Genus:
Ipomoea L.

Ipomoea obscura (L.) Ker Gawl.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

[FTEA]

Convolvulaceae, B. Verdcourt (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herb; stems slender, prostrate or twining, up to 1.2 m. long, pilose or glabrescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blade ovate (rarely linear-oblong), 2.7–9 cm. long, 0.4–7.5 cm. wide, acuminate or apiculate at the apex, cordate at the base, pubescent or glabrescent on both surfaces; petiole up to 8 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences 1–several-flowered; peduncle 3.5–4 cm. long; pedicels 1–2 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals ovate, ovate-orbicular or ovate-lanceolate, 4–8 mm. long, 1.7–4 mm. wide, acute or apiculate, glabrous to pilose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow, orange, cream or white with purple, crimson or chocolate-brown centre, 1.4–2.3 (–2.5) cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule globose, glabrous, 8–12 mm. in diameter, tipped with persistent style base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ovoid, black, adpressed pubescent or velvety, up to 5.5 mm. long and 3.5 mm. wide (Fig. 24/1, p. 131.)

[FZ]

Convolvulaceae, Maria Leonor Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:1. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herb, with a taproot not thicker than a finger.
Morphology Stem
Stems several to many, slender, prostrate to twining, up to 3 m. long, pilose or glabrescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf lamina ovate, rarely linear-oblong, 2·5–8·5 × 0·4–7 cm., acuminate or apiculate at the apex, cordate at the base, sometimes sagittate, entire or slightly undulate and often ciliate along the margin, pubescent or glabrescent on both surfaces; petiole up to 11 cm. long, pubescent or glabrescent as in the stems.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences 1-several-flowered; peduncle slender, 1–8 cm. long, glabrous or shortly hairy; bracteoles minute, narrow, acute; pedicels 1–2 cm. long, sometimes minutely verrucose, shortly hairy or glabrous, at first erect but in fruit reflexed and thickened towards the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals subequal, oavte, ovate-orbicular, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, 4–8 mm. long, acute or apiculate, glabrous to pilose, in fruit all somewhat accrescent, ultimately often spreading or reflexed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla funnel-shaped, yellow, orange, cream or white, concolorous or with purple centre, 1 ·5–2·5 cm. long, glabrous or the midpetaline areas thinly hairy towards the apices.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule globose, tipped with persistent style base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ovoid, black, appressed pubescent or velvety.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herb; stems prostrate or twining, up to 1 m or more long, pubescent to almost glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades ovate or rarely linear-oblong, 2.7–9 x 0.4–7.5 cm, cordate at the base, acuminate or apiculate at the apex, pubescent to almost glabrous; petiole up to 8 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes 1–several-flowered; peduncle 0.5–4 cm long; pedicels 1–2.5 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals narrowly to broadly ovate, 4–8 mm long, acute or apiculate at the apex, glabrous to pilose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow, orange, cream or white, with purplish centre, 1.4–2.5 cm long, funnel-shaped
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule globose, glabrous, 8–12 mm in diam.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds up to 5.5 mm long, black, pubescent.
Distribution
N1; S1–3 widespread in tropical Africa, and through tropical Asia to Taiwan and northern Australia.
Ecology
Altitude range 50–1580 m.
Note
The Somali material has ovate-cordate leaves and is var. obscura. Var. sagittifolia Verdc. occurs in Tanzania.

[FWTA]

Convolvulaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
In typical specimens the corolla is 1·4-2·5 cm. long, whitish-yellow with or without a purplish centre.

Doubtfully present in:

Pakistan

Native to:

Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Botswana, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Free State, Gambia, Ghana, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Philippines, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Aldabra, Cook Is., Dominican Republic, Hawaii, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritius, New Caledonia, Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, Seychelles, Tuamotu, Windward Is.

