaves ± spathulate at first, often deeply laciniate in depauperate specimens. Lower leaves crowded, up to c. 28 x 9 cm., ± oblanceolate in outline, usually pinnately-lobed to coarsely runcinate-pinnatipartite, each with a broadly ovate-hastate apical lobe rounded to acute at the apex; margins usually coarsely and somewhat irregularly dentate with spinulose-acicular teeth; midrib narrowly winged, ± auriculate and semi-amplexicaul below; auricles ± sagittate-spreading, entire to dentate. Upper leaves sessile, smaller, lanceolate, ± deeply lobed to subentire, coarsely and sharply dentate on the margins, basal auricles usually large with acute spreading lobes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Capitulum
Capitula stalked, many in corymbiform cymes, stalks glabrous or glandular-setose; involucres up to c. 13 mm. long and 10 mm. in diam., very broadly cylindrical later spreading, densely white tomentose below soon glabrescent, involucre becoming swollen in fruiting capitula.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Phyllaries
Phyllaries many-seriate imbricate increasing in length from c. 3 mm. on the outside to c. 13 mm. inside, narrowly lanceolate, glaucous, glabrous except for ciliate apicies and occasionally 1-several large glandular-setae up to c. 2 mm. long along the midrib, the midribs below becoming swollen and corky.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Florets numerous; corollas yellow up to c. 13 mm. long, tube slender and pubescent above, ligule c. 5.5 mm. long and strap-shaped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achenes light to reddish-brown, up to c. 3 x 1 mm., narrowly obovoid and somewhat flattened, ± uniformly many-ribbed; ribs minutely muricate with numerous retrorse projections.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds Pappus
Pappus white copious c. 7 mm. long, composed of barbellate setae intermixed with down-like hairs.

[FWTA]

Compositae, C. D. Adams. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
An erect herb 2-10 ft. high with glabrous striate hollow stems
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Campanulate flower-heads 3/4 in. long with pale yellow florets.

[FSOM]
Use
Weed.

[UPB]
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Used in liquid medicines (Lagos-López 2007).

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Burkina, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf States, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Ivory Coast, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Oman, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Yemen, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Afghanistan, Altay, Amur, Angola, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Buryatiya, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Chatham Is., Chile Central, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Falkland Is., Fiji, Free State, Galápagos, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Inner Mongolia, Irkutsk, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Line Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Manchuria, Marcus I., Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mexico Southeast, Minnesota, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oregon, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Primorye, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, Sakhalin, Society Is., South Australia, South China Sea, South Georgia, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tasmania, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tristan da Cunha, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Victoria, Vietnam, Wake I., West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Spanish
Cerraja, serraja, ñilgüe, canayuyo, casha cerraja, cerrajo.

