Genus:
Zea L.

Zea luxurians (Durieu & Asch.) R.M.Bird

This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico (Chiapas), SE. Guatemala to Honduras. It is used as animal food and a medicine and for food.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 1000–1500 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Herb.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): VU B2ab(i,ii,iii,v).

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 1500 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Annual. Culms erect; 200-300 cm long. Culm-internodes solid. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 3-3.5 mm long. Leaf-blades lanceolate; 20-80 cm long; 30-80 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Monoecious; with male and female spikelets in different inflorescences. Inflorescence composed of racemes; axillary; subtended by a spatheole; enclosed. Spatheole elliptic; herbaceous. Racemes 1; single; bilateral; 5-9 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subcylindrical and excavated. Spikelet packing 2 -rowed. Rhachis internodes inflated (trapezoidal); 6.5-10 mm long. Rhachis internode tip oblique; cupuliform. Spikelets sunken; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile. Male spikelets sessile and pedicelled; 2 in a cluster. Pedicels (male) 3-5 mm long. Male inflorescence terminal; unlike female; of racemes along a central axis. Male spikelets distinct from female; with free pedicels; 2 flowered; elliptic; 8-10.5 mm long. Male spikelet glumes 2; winged (narrowly at apex); muticous. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma; shiny. Lower glume oblong; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; without keels. Upper glume elliptic; membranous; without keels.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; with palea, or without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret membranous. Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma elliptic; hyaline; without keel.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3. Stigmas 2; terminally exserted; papillose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
sex Male
Male inflorescence terminal; unlike female; of racemes along a central axis. Male spikelets distinct from female; with free pedicels; 2 flowered; elliptic; 8-10.5 mm long. Male spikelet glumes 2; winged (narrowly at apex); muticous. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
Distribution
South America: Mesoamericana and northern South America.
Reference
Andropogoneae. Fl Meso-Am 1995.
Diagnostic
Male lower glume flat.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
teosinte

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.

Native to:

Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Southeast

Introduced into:

Colombia, French Guiana

Zea luxurians (Durieu & Asch.) R.M.Bird appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Iltis, H.H. [30919], Nicaragua K000731556 No
Iltis, H.H. [30900], Nicaragua K000731557 No

First published in Taxon 27: 363 (1978)

Accepted by

  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Dempewolf, H., Eastwood, R. J., Guarino, L., Khoury, C. K., Müller, J. V. & Toll, J. (2014). Adapting agriculture to climate change: a global initiative to collect, conserve, and use crop wild relatives. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 38, 369-377.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0