English
Wild petunia, Yellow ipomoea

Ipomoea obscura (L.) Ker Gawl. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Oct 1, 2010 Cheek, M. [11019], Cameroon K000339784 No
Jun 1, 2006 Cheek, M. [11712], Cameroon K000339790 No
Jan 1, 1952 Horsfield, T. [6], Jawa K000830793 Yes
Schimper [801], Ethiopia K000097124 Yes
Schimper [801], Ethiopia K000097126 Yes
Burchell, W.J. [2362], South Africa K000097275 Unknown type material Yes
Kuntze, O. [s.n.], South Africa K000097276 Yes
Marloth [981], South Africa K000097277 Unknown type material Yes
Horsfield, T. [6], Jawa K000830794 Yes
Horsfield, T. [6], Jawa K000830795 Yes
Schimper [801], Ethiopia K000097125 Yes
Jan 1, 1894 Buchanan [179], Malawi Ipomoea obscura var. obscura K000097201 Unknown type material Yes
Bidgood, S. [5969], Tanzania Ipomoea obscura var. sagittifolia K000468456 No
Robinson, E.A. [30], Zambia Ipomoea fragilis 17696.000 No

First published in Bot. Reg. 3: t. 239 (1817)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Adams, C.D. in Adams, C.D. (1972). Flowering Plants of Jamaica: 601-614. University of the West Indies, Mona.
  • Al Khulaidi, A.W.A. in Al Khulaidi, A.W.A. (2012). Fl. Yemen Convolvulaceae + Cuscutaceae. Flora of Yemen: 73-76 + 80. EPA and UNDP, Republic of Yemen.
  • Alfarhan, A. & Thomas, J. in Chaudhary, S.A. (2001). Saudi Arabian CNV + CUS. Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 2(2): 156-222. Ministry of Agriculture & Water, Riyadh.
  • Andrews, F.W. in Andrews, F.W. (1956). Convolvulaceae. The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 102-125. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
  • Austin, D.F. & Huáman, Z. (1996). A synopsis of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the Americas. Taxon 45: 3-38.
  • Austin, D.F. & S. Ghazanfar in E. Nasir & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1979). Convolvulaceae. Flora of West Pakistan 126: 1-64.
  • Austin, D.F. in Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon Convolvulaceae. A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 288-363. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Austin, D.F. in Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, & S.H. Sohmer (1999). Man. Fl. Plts. Hawai'I Convolvulaceae. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'I 1: 548-564. University of Hawaii Press.
  • Baker, J.G. & A.B. Rendle in Thiselton-Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1905). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 62-206. Secretary of State for the Colonies.
  • Baker, J.G. & C.H. Wright in Thiselton Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1904). Convolvulaceae. Flora Capensis 4(2): 45-87.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barker, R.M. & Telford, I.R.H. (1993). Fl. Australia Oceanic Islds. Convolvs. Flora of Australia 50: 342-353. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Bosser, J. & H. Heine (2000). Fl. Mascar. Convolvulaceae. Flore des Mascareignes 127: 1-63. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brown, F.B.H. (1935). Fl. SE Polynesia Convolvulaceae. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 130: 237-242.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis. PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Clarke, C.B. in Hooker, J.D. (1883). Fl. Br. India Convolvulaceae. Flora of British India 4: 179-228 + 734.
  • Clarke, C.B. in Kanjilal, U.N., A. Das, P.C. Kanjilal, & R.E. De (eds.) (1939). Fl. Assam Convolvulaceae. Flora of Assam 3: 338-362+538. Govt. of Assam.
  • Deroin, T. (2001). Convolvulaceae. Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 171: 11-287. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
  • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain in Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Convolvulaceae. Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 331-351. Conservatoire et Jardin Botanique de la ville de Genève.
  • Fang, R.-Z. & Staples, G. (1995). Convolvulaceae. Flora of China 16: 271-325. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet. M.-H. (1977). Flora of Micronesia 3: Convolvulaceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 36: 1-34.
  • Friedmann, F. (1994). Convolvulaceae. Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 491-503. ORSTOM éditions.
  • Gagnepain & Courchet in H. Lecomte (1915). Flore Indo-Chine Convolvulaceae. Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 4: 228-313.
  • Gonçalves, M.L. (1987). Convolvulaceae. Flora Zambesiaca 8(1): 9-129. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Gooding, E.G.B. & A.R. Loveless in Gooding, E.G.B. & A.R. Loveless (1965). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Barbados: 332-344. Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