Sonchus oleraceus L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [203], Cape Verde K001134171 Yes
Nov 1, 2012 Gardner, G. [521], Brazil K000895166 Yes
Jan 1, 2009 Margwe, B. [19], Tanzania K000614954 No
Jul 1, 2004 Pollard, B.J. [457], Cameroon K000746087 No
Nov 1, 1996 Hind, D.J.N. [PCD4113], Bahia K000054018 Yes
Jul 1, 1996 Hind, D.J.N. [PCD3374], Bahia K000054017 Yes
Jun 1, 1996 Hind, D.J.N. [PCD3173], Bahia K000054019 Yes
Oct 1, 1993 Guedes, M.L. [8], Bahia K000054022 Yes
Sep 1, 1993 Hind, D.J.N. [H50476], Bahia K000054020 Yes
Apr 1, 1993 Noblick, L.R. [3914], Bahia K000054023 Yes
Dec 1, 1991 Hind, D.J.N. [29], Bahia K000054021 Yes
Aug 1, 1975 Letouzey, R. [14245], Cameroon K000027681 No
Drege, South Africa K000251712 Unknown type material Yes
Kotschy [163] K090251854 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3252], India K001118926 Yes
Strang, H.E. [517], Brazil K001100165 Yes
Cardoso, D. [1348], Brazil K001031938 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3252], India K001118927 Yes
Ratter, J.A. [3677], Brazil K001100164 Yes
Vogel, T. [36], Cape Verde K001134173 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3252], India K001118922 Yes
Sellow [423], Brazil K001100166 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3252], India K001118925 Yes
Cope, T.A. [RBG 117], United Kingdom K000914419 Yes
Ratter, J.A. [3676], Brazil K001100163 Yes
Kirk, T. [1402], New Zealand K001325082 Yes
Burchell [1732], Brazil K000955823 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3252], India K001118923 Yes
Vogel, T. [68], Cape Verde K001134172 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3252] K001118924 Yes
Jul 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [9173], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000108712 No
Jul 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [9463], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000108711 No
May 1, 1997 Cheek, M. [8501], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000338029 No
Jan 1, 1993 Thomas, D.W. [2651], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027621 No
Jan 1, 1952 Boughey, A.S. [6966], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027769 No
Jan 1, 1949 Brenan, J.P.M. [9390], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027699 No
Jan 1, 1949 Brenan, J.P.M. [9390A], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027700 No
Mann G. [1919], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027771 Unknown type material Yes
Mann G. [1311], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027770 Unknown type material Yes
Mann [s.n.], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000251852 Yes
Maitland, T.D. [0s.n.64], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027754 No
Keay, R.W.J. [28637], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027762 No
Maitland, T.D. [1750], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027755 No
Dunlap [200], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027763 No
Hambler, D. J. [173], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027751 No
Mildbraed, G. W. J. [10843], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027761 No
Deistel, H. [616], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027760 No
Hutchinson, J. [24], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027759 No
Maitland, T.D. [260], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027757 No
Breteler, F.J. [MC 23], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027768 No
Hambler, D. J. [173], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027752 No
Maitland, T.D. [991], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027758 No
Maitland, T.D. [682], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027756 No
Philippi, R.A. [s.n.], Chile Sonchus oleraceus var. lacerus K000959924 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 794 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Chadde, S.W. (2019). Minnesota Flora. An illustrated guide to the vascular plants of Minnesota ed. 2: 1-776. Steve W. Chadde.
  • Chadde, S.W. (2019). Wisconsin Flora ed. 2: 1-818. Steve W. Chadde.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2006). Asteraceae, part 1 Flora of North America North of Mexico 19: 1-579. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Florence, J., Waldren, S. & Chepstow-Lusty, A.J. (1995). The flora of the Pitcairn islands: a review Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 56: 79-119.
  • GCC in GCC (2011). Global Compositae Checklist Global Compositae Checklist http://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A., Edmondson, J.R. & Hind, D.J.N. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Iraq 6: 1-458. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1992). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 6: 1-428. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Koyama, H., Bunwong, S., Pornpongrungrueng, P. & Hind, D.J.N. (2016). Flora of Thailand 13(2): 143-428. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Kozhevnikov, A.E., Kozhevnikov, Z.V., Kwak, M. & Lee, B.Y. (2019). Illustrated flora of the Primorsky Territory, Russian Far East: 1-1124. National institute of biological resources.
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 13: 1-499. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Liogier, A.H. (1996). Flora de la Española 8: 1-588. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo.
  • Malyschev, L.I., Peshkova, G.A. & Baikov, K.S. (eds.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 14: 1-210. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Meades, S.J. & Brouillet, L. (2019). Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador https://www.newfoundland-labradorflora.com/checklist/.
  • Meyers, S.C. & al. (eds.) (2020). Flora of Oregon 2: 1-861. Botanical research institute of Texas Press.
  • Nowak, A. & Nobis, M. (eds.) (2020). Illustrated Flora of Tajikistan and adjacent areas 1: 1-366. PAN, Polish academy of sciences.
  • Powell, A.M. & Worthington, R.D. (2018). Flowering plants of Trans-Pecos Texas and ajacent areas: 1-1444. BRIT Press.
  • Pruski, J.F. (ed.) (2018). Flora Mesoamericana 5(2): 1-608. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • St. John, H. (1988). Census of the Flora of the Gambier islands, Polynesia Pacific Plant Studies 43: 1-34.
  • Thaman, R.R. & Tye, A. (2015). Flora of Kiritimari (Christmass) atoll, Northern Line islands, Republic of Kiribati Atoll Research Bulletin 608: 1-73.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2011). Asteraceae Flora of China 20-21: 1-992. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zhao, Y.Z., Zhao, L.Q. & Rui, C. (eds.) (2019). Flora Intramongolica, edition 3, 5: 1-451. Typis Intramongolicae popularis, Huhhot.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Berhaut Fl. Sén. 171.
  • Chev. Bot. 379
  • F.T.A. 3: 457
  • Sp. Pl. 794 (1753)

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew's Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Lagos-López, M. (2007). Estudio etnobotánico de especies vegetales con propiedades medicinales en seis municipios de Boyacá, Colombia. Actualidades Biológicas, 29(86), 87-96.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2020). https://www.jstor.org/stable/26958715 epublication.
  • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Chadde, S.W. (2019). Minnesota Flora. An illustrated guide to the vascular plants of Minnesota ed. 2: 1-776. Steve W. Chadde.
  • Chadde, S.W. (2019). Wisconsin Flora ed. 2: 1-818. Steve W. Chadde.
  • Florence, J., Waldren, S. & Chepstow-Lusty, A.J. (1995). The flora of the Pitcairn islands: a review Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 56: 79-119.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1992). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 6: 1-428. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Koyama, H., Bunwong, S., Pornpongrungrueng, P. & Hind, D.J.N. (2016). Flora of Thailand 13(2): 143-428. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 13: 1-499. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Liogier, A.H. (1996). Flora de la Española 8: 1-588. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo.
  • Meades, S.J. & Brouillet, L. (2019). Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador https://www.newfoundland-labradorflora.com/checklist/.
  • Meyers, S.C. & al. (eds.) (2020). Flora of Oregon 2: 1-861. Botanical research institute of Texas Press.
  • Powell, A.M. & Worthington, R.D. (2018). Flowering plants of Trans-Pecos Texas and ajacent areas: 1-1444. BRIT Press.
  • Pruski, J.F. (ed.) (2018). Flora Mesoamericana 5(2): 1-608. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • St. John, H. (1988). Census of the Flora of the Gambier islands, Polynesia Pacific Plant Studies 43: 1-34.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, (2000) Author: by H. Beentje [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A.J. Scott in Fl. Masc. 109: 42, t. 12 (1993).
  • Agnew, A.D.Q. & Agnew, S., Upland Kenya Wild Flowers, ed. 2: 230 (1994).
  • Boulos in Bot. Notis. 127: 155 (1974).
  • C. Jeffrey in Kew Bulletin 18: 481 (1966).
  • C.D. Adams in Flora of West Tropical Africa ed. 2, 2: 296 (1963).
  • E. Lind & A. Tallantire, Some Common Flowering Plants of Uganda p. 185 (1962).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 50 (1956).
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  • Lawalrée, Dethier & Gilissen in Flore d'Afrique Centrale Compositae: Cichorioideae: 32 (1986).
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Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
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  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
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  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2019). Lista de especies vedadas por la resolución 213 de 1977. 8256 especies. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_plantaspriorizadas_2019
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  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
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  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/