  • Hancock, I.R. & C.P. Henderson (1988). Convolvulaceae. Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 131-132.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Heine, H. (1984). Fl. Nouv. Caléd. & Dépend. Convolvulaceae. Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 13: 1-91. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Heine, H. in Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J.M. (1963). Convolvulaceae. Flora of West Tropical Africa, second edition 2: 335-352 + 496. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.
  • Jarvis, C.E. in Jarvis, C.E. (2007). Convolvulaceae. Order out of Chaos Linnean Soc. London & Nat. Hist. Museum.
  • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae. Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
  • Kartesz, J.T. in Kartesz, J.T. (1994). Convolvulaceae. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland: 217-221. Timber Press.
  • Khan, M.S. (1985). Fl. Bangladesh Convolvulaceae. Flora of Bangladesh 30: 1-59. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Kress, W.J., R.A. DeFilipps, E. Farr, & Y.Y. Kyi in Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Cklist. Myanmar Convolvulaceae. Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 197-201. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
  • Lejoly, J. & S. Lisowski (1992). Les genres Merremia et Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) dans la Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi). Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica 37: 21-125.
  • Liogier, A.H. in Liogier, A. H. (1994). Convolvulaceae. La flora de la Española 6: 49-114. Universidad Central del Este.
  • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
  • Miller, A.G. & M. Morris in Miller, A.G. & M. Morris (2004). Ethnofl. Soqotra Archipel. Convolvulaceae + Cuscutaceae. Ethnoflora of the Soqotra Archipelago: 516-524. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.
  • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae. Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Press, J.R., K.K. Shrestha, & D.A. Sutton (2012). Nepal Cklist. Convolvulaceae. Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal - online Natural History Museum et al.
  • Sachet, M.-H. (1975). Fl. Marquesas Convolvulaceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 23: 27-34.
  • Smith, A.C. in Smith, A.C. (1991). Fl. Vitiensis Nova Convolvulaceae. Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 41-69. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • St. John, H. in St. John, H. (1988). Census of the flora of the Gambier Island, Polynesia CNV. Pacific Plant Studies 43: 1. privately published by author.
  • Staples, G. (2018). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 36: 1-406. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Staples, G. (with P. Traiperm) (2010). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Thailand 10: 330-468. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Stoddart, D.R. (1969). Reconnaissance geomorphology of Rangiroa Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago. Atoll Research Bulletin 125: 1.
  • Subba Rao, G.V. & G.R. Rao in Subba Rao, G.V & G.R Kumari (2002). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh 1: 549-574. Botanical Survey of India.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thulin, M. et al. in Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Somalia 3: 221-258. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tisserant, P. Ch. (1950). Catalogue de la flora de l'Oubangui-Chari. Mémoires de l'Institut d'Études Centrafricaines 2: 1-166.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1958). Notes on African Convolvulaceae (part 3). Kew Bulletin 13: 199-217.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1963). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-161.
  • Wagner, W.L. & D.H. Lorence in Wagner, W. L. & D. H. Lorence. (2002-ongoing). Fl. Marquesas CNV - April 2012. 2002-. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website. Smithsonian Institution & National Tropical Bot. Garden.
  • Welsh, S.L. in Welsh, S.L. (1998). Fl. Societensis Convolvulaceae. Flora Societensis: 83-88. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Whitmore, T.C. in Whitmore, T.C. (1966). Guide For. Brit. Solomon Isld. Convolvulaceae. Guide to the Forests of the British Solomon Islands: 187, 191. Oxford Univ. Press.
  • Wood, J.R.I. in Wood, J.R.I. (1997). Handb. Yemen Fl. Convolvulaceae. A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 230-236. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wood, J.R.I., Muñoz-Rodríguez P., Williams, B.R.M., Scotland, R.W. (2020). A foundation monograph of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the New World. PhytoKeys 143: 1-823.

Not accepted by

  • Hallier, H. (1899). Convolvulaceae Africanae. II. Botanische Jahrbücher fur Systematik, Pflangengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 28: 28-54. [Cited as Ipomoea obscura var. indica Hallier f..]

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 164
  • Meeuse in Bothalia 6: 746 (1958)
  • Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 13: 210, incl. var. sagittifolia Verdc.
  • in Bot. Reg. 3, t. 239 (1817)
  • incl. var. fragilis (Choisy) Meeuse in Fl. Pl. Afr. 31, t. 1222 (1959).
  • van Ooststr. in Blumea 3: 519

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Alfarhan, A. & Thomas, J. in Chaudhary, S.A. (2001). Saudi Arabian CNV + CUS. Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 2(2): 156-222. Ministry of Agriculture & Water, Riyadh.
  • Austin, D.F. & Huáman, Z. (1996). A synopsis of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the Americas. Taxon 45: 3-38.
  • Austin, D.F. & S. Ghazanfar in E. Nasir & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1979). Convolvulaceae. Flora of West Pakistan 126: 1-64.
  • Austin, D.F. in Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, & S.H. Sohmer (1999). Man. Fl. Plts. Hawai'I Convolvulaceae. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'I 1: 548-564. University of Hawaii Press.
  • Baker, J.G. & A.B. Rendle in Thiselton-Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1905). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 62-206. Secretary of State for the Colonies.
  • Barker, R.M. & Telford, I.R.H. (1993). Fl. Australia Oceanic Islds. Convolvs. Flora of Australia 50: 342-353. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Bosser, J. & H. Heine (2000). Fl. Mascar. Convolvulaceae. Flore des Mascareignes 127: 1-63. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis. PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Clarke, C.B. in Hooker, J.D. (1883). Fl. Br. India Convolvulaceae. Flora of British India 4: 179-228 + 734.
  • Clarke, C.B. in Kanjilal, U.N., A. Das, P.C. Kanjilal, & R.E. De (eds.) (1939). Fl. Assam Convolvulaceae. Flora of Assam 3: 338-362+538. Govt. of Assam.
  • Fang, R.-Z. & Staples, G. (1995). Convolvulaceae. Flora of China 16: 271-325. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet. M.-H. (1977). Flora of Micronesia 3: Convolvulaceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 36: 1-34.
  • Friedmann, F. (1994). Convolvulaceae. Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 491-503. ORSTOM éditions.
  • Gagnepain & Courchet in H. Lecomte (1915). Flore Indo-Chine Convolvulaceae. Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 4: 228-313.
  • Hallier, H. (1899). Convolvulaceae Africanae. II. Botanische Jahrbücher fur Systematik, Pflangengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 28: 28-54.
  • Hallier, H. (1899). Convolvulaceae. Bulletin de l'Herbier Boissier 7: 41-64. l'Herbier Boissier.
  • Heine, H. (1984). Fl. Nouv. Caléd. & Dépend. Convolvulaceae. Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 13: 1-91. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae. Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
  • Khan, M.S. (1985). Fl. Bangladesh Convolvulaceae. Flora of Bangladesh 30: 1-59. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Lejoly, J. & S. Lisowski (1992). Les genres Merremia et Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) dans la Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi). Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica 37: 21-125.
  • Liogier, A.H. in Liogier, A. H. (1994). Convolvulaceae. La flora de la Española 6: 49-114. Universidad Central del Este.
  • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
  • Miller, A.G. & M. Morris in Miller, A.G. & M. Morris (2004). Ethnofl. Soqotra Archipel. Convolvulaceae + Cuscutaceae. Ethnoflora of the Soqotra Archipelago: 516-524. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.
  • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae. Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Powell, Dulcie A. (1979). The Convolvulaceae of the Lesser Antilles. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 60: 219-271.
  • Press, J.R., K.K. Shrestha, & D.A. Sutton (2012). Nepal Cklist. Convolvulaceae. Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal - online Natural History Museum et al.
  • Smith, A.C. in Smith, A.C. (1991). Fl. Vitiensis Nova Convolvulaceae. Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 41-69. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Stoddart, D.R. (1969). Reconnaissance geomorphology of Rangiroa Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago. Atoll Research Bulletin 125: 1.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thulin, M. et al. in Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Somalia 3: 221-258. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tisserant, P. Ch. (1950). Catalogue de la flora de l'Oubangui-Chari. Mémoires de l'Institut d'Études Centrafricaines 2: 1-166.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1978). Corrections and additions to the 'Flora of Tropical East Africa: Convolvulaceae': IV. Kew Bulletin 33: 159-168.
  • Wagner, W.L. & D.H. Lorence in Wagner, W. L. & D. H. Lorence. (2002-ongoing). Fl. Marquesas CNV - April 2012. 2002-. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website. Smithsonian Institution & National Tropical Bot. Garden.
  • Welsh, S.L. in Welsh, S.L. (1998). Fl. Societensis Convolvulaceae. Flora Societensis: 83-88. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Whitmore, T.C. in Whitmore, T.C. (1966). Guide For. Brit. Solomon Isld. Convolvulaceae. Guide to the Forests of the British Solomon Islands: 187, 191. Oxford Univ. Press.
  • Wood, J.R.I. in Wood, J.R.I. (1997). Handb. Yemen Fl. Convolvulaceae. A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 230-236. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Bak. & Rendle in Flora of Tropical Africa 4 (2) : 164 (1905).
  • Ker-Gawl. in Bot. Reg. 3, t. 239 (1817).
  • Meeuse in Bothalia 6 : 746(1958).
  • van Ooststr. in Fl. Males., ser. 1, 4 (4) : 471, fig. 44 (1953).